75 Works

Data from: Alternative mating tactics in the yellow dung fly: resolving mechanisms of small-male advantage off pasture

Brian E. Gress, Ryan J. Waltzer, Stefan Lüpold, Elizabeth M. Droge-Young, Mollie K. Manier, Scott Pitnick & S. Lupold
Recent work suggests the yellow dung fly mating system may include alternative patroller-competitor mating tactics in which large males compete for gravid females on dung, whereas small, non-competitive males search for females at foraging sites. Small males obtain most matings off pasture, yet the behavioural mechanism(s) giving rise to this pattern are unknown. We investigated the male and female behaviours that determine mating success in this environment by conducting field mating experiments and found small...

Data from: Towards a mechanistic understanding of the effect that different species of large grazers have on grassland soil N availability

Chen Liu, Ling Wang, Xuxin Song, Qing Chang, Douglas A. Frank, Deli Wang, Jing Li, Haijiao Lin & Feiyue Du
1. Herbivore grazing has major effects on soil nutrient dynamics in a variety of grassland ecosystems. Previous studies have examined how large herbivores as a group affect nutrient cycling, but little information is available on how assemblages of different herbivore species may influence nutrient cycling, and whether herbivore assemblage effects are influenced by plant community characteristics (e.g., composition, diversity) of the grazed grassland. 2. We conducted a five-year, replicated grazing experiment to test the effects...

Data from: Phenotypic plasticity facilitates initial colonization of a novel environment

Sheng Pei Wang & David M. Althoff
Phenotypic plasticity can allow organisms to respond to environmental changes by producing better matching phenotypes without any genetic change. Because of this, plasticity is predicted to be a major mechanism by which a population can survive the initial stage of colonizing a novel environment. We tested this prediction by challenging wild Drosophila melanogaster with increasingly extreme larval environments and then examining expression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and its relationship to larval survival in the first...

Data from: Reflections of the social environment in chimpanzee memory: applying rational analysis beyond humans

Jeffrey R. Stevens, Julian N. Marewski, Lael J. Schooler & Ian C. Gilby
In cognitive science, the rational analysis framework allows modelling of how physical and social environments impose information-processing demands onto cognitive systems. In humans, for example, past social contact among individuals predicts their future contact with linear and power functions. These features of the human environment constrain the optimal way to remember information and probably shape how memory records are retained and retrieved. We offer a primer on how biologists can apply rational analysis to study...

Plant traits and soil fertility mediate productivity losses under extreme drought in C3 grasslands

Wentao Luo, Robert Griffin-Nolan, Wang Ma, Bo Liu, Xiaoan Zuo, Chong Xu, Qiang Yu, Yahuang Luo, Pierre Mariotte, Melinda Smith, Scott Collins, Alan Knapp, Zhengwen Wang & Xingguo Han
Extreme drought decreases aboveground net primary production (ANPP) in most grasslands, but the magnitude of ANPP reductions varies especially in C3-dominated grasslands. Because the mechanisms underlying such differential ecosystem responses to drought are not well-resolved, we experimentally imposed an extreme 4-year drought (2015-2018) in two C3 grasslands that differed in aridity. These sites had similar annual precipitation and dominant grass species (Leymus chinensis) but different annual temperatures and thus water availability. Drought treatments differentially affected...

Mycorrhizal colonization and root diameter of native and invasive plants of eastern North America

Louis Lamit
Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization (total and arbuscules) were measured in roots of 10 species of eastern North American woody plants. Five were non-native invasive and 5 were native species. Roots were collected from ingrowth cores over three harvests during a single season, from a common garden. Diameter was estimated from published root density and specific root length values for each species.

Mating and fitness consequences of variation in male allocation in a wind pollinated plant

Jannice Friedman & Abrar A Aljiboury
In hermaphrodites, the allocation of resources to each sex function can influence fitness through mating success. A prediction that arises from sex allocation theory is that in wind-pollinated plants, male fitness should increase linearly with investment of resources into male function but there have been few empirical tests of this prediction. In a field experiment we experimentally manipulated allocation to male function in Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) and measured mating success in contrasting phenotypes using...

Data from: Species richness and redundancy promote persistence of exploited mutualisms in yeast

Mayra C. Vidal, ShengPei Wang, David Rivers, David M. Althoff & Kari A. Segraves
Mutualisms, or reciprocally beneficial interspecific interactions, constitute the foundation of many ecological communities and agricultural systems. Mutualisms come in different forms, from pairwise interactions to extremely diverse communities, and they are continually challenged with exploitation by non-mutualistic community members (exploiters). Thus, understanding how mutualisms persist remains an essential question in ecology. Theory suggests that high species richness and functional redundancy could promote mutualism persistence in complex mutualistic communities. Using a yeast system (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), we...

Episodic herbivory, plant density dependence and stimulation of aboveground plant production

Mark Ritchie & Jacob Penner
Herbivory is a major energy transfer within ecosystems; an open question is under what circumstances it can stimulate aboveground seasonal primary production. Despite multiple field demonstrations, past theory considered herbivory as a continuous process and found stimulation of seasonal production to be unlikely. Here we report a new theoretical model that explores the consequences of discrete herbivory events, or episodes, separated in time. We discovered that negative density (biomass) dependence of plant growth, such as...

Short-finned pilot whales exhibit behavioral plasticity in foraging strategies mediated by their environment

Jeanne M. Shearer, Frants H. Jensen, Nicola J. Quick, Ari Friedlaender, Brandon Southall, Douglas P. Nowacek, Matthew Bowers, Heather J. Foley, Zachary T. Swaim, Danielle M. Waples & Andrew J. Read
Predators adapt their foraging behavior to exploit a variety of prey in a range of environments. Short-finned pilot whales are wide-ranging predators in tropical and sub-tropical oceans, but most previous studies of their foraging ecology have been conducted near oceanic islands. We deployed sound and movement recording tags on 43 short-finned pilot whales off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, USA, to measure their foraging behavior in a continental shelf-break ecosystem and investigate how variation in the...

A snapshot of the entire Shale Network database as of June 2022

T. Wen & S. Brantley
This data set is a snapshot copy of the entire Shale Network database (https://doi.org/10.4211/his-data-shalenetwork) as of June 17, 2022. The Shale Network (http://www.shalenetwork.org/) is a project funded by the National Science Foundation to help scientists and other stakeholders store data for water resources that may be affected by gas exploitation in shale in the U.S.A. Our primary focus currently is the northeastern U.S.A. We want to enable the generation of knowledge from water chemistry and...

Data from: The extent and genetic basis of phenotypic divergence in life history traits in Mimulus guttatus

Jannice Friedman, Alex D. Twyford, John H. Willis & Benjamin K. Blackman
Differential natural selection acting on populations in contrasting environments often results in adaptive divergence in multivariate phenotypes. Multivariate trait divergence across populations could be caused by selection on pleiotropic alleles or through many independent loci with trait-specific effects. Here, we assess patterns of association between a suite of traits contributing to life history divergence in the common monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus, and examine the genetic architecture underlying these correlations. A common garden survey of 74 populations...

Data from: Development of genetic diversity, differentiation and structure over 500 years in four ponderosa pine populations

Mark R. Lesser, Stephen T. Jackson & Thomas L. Parchman
Population history plays an important role in shaping contemporary levels of genetic variation and geographic structure. This is especially true in small, isolated range-margin populations, where effects of inbreeding, genetic drift and gene flow may be more pronounced than in large continuous populations. Effects of landscape fragmentation and isolation distance may have implications for persistence of range-margin populations if they are demographic sinks. We studied four small, disjunct populations of ponderosa pine over a 500-year...

Data from: Evidence for ship noise impacts on humpback whale foraging behaviour

Hannah B. Blair, Nathan D. Merchant, Ari S. Friedlaender, David N. Wiley & Susan E. Parks
Noise from shipping activity in North Atlantic coastal waters has been steadily increasing and is an area of growing conservation concern, as it has the potential to disrupt the behaviour of marine organisms. This study examines the impacts of ship noise on bottom foraging humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the western North Atlantic. Data were collected from 10 foraging whales using non-invasive archival tags that simultaneously recorded underwater movements and the acoustic environment at the...

Data from: Covariance among premating, postcopulatory and viability fitness components in Drosophila melanogaster and their influence on paternity measurement

Elizabeth M. Droge-Young, Mollie K. Manier, Stefan Lüpold, John M. Belote & Scott Pitnick
In polyandrous mating systems, male fitness depends on success in premating, postcopulatory, and offspring viability episodes of selection. We tracked male success across all of these episodes simultaneously, using transgenic Drosophila melanogaster with ubiquitously expressed green fluorescent protein (i.e., GFP) in a series of competitive and non-competitive matings. This approach permitted us to track paternity-specific viability over all life stages and to distinguish true competitive fertilization success from differential early offspring viability. Relationships between episodes...

Data from: The role of abiotic and biotic factors in determining coexistence of multiple pollinators in the yucca-yucca moth mutualism

Clive T. Darwell, Kari A. Segraves & David M. Althoff
The determinants of a species' geographic distribution are a combination of both abiotic and biotic factors. Environmental niche modeling of climatic factors has been instrumental in documenting the role of abiotic factors in a species' niche. Integrating this approach with data from species interactions provides a means to assess the relative roles of abiotic and biotic components. Here, we examine whether the high host specificity typically exhibited in the active pollination mutualism between yuccas and...

Data from: A meta-analysis of whole genome duplication and the effects on flowering traits in plants

Laura D. Porturas, Thomas J. Anneberg, Anne E. Curé, Shengpei Wang, David M. Althoff & Kari A. Segraves
• Premise of the study: Polyploidy, or whole genome duplication (WGD), is common in plants despite theory suggesting that polyploid establishment is challenging and polyploids should be evolutionarily transitory. There is renewed interest in understanding the mechanisms that could facilitate polyploid establishment and explain their pervasiveness in nature. In particular, premating isolation from their diploid progenitors is suggested to be a crucial factor. In order to evaluate how changes in assortative mating occur, we need...

Data from: Acoustically advertising male harbour seals in southeast Alaska do not make biologically relevant acoustic adjustments in the presence of vessel noise

Leanna P. Matthews, Michelle E. H. Fournet, Christine Gabriele, Susan E. Parks & Holger Klinck
Aquatically breeding harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) males use underwater vocalizations during the breeding season to establish underwater territories, defend territories against intruder males, and possibly to attract females. Vessel noise overlaps in frequency with these vocalizations and could negatively impact breeding success by limiting communication space. In this study we investigated whether harbour seals employed anti-masking strategies to maintain communication in the presence of vessel noise in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska. Harbour...

Data from: Cost of an elaborate trait: a tradeoff between attracting females and maintaining a clean ornament

Erin McCullough, Chun-Chia Chou & Patricia Backwell
Many sexually selected ornaments and weapons are elaborations of an animal’s outer body surface, including long feathers, colorful skin, and rigid outgrowths. The time and energy required to keep these traits clean, attractive, and in good condition for signaling may represent an important, but understudied cost of bearing a sexually selected trait. Male fiddler crabs possess an enlarged and brightly colored claw that is used both as a weapon to fight with rival males and...

Data from: Microclimate-based species distribution models in complex terrain indicate widespread cryptic refugia under climate change

Jordan Stark & Jason Fridley
Aim: Species’ climatic niches may be poorly predicted by regional climate estimates used in species distribution models (SDMs) due to microclimatic buffering of local conditions. Here, we compare SDMs generated using a locally validated below-canopy microclimate model to those based on interpolated weather station data at two spatial scales to determine the effects of scale, topography, and forest cover on potential future ground-level warming and species distributions. Location: Great Smoky Mountains National Park (2090 km2;...

Balsam fir seedling bank in Whiteface Mountain (2014–2015)

Monica Bibiana Berdugo Moreno, Martin Dovciak, Robin W. Kimmerer & Charles T. Driscol
The persistence of future forests depends on the success of tree seedlings which are experiencing increasing physiological stress from changing climate and air pollution. Although the moss layer can serve as an important substrate for tree seedlings, its potential for reducing environmental stress and enhancing the establishment of seedlings remains poorly understood. We tested if the moss layer decreased environmental stress and increased the abundance of balsam fir seedlings dominant in high-elevation forests of the...

Coarse woody debris accelerates the decomposition of deadwood inputs across temperate forest

Mark Bradford, Ciska Veen, Ella Bradford, Kristofer Covey, Thomas Crowther, Nicholas Fields, Paul Frankson, Javier Gonzalez-Rivero, Fiona Jevon, Sara Kuebbing, Steven McBride, Jacqueline Mohan, Emily Oldfield, Angela Oliverio, Alexander Polussa, Corinna Steinrueck, Michael Strickland, Elisabeth Ward, Carl Wepking & Daniel Maynard
Wood decomposition is regulated by multiple controls, including climate and wood traits, that vary at local to regional scales. Yet decomposition rates differ dramatically when these controls do not. Fungal community dynamics are often invoked to explain these differences, suggesting that knowledge of ecosystem properties that influence fungal communities will improve understanding and projection of wood decomposition. We hypothesize that deadwood inputs decompose faster in forests with higher stocks of downed coarse woody material (CWM)...

Data from: Landscape variation in defense traits along gradients of multiple resources in a tropical savanna plant

Neha Mohanbabu, Michiel P. Veldhuis, Dana Jung & Mark E. Ritchie
Many plant species are widely distributed and consequently are exposed to multiple abiotic factors and diverse herbivores, each of which may distinctly affect the magnitude of different defense traits. Alternative theories for optimal allocation to plant defense traits predict both positive and negative associations between magnitude of defense and resource availability. These predictions may apply even within species. This suggests potential for a single species‘ patterns of association of defense traits and resources to vary...

Data from: Fine-scale belowground species associations in temperate grassland

Douglas A. Frank, Alyssa W. Pontes, Eleanor M. Maine & Jason D. Fridley
Evaluating how belowground processes contribute to plant community dynamics is hampered by limited information on the spatial structure of root communities at the scale that plants interact belowground. In this study, roots were mapped to the nearest one mm and molecularly identified by species on vertical (0–15 cm deep) surfaces of soil blocks excavated from dry and mesic grasslands in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) to examine the spatial relationships among species at the scale that...

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  • Syracuse University
  • Pennsylvania State University
  • Duke University
  • George Washington University
  • University of Edinburgh
  • University of Zurich
  • First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University
  • University of Kansas
  • Tianjin Medical University General Hospital
  • Hebei Normal University