105 Works

Data from: Density dependence and population regulation in marine fish: a large-scale, long-term field manipulation

Mark A. Hixon, Todd W. Anderson, Kevin L. Buch, Darren W. Johnson, J. Brock McLeod & Christopher Derek Stallings
Do small-scale experiments showing spatial density dependence in marine fishes scale-up to temporal density dependence and regulation of relatively large local populations? If so, what are the causative mechanisms and their implications? We conducted an 8-year multi-generation study of population dynamics of bicolor damselfish (Stegastes partitus) inhabiting four large coral reefs in the Bahamas. After a 4-year baseline period, it was clear that two populations naturally received very few settlement-stage larvae, so recruitment of recently...

Data from: Hemocyanin gene family evolution in spiders (Araneae), with implications for phylogenetic relationships and divergence times in the infraorder Mygalomorphae

James Starrett, Marshal Hedin, Nadia Ayoub & Cheryl Y. Hayashi
Hemocyanins are multimeric copper-containing hemolymph proteins involved in oxygen binding and transport in all major arthropod lineages. Most arachnids have seven primary subunits (encoded by paralogous genes a–g), which combine to form a 24-mer (4 × 6) quaternary structure. Within some spider lineages, however, hemocyanin evolution has been a dynamic process with extensive paralog duplication and loss. We have obtained hemocyanin gene sequences from numerous representatives of the spider infraorders Mygalomorphae and Araneomorphae in order...

Data from: Phylogenomics resolves a spider backbone phylogeny and rejects a prevailing paradigm for orb web evolution

Jason E. Bond, Nicole L. Garrison, Chris A. Hamilton, Rebecca L. Godwin, Marshal Hedin & Ingi Agnarsson
Spiders represent an ancient predatory lineage known for their extraordinary biomaterials, including venoms and silks. These adaptations make spiders key arthropod predators in most terrestrial ecosystems. Despite ecological, biomedical, and biomaterial importance, relationships among major spider lineages remain unresolved or poorly supported. Current working hypotheses for a spider “backbone” phylogeny are largely based on morphological evidence, as most molecular markers currently employed are generally inadequate for resolving deeper-level relationships. We present here a phylogenomic analysis...

Data from: New species in the Sitalcina sura species group (Opiliones, Laniatores, Phalangodidae), with evidence for a biogeographic link between California desert canyons and Arizona sky islands

Angela DiDomenico & Marshal Hedin
The western United States is home to numerous narrowly endemic harvestman taxa (Arachnida, Opiliones), including members of the genus Sitalcina Banks, 1911. Sitalcina is comprised of three species groups, including the monospecific S. californica and S. lobata groups, and the S. sura group with eight described species. All species in the S. sura group have very small geographic distributions, with group members distributed like disjunct “beads on a string” from Monterey south to southern California...

Data from: Herbivore impacts on marsh production depend upon a compensatory continuum mediated by salinity stress

Jeremy D. Long & Laura D. Porturas
Plant communities are disturbed by several stressors and they are expected to be further impacted by increasing anthropogenic stress. The consequences of these stressors will depend, in part, upon the ability of plants to compensate for herbivory. Previous studies found that herbivore impacts on plants can vary from negative to positive because of environmental control of plant compensatory responses, a.k.a. the Compensatory Continuum Hypothesis. While these influential studies enhanced our appreciation of the dynamic nature...

Data from: Rapid diversification of sexual signals in Hawaiian Nesosydne planthoppers (Hemiptera: Delphacidae): the relative role of neutral and selective forces

Kari Roesch Goodman, J. Patrick Kelley, Stephen Welter, George K. Roderick, Damian O. Elias & S. C. Welter
Changes in sexual signals have the potential to promote rapid divergence and reproductive isolation among populations of animals. Thus, identifying processes contributing to variation in signals is key to understanding the drivers of speciation. However, it is difficult to identify the processes initiating changes in signals in empirical systems because (1) the demographic history of populations under study is usually unclear, and (2) there is no unified hypothesis-testing framework for evaluating the simultaneous contribution of...

Data from: Using viromes to predict novel immune proteins in non-model organisms

Steven D. Quistad, Yan Wei Lim, Genivaldo Gueiros Z. Silva, Craig E. Nelson, Andreas F. Haas, Linda Wegley Kelly, Robert A. Edwards & Forest L. Rohwer
Immunity is mostly studied in a few model organisms, leaving the majority of immune systems on the planet unexplored. To characterize the immune systems of non-model organisms alternative approaches are required. Viruses manipulate host cell biology through the expression of proteins that modulate the immune response. We hypothesized that metagenomic sequencing of viral communities would be useful to identify both known and unknown host immune proteins. To test this hypothesis, a mock human virome was...

Data from: Calling in sick: impacts of fever on intra-urban human mobility

T. Alex Perkins, Valerie A. Paz-Soldan, Steven T. Stoddard, Amy C. Morrison, Brett M. Forshey, Kanya C. Long, Eric S. Halsey, Tadeusz J. Kochel, John P. Elder, Uriel Kitron, Thomas W. Scott & Gonzalo M. Vazquez-Prokopec
Pathogens inflict a wide variety of disease manifestations on their hosts, yet the impacts of disease on the behaviour of infected hosts are rarely studied empirically and are seldom accounted for in mathematical models of transmission dynamics. We explored the potential impacts of one of the most common disease manifestations, fever, on a key determinant of pathogen transmission, host mobility, in residents of the Amazonian city of Iquitos, Peru. We did so by comparing two...

Data from: Rate heterogeneity across Squamata, misleading ancestral state reconstruction and the importance of proper null model specification

Sean Harrington & Tod W. Reeder
The binary-state speciation and extinction (BiSSE) model has been used in many instances to identify state-dependent diversification and reconstruct ancestral states. However, recent studies have shown that the standard procedure of comparing the fit of the BiSSE model to constant-rate birth–death models often inappropriately favours the BiSSE model when diversification rates vary in a state-independent fashion. The newly developed HiSSE model enables researchers to identify state-dependent diversification rates while accounting for state-independent diversification at the...

Data from: Song evolution, speciation, and vocal learning in passerine birds

Nicholas A. Mason, Kevin J. Burns, Joseph A. Tobias, Santiago Claramunt, Nathalie Seddon & Elizabeth Perrault Derryberry
Phenotypic divergence can promote reproductive isolation and speciation, suggesting a possible link between rates of phenotypic evolution and the tempo of speciation at multiple evolutionary scales. To date, most macroevolutionary studies of diversification have focused on morphological traits, whereas behavioral traitsࣧincluding vocal signalsࣧare rarely considered. Thus, although behavioral traits often mediate mate choice and gene flow, we have a limited understanding of how behavioral evolution contributes to diversification. Furthermore, the developmental mode by which behavioral...

Data from: Robust inference on large-scale species habitat use with interview data: the status of jaguars outside protected areas in Central America

Lisanne S. Petracca, Jacqueline L. Frair, Jonathan B. Cohen, Ana Patricia Calderón, Javier Carazo-Salazar, Franklin Castañeda, Daniel Corrales-Gutiérrez, Rebecca J. Foster, Bart Harmsen, Sandra Hernández-Potosme, Luis Herrera, Melva Olmos, Sandy Pereira, Hugh S. Robinson, Nathaniel Robinson, Roberto Salom-Pérez, Yahaira Urbina, Kathy A. Zeller & Howard Quigley
Evaluating range-wide habitat use by a target species requires information on species occurrence over broad geographic regions, a process made difficult by species rarity, large spatiotemporal sampling domains, and imperfect detection. We address these challenges in an assessment of habitat use for jaguars (Panthera onca) outside protected areas in Central America. Occurrence records were acquired within 12 putative corridors using interviews with knowledgeable corridor residents. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical occupancy model to gain robust...

Data from: Pre-infection effects of nectar secondary compounds on a bumble bee gut pathogen

Kristen Michaud, Rebecca Irwin, Nicholas Barber & Lynn Adler
Bumble bee pollinators can be exposed to pathogens when foraging on flowers previously visited by infected individuals. Infectious cells may be deposited in floral nectar, providing a site for pathogens to interact with nectar secondary compounds prior to infecting bees. Some nectar secondary compounds can reduce pathogen counts in infected bumble bees, but we know less about how exposure to these compounds directly affects pathogens prior to being ingested by their host. We exposed the...

Rethinking megafauna

Marcos Moleón, José Sánchez-Zapata, José Donázar, Eloy Revilla, Berta Martín-López, Cayetano Gutiérrez-Cánovas, Wayne Getz, Zebensui Morales-Reyes, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz, Larry Crowder, Mauro Galetti, Manuela González-Suárez, Fengzhi He, Pedro Jordano, Rebecca Lewison, Robin Naidoo, Norman Owen-Smith, Nuria Selva, Jens-Christian Svenning, José Tella, Christiane Zarfl, Sonja Jähnig, Matt Hayward, Søren Faurby, Nuria García … & Klement Tochner
Concern for megafauna is increasing among scientists and non-scientists. Many studies have emphasized that megafauna play prominent ecological roles and provide important ecosystem services to humanity. But, what precisely are “megafauna”? Here we critically assess the concept of megafauna and propose a goal-oriented framework for megafaunal research. First, we review definitions of megafauna and analyze associated terminology in the scientific literature. Second, we conduct a survey among ecologists and paleontologists to assess the species traits...

Global biogeography of fungal and bacterial biomass carbon in topsoil

Liyuan He, Jorge Rodrigues, Nadejda Soudzilovskaia, Milagros Barceló, Pål Axel Olsson, Changchun Song, Leho Tedersoo, Fenghui Yuan, Fengming Yuan, David Lipson & Xiaofeng Xu
Bacteria and fungi, representing two major soil microorganism groups, play an important role in global nutrient biogeochemistry. Biogeographic patterns of bacterial and fungal biomass are of fundamental importance for mechanistically understanding nutrient cycling. We synthesized 1323 data points of phospholipid fatty acid-derived fungal biomass C (FBC), bacterial biomass C (BBC), and fungi:bacteria (F:B) ratio in topsoil, spanning 11 major biomes. The FBC, BBC, and F:B ratio display clear biogeographic patterns along latitude and environmental gradients...

Feeding in Marine Mammals: an integration of evolution and ecology through time

Agnese Lanzetti & Annalisa Berta
Marine mammals are key components of aquatic ecosystems. Feeding strategies identified in extant cetaceans, pinnipeds, sirenians, marine otters, and polar bears are associated with anatomical specializations of the head (rostrum, palate, temporomandibular joint, teeth/baleen, mandible). Genetic and ontogenetic evidence of skull and tooth morphology provide the mechanisms that underlie patterns of feeding diversity. Based on a comprehensive diversity data set derived from the Paleobiology Database, we considered feeding strategies (suction, biting, filter feeding, grazing), prey...

The population genetics of non-migratory Allen's Hummingbird (Selasphorus sasin sedentarius) following a recent mainland colonization

Brian Myers, Kevin Burns, Christopher Clark & Alan Brelsford
Allen's Hummingbird comprises two subspecies, one migratory (Selasphorus sasin sasin) and one non-migratory (S. s. sedentarius). The non-migratory subspecies, previously endemic to the California Channel Islands, apparently colonized the California mainland on the Palos Verdes Peninsula some time before 1970, and now breeds throughout coastal southern California. We sequenced and compared populations of mainland non-migratory Allen's Hummingbird to Channel Island populations from Santa Catalina, San Clemente, and Santa Cruz Island. We found no evidence of...

Data from: eDNA metabarcoding bioassessment of endangered fairy shrimp (Branchinecta spp.) - Part A

Zachary Gold, Adam Wall, Paul Barber, Emily Curd, N. Dean Pentcheff, Lee Ripma & Regina Wetzer
Fairy shrimp are integral components of vernal pool ecosystems, providing key food resources for migratory birds and amphibians. However, habitat degradation and land use change severely threaten the health of both vernal pools and the survival of fairy shrimp species. Branchinecta sandiegonensis has been particularly affected by urban and agricultural development in its small native range within San Diego County, California, USA. It is listed as an endangered species under both state and federal laws...

Reintroduced grazers and prescribed fire effects on beetle assemblage structure and function in restored grasslands

Nicholas Barber, Melissa Nelson, Sheryl Hosler, Fabian Boetzl & Holly Jones
Ecological restoration seeks to re-establish functioning ecosystems, but planning and evaluation often focus on taxonomic community structure and neglect consumers and their functional roles. The functional trait composition of insect assemblages, which make up the majority of animal diversity in many systems, can reveal how they are affected by restoration management and the consequences for ecosystem function. We sampled ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in restored tallgrass prairies varying in management with prescribed fire and...

Data from: The effects of temperature on the kinematics of rattlesnake predatory strikes in both captive and field environments

Malachi Whitford, Grace Freymiller, Timothy Higham & Rulon Clark
The outcomes of predator-prey interactions between endotherms and ectotherms can be heavily influenced by environmental temperature, owing to the difference in how body temperature affects locomotor performance. However, as elastic energy storage mechanisms can allow ectotherms to maintain high levels of performance at cooler body temperatures, detailed analyses of kinematics are necessary to fully understand how changes in temperature might alter endotherm-ectotherm predator-prey interactions. Viperid snakes are widely distributed ectothermic mesopredators that interact with endotherms...

Phylogenomics and biogeography of leptonetid spiders (Araneae : Leptonetidae)

Jason Bond, Joel Ledford & Marshal Hedin
Leptonetidae are rarely encountered spiders, usually associated with caves and mesic habitats, and are disjunctly distributed across the Holarctic. Data from ultraconserved elements (UCEs) were used in concatenated and coalescent-based analyses to estimate the phylogenetic history of the family. Our taxon sample included close outgroups, and 90% of described leptonetid genera, with denser sampling in North America and Mediterranean Europe. Two data matrices were assembled and analysed; the first ‘relaxed’ matrix includes the maximum number...

Numerical responses of omnivorous terrestrial arthropods to plant alternative resources suppress prey populations: a meta-analysis

Shelby Rinehart & Jeremy Long
Omnivory is ubiquitous in ecological communities. Yet, we lack a consensus of how plant alternative resources impact the ability of omnivores to suppress prey populations. Previous work suggests that plant alternative resources can increase, decrease, or have no effect on the magnitude of omnivore-prey interactions. This discrepancy may arise from 1) the ability of omnivores to numerically respond to plant alternative resources and 2) identity-specific effects of plant alternative resources. We used a meta-analysis to...

2D and 3D coral models imaged in Curaçao: George, Mullinix, et al PeerJ 2021

Emma E. George, James A. Mullinix, Fanwei Meng, Barbara A. Bailey, Clinton Edwards, Ben Felts, Andreas F. Haas, Aaron Hartmann, Benjamin Mueller, Ty F. Roach, Peter Salamon, Cynthia Silveira, Mark Vermeij, Forest Rohwer & Antoni Luque
Abstract from the article associated with the dataset: George, Mullinix, et al PeerJ 2021. Reef-building corals are ecosystem engineers that compete with other benthic or- ganisms for space and resources. Corals harvest energy through their surface by photosynthesis and heterotrophic feeding, and they divert part of this energy to defend their outer colony perimeter against competitors. Here, we hypothesized that corals with a larger space-filling surface and smaller perimeters increase energy gain while reducing the...

Diversity and distribution of tropical ectomycorrhizal fungi

Adriana Corrales, Rachel A. Koch, Aída M. Vasco-Palacios, Matthew E. Smith, Zai-Wei Ge & Terry W. Henkel
The tropics were long considered to have few ectomycorrhizal fungi, presumably due to a paucity of ectomycorrhizal host plants relative to higher-latitude ecosystems. However, an increase in research in tropical regions over the past 30 years has greatly expanded knowledge about the occurrence of tropical ectomycorrhizal fungi. To assess their broad biogeographic and diversity patterns, we conducted a comprehensive review and quantitative data analysis of 49 studies with 80 individual data sets along with additional...

Data from: Sequencing of seven haloarchaeal genomes reveals patterns of genomic flux

Erin A. Lynch, Morgan G. I. Langille, Aaron Darling, Elizabeth G. Wilbanks, Caitlin Haltiner, Katie S. Y. Shao, Michael O. Starr, Clotilde Teiling, Timothy T. Harkins, Robert A. Edwards, Jonathan A. Eisen, Marc T. Facciotti & Lennart Randau
We report the sequencing of seven genomes from two haloarchaeal genera, Haloferax and Haloarcula. Ease of cultivation and the existence of well-developed genetic and biochemical tools for several diverse haloarchaeal species make haloarchaea a model group for the study of archaeal biology. The unique physiological properties of these organisms also make them good candidates for novel enzyme discovery for biotechnological applications. Seven genomes were sequenced to ~20×coverage and assembled to an average of 50 contigs...

Data from: Sky island diversification meets the multispecies coalescent – divergence in the spruce-fir moss spider (Microhexura montivaga, Araneae, Mygalomorphae) on the highest peaks of southern Appalachia

Marshal Hedin, Dave Carlson & Fred Coyle
Microhexura montivaga is a miniature tarantula-like spider endemic to the highest peaks of the southern Appalachian mountains and is known only from six allopatric, highly disjunct montane populations. Because of severe declines in spruce-fir forest in the late 20th century, M. montivaga was formally listed as a US federally endangered species in 1995. Using DNA sequence data from one mitochondrial and seven nuclear genes, patterns of multigenic genetic divergence were assessed for six montane populations....

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