27 Works

Data from: Molecular ecology of the Neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis): non-invasive sampling yields insights into local population dynamics

Cristine Silveira Trinca, Camila Fernandes Jaeger & Eduardo Eizirik
Non-invasive genetic analysis has been frequently employed to estimate ecological and population parameters for many secretive and/or threatened species. However, Neotropical carnivores have so far been scarcely targeted by such studies. The Neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis) is a poorly-known species for which local levels of genetic diversity and demographic parameters are virtually absent. We employed non-invasive sampling and amplification of microsatellite loci to investigate population size and density, spatial organization, and relatedness of a wild...

Foraging networks and social tolerance in a cooperatively breeding primate (Callithrix jacchus)

María Fernanda De La Fuente, Cédric Sueur, Paul Garber, Júlio César Bicca-Marques, Antonio Souto & Nicola Schiel
Within-group competition over food resources can be a major cost of social living. In the wild, foragers are confronted with social (e.g. hierarchical rank) and ecological (e.g. food availability and distribution) challenges that affect their foraging decisions and feeding success. Exhibiting prosocial behaviors, such as tolerance at feeding sites, can benefit group members by developing affiliative social relationships, enhancing access to resources and maximizing fitness. We examined social tolerance at feeding sites in Callithrix jacchus,...

Data from: Conspicuousness, color resemblance, and toxicity in geographically diverging mimicry: the pan-Amazonian frog Allobates femoralis

Adolfo Amézquita, Óscar Ramos, Mabel Cristina González, Camilo Rodríguez, Iliana Medina, Pedro Ivo Simões & Albertina Pimentel Lima
Predation risk is allegedly reduced in Batesian and Müllerian mimics, because their coloration resembles the conspicuous coloration of unpalatable prey. The efficacy of mimicry is thought to be affected by variation in the unpalatability of prey, the conspicuousness of the signals, and the visual system of predators that see them. Many frog species exhibit small colorful patches contrasting against an otherwise dark body. By measuring toxicity and color reflectance in a geographically variable frog species...

Something is not quite right: effects of two land uses on anuran diversity in subtropical grasslands

Leonardo Felipe Bairos Moreira, Henrique Zanette De Castilhos & Santiago Castroviejo-Fisher
Although habitat modification is considered one of the main causes of biodiversity loss, the relative contribution of different rural land uses to biodiversity conservation are far less known. Additionally, the realization of the multidimensionality of biodiversity demands studies integrating variation of functional traits and phylogenetic information as complements to address the effects of land use on the structure of animal communities. Herein, we investigated the effects of land use (i.e., intensive agricultural and extensive livestock...

Data from: Games academics play and their consequences: how authorship, h-index, and journal impact factors are shaping the future of academia

Jan Gogarten, Colin Chapman, Julio Bicca-Marques, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Pengfei Fan, Peter Fashing, Songtao Guo, Claire Hemingway, Fabian Leendertz, Baoguo Li, Ikki Matsuda, Rong Hou, Juan Carlos Serio-Silva & Nils Chr. Stenseth
Research is a highly competitive profession where evaluation plays a central role; journals are ranked and individuals are evaluated based on their publication number, the number of times they are cited, and their h-index. Yet, such evaluations are often done in inappropriate ways that are damaging to individual careers, particularly for young scholars, and to the profession. Furthermore, as with all indices, people can play games to better their scores. This has resulted in the...

Data from: Recurrent evolution of melanism in South American felids

Alexsandra Schneider, Corneliu Henegar, Kenneth Day, Devin Absher, Constanza Napolitano, Leandro Silveira, Victor A. David, Stephen J. O’Brien, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond, Gregory S. Barsh & Eduardo Eizirik
Morphological variation in natural populations is a genomic test bed for studying the interface between molecular evolution and population genetics, but some of the most interesting questions involve non-model organisms that lack well annotated reference genomes. Many felid species exhibit polymorphism for melanism but the relative roles played by genetic drift, natural selection, and interspecies hybridization remain uncertain. We identify mutations of Agouti signaling protein (ASIP) or the Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) as independent causes...

Data from: Feeding strategies of brown howler monkeys in response to variations in food availability

Óscar M. Chaves & Júlio César Bicca-Marques
Primates display varying degrees of behavioral flexibility that allow them to adjust their diet to temporal changes in food availability. This trait might be critical for the survival of folivorous-frugivorous species inhabiting small forest fragments, where the availability of food resources tends to be lower than in large fragments and continuous forests. However, the scarcity of studies addressing this issue hampers our understanding of the adaptive behaviors that favor the survival of these primates in...

Avifauna occurrence data from a longitudinal experiment in human-modified Amazonian forests affected by the 2015-16 El Niño drought and associated fires

A. Lees, N. Moura, F.M. Franca, J.N. Ferreira, T. Gardner, E. Berenguer, L. Chesini, C. Andertti & J. Barlow
This data set includes longitudinal occurrence of bird species at 36 forest plots – half of which burned during the 2015-16 El Niño drought – distributed across a gradient of prior human disturbance in the Brazilian Amazon. Data was collected in 2010 and 2016 (around 6 years before, and one year after the 2015-16 El Niño, respectively) as part of the projects ‘Assessing ENSO-induced Fire Impacts in tropical Rainforest Ecosystems’ (AFIRE) and ‘Biodiversity and Ecosystem...

Data from: Successful carnivore identification with faecal DNA across a fragmented Amazonian landscape

Fernanda Michalski, Fernanda Pedone Valdez, Darren Norris, Chris Zieminski, Cyntia Kayo Kashivakura, Cristine S. Trinca, Heath B. Smith, Carly Vynne, Samuel K. Wasser, Jean Paul Metzger & Eduardo Eizirik
The use of scat surveys to obtain DNA has been well documented in temperate areas, where DNA preservation may be more effective than in tropical forests. Samples obtained in the tropics are often exposed to high humidity, warm temperatures, frequent rain, and intense sunlight, all of which can rapidly degrade DNA. Despite these potential problems, we demonstrate successful DNA amplification and sequencing for faeces of carnivores collected in tropical conditions and quantify how sample condition...

Data from: Geological and climatic changes in quaternary shaped the evolutionary history of Calibrachoa heterophylla, an endemic South-Atlantic species of petunia

Geraldo Mäder, Jéferson N. Fregonezi, Aline P. Lorenz-Lemke, Sandro L. Bonatto & Loreta B. Freitas
Background: The glacial and interglacial cycles that characterized the Quaternary greatly affected the distribution and genetic diversity of plants. In the Neotropics, few phylogeographic studies have focused on coastal species outside of the Atlantic Rainforest. Climatic and sea level changes during the Quaternary played an important role in the evolutionary history of many organisms found in coastal regions. To contribute to a better understanding of plant evolution in this environment in Southern South America, we...

Data from: Phylogenomic evidence for ancient hybridization in the genomes of living cats (Felidae)

Gang Li, Brian W. Davis, Eduardo Eizirik & William J. Murphy
Interspecies hybridization has been recently recognized as potentially common in wild animals, but the extent to which it shapes modern genomes is still poorly understood. Distinguishing historical hybridization events from other processes leading to phylogenetic discordance among different markers requires a well-resolved species tree that considers all modes of inheritance, and overcomes systematic problems due to rapid lineage diversification by sampling large genomic character sets. Here we assessed genome-wide phylogenetic variation across a diverse mammalian...

Data from: Origin and hidden diversity within the poorly known Galápagos snake radiation (Serpentes: Dipsadidae)

Hussam Zaher, Mario H. Yánez-Munõz, Miguel T. Rodrigues, Roberta Graboski, Fabio A. Machado, Marco Altamirano-Benavides, Sandro L. Bonatto & Felipe G. Grazziotin
Galápagos snakes are among the least studied terrestrial vertebrates of the Archipelago. Here, we provide a phylogenetic analysis and a time calibrated tree for the group, based on a sampling of the major populations known to occur in the Archipelago. Our study revealed the presence of two previously unknown species from Santiago and Rábida Islands, and one from Tortuga, Isabela, and Fernandina. We also recognize six additional species of Pseudalsophis in the Galápagos Archipelago (Pseudalsophis...

Data from: Unraveling B-lymphocytes in CNS inflammatory diseases: Distinct mechanisms and treatment targets

Bruna Klein Da Costa, Renata Brant De Souza Melo, Giordani Rodrigues Dos Passos, Douglas Gomes Meneses Sevilha Castro, Jefferson Becker, Amit Bar-Or & Douglas Kazutoshi Sato
Specific therapies targeting B lymphocytes in multiple sclerosis (MS) have demonstrated reductions in disease activity and disability progression. Several observational studies have also shown the effects of targeting B lymphocytes in other rare CNS inflammatory diseases, such as neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and autoimmune encephalitis (AE). However, some drugs targeting cytokine receptors involved in B-lymphocyte maturation and proliferation resulted in negative outcomes in MS. These apparently conflicting findings have stimulated research on the pathophysiologic...

Data from: Crop feeding by brown howlers (Alouatta guariba clamitans) in forest fragments: the conservation value of cultivated species

Óscar M. Chaves & Júlio César Bicca-Marques
Primates inhabiting human-modified habitats often complement their diets with cultivated species. Although this flexible foraging behavior reduces feeding stress in animals inhabiting small or low-quality habitats, its potential economic costs may promote negative human–nonhuman primate interactions. It is critical to assess the importance of cultivated species to primate diets, the factors influencing their exploitation, and their associated economic costs to evaluate the conservation value of cultivated species and the impact of crop feeding on human–nonhuman...

Data from: Quantity and quality of seed dispersal by a large arboreal frugivore in small and large Atlantic forest fragments

Óscar M. Chaves, Júlio César Bicca-Marques & Colin A. Chapman
Seed dispersal is a key process driving the structure, composition, and regeneration of tropical forests. Larger frugivores play a crucial role in community structuring by dispersing large seeds not dispersed by smaller frugivores. We assessed the hypothesis that brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) provide seed dispersal services for a wide assemblage of plant species in both small and large Atlantic forest fragments. Although fruit availability often decreases in small fragments compared with large ones,...

Data from: Flower consumption, ambient temperature and rainfall modulate drinking behavior in a folivorous-frugivorous arboreal mammal

Óscar M. Chaves, Vanessa B. Fortes, Gabriela P. Hass, Renata B. Azevedo, Kathryn E. Stoner & Júlio César Bicca-Marques
In these datasets we provided information on the drinking behavior in 14 wild groups of brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) inhabiting small, medium, and large Atlantic Forest fragments in southern Brazil. We provided two datasets: (1) full data on the drinking behavior of the 14 study groups, and (2) the dataset used to run the GLMMs described in the main manuscript. Overall, we found a wide variation in the mean rate of drinking among...

Negative impacts of dominance on bee communities: Does the influence of invasive honey bees differ from native bees?

Lucas Alejandro Garibaldi, Lucas Garibaldi, Néstor Pérez-Méndez, Guaraci Cordeiro, Alice Hughes, Michael Orr, Isabel Alves Dos Santos, Breno Freitas, Favízia Freitas De Oliveira, Gretchen Lebuhn, Ignasi Bartomeus, Marcelo Aizen, Patricia Andrade, Betina Blochtein, Danilo Boscolo, Patricia Drumond, Maria Gaglianone, Barbara Gemmill-Herren, Rosana Halinski, Cristiane Krug, Marcia Maues, Lucia Piedade Kiill, Mardiore Pinheiro, Carmen Pires & Blandina Felipe Viana
Invasive species can reach high abundances and dominate native environments. One of the most impressive examples of ecological invasions is the spread of the African sub-species of the honey bee throughout the Americas, starting from its introduction in a single locality in Brazil. The invasive honey bee is expected to more negatively impact bee community abundance and diversity than native dominant species, but this has not been tested previously. We developed a comprehensive and systematic...

Major Depressive Disorder: A Comparative Study on Socio-Emotional Cognition and Executive Functions

Bruna Gomes Mônego, Rochele Paz Fonseca, Antônio Lúcio Teixeira, Izabela Guimarães Barbosa, Leonardo Cruz de Souza & Denise Ruschel Bandeira
Abstract The present study aimed to assess socioemotional cognition and executive functions in patients with unipolar Major Depressive Disorder. The sample included 22 patients between 36 and 93 years of age (M = 59.32; SD = 12.89) and 23 patients between 30 and 81 years of age (M = 63.00; SD = 13.56) controls. In addition to demographic data, symptoms of anxiety and depression, empathy, theory of mind, recognition of emotions, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility...

Data from: The effect of habitat fragmentation on the genetic structure of a top predator: loss of diversity and high differentiation among remnant populations of Atlantic Forest jaguars (Panthera onca)

Taiana Haag, Anelisie Santos, Denis Sana, Ronaldo Morato, , , Carlos De Angelo, Mario Di Bitetti, Francisco Salzano & Eduardo Eizirik
Habitat fragmentation may disrupt original patterns of gene flow and lead to drift-induced differentiation among local population units. Top predators such as the jaguar may be particularly susceptible to this effect, given their low population densities, leading to small effective sizes in local fragments. On the other hand, the jaguar's high dispersal capabilities and relatively long generation time might counteract this process, slowing the effect of drift on local populations over the time frame of...

Data from: DNA barcoding meets molecular scatology: short mtDNA sequences for standardized species assignment of carnivore noninvasive samples

Paulo B. Chaves, Vanessa G. Graeff, Marília B. Lion, Larissa R. Oliveira & Eduardo Eizirik
Although species assignment of scats is important to study carnivoran biology, there is still no standardized assay for the identification of carnivores worldwide, which would allow large-scale routine assessments and reliable cross-comparison of results. Here we evaluate the potential of two short mtDNA fragments (ATP6 [126 bp] and COI [187 bp]) to serve as standard markers for the Carnivora. Samples of 66 species were sequenced for one or both of these segments. Alignments were complemented...

Data from: Population genetics of jaguars (Panthera onca) in the Brazilian Pantanal: molecular evidence for demographic connectivity on a regional scale

Fernanda Pedone Valdez, Taiana Haag, Fernando C. C. Azevedo, Leandro Silveira, Sandra M. C. Cavalcanti, Francisco M. Salzano & Eduardo Eizirik
Habitat loss and fragmentation are important threats to carnivores worldwide, and can be especially intense for large predators. Jaguars have already been extirpated from over half of their original area of distribution, and few regions still maintain large populations. For these, detailed understanding is crucial for setting appropriate recovery targets in impacted areas. The Pantanal is among the best examples of a region with a large jaguar population in a healthy environment. Here, we analyzed...

Data from: Habitat amount hypothesis and passive sampling explain mammal species composition in Amazonian river islands

Rafael M. Rabelo, Susan Aragón, Júlio César Bicca-Marques & Bruce W. Nelson.
Nested structures of species assemblages have been frequently associated with patch size and isolation, leading to the conclusion that colonization-extinction dynamics drives nestedness. The ‘passive sampling’ model states that the regional abundance of species randomly determines their occurrence in patches. The ‘habitat amount hypothesis’ also challenges patch size and isolation effects, arguing that they occur because of a 'sample area effect'. Here we (1) ask whether the structure of the mammal assemblages of fluvial islands...

Data from: Temporal changes in genetic variability in three bumblebee species from Rio Grande do Sul, South Brazil

Kevin Maebe, Laura Golsteyn, Patrícia Nunes-Silva, Betina Blochtein & Guy Smagghe
Microsatellite_GenAlEX_datafileThis datafile includes the microsatellite genetic data in GenALEx format used in the paperDryad_Apidologie.xlsx

Vastly underestimated radiation of Amazonian salamanders (Plethodontidae: Bolitoglossa) and implications about plethodontid diversification

Andres Felipe Jaramillo, Ignacio De La Riva, Juan M. Guayasamin, Juan C. Chaparro, Giussepe Gagliardi-Urrutia, Roberto Gutierrez, Isabela Brcko, Carles Vila & Santiago Castroviejo-Fisher
We present data showing that the number of salamander species in Amazonia is vastly underestimated. We used DNA sequences of up to five genes (3 mitochondrial and 2 nuclear) of 366 specimens, 189 corresponding to 89 non-Amazonian nominal species and 177 Amazonian specimens, including types or topotypes, of eight of the nine recognized species in the region. By including representatives of all known species of Amazonian Bolitoglossa, except for one, and 73 % of the...

Mechanisms for color convergence in a mimetic radiation of poison frogs

Evan Twomey, Morgan Kain, Myriam Claeys, Kyle Summers, Santiago Castroviejo-Fisher & Ines Van Bocxlaer
In animals, bright colors often evolve to mimic other species when a resemblance is selectively favored. Understanding the proximate mechanisms underlying such color mimicry can give insights into how mimicry evolves, for example, whether color convergence evolves from a shared set of mechanisms or through the evolution of novel color production mechanisms. We studied color production mechanisms in poison frogs (Dendrobatidae), focusing on the mimicry complex of Ranitomeya imitator. Using reflectance spectrometry, skin pigment analysis,...

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