19 Works

Sitticine jumping spiders: phylogeny, classification and chromosomes (Araneae: Salticidae: Sitticini)

Wayne Maddison, David Maddison, Shahan Derkarabetian & Marshal Hedin
We review the systematics of sitticine jumping spiders, with a focus on the Palearctic and Nearctic regions, in order to revise their generic classification, clarify the species of one region (Canada), and study their chromosomes. A genome-wide molecular phylogeny of 23 sitticine species, using more than 700 loci from the arachnid Ultra-Conserved Element (UCE) probeset, confirms the Neotropical origins of sitticines, whose basal divergence separates the new subtribe Aillutticina (a group of 5 Neotropical genera)...

Data from: Phosphorus alleviation of nitrogen-suppressed methane sink in global grasslands

Lihua Zhang, Fenghui Yuan, Junhong Bai, Hongtao Duan, Xueying Gu, Longyu Hou, Yao Huang, Mingan Yang, Jinsheng He, Zhenghua Zhang, Lijun Yu, Changchun Song, David Lipson, Donatella Zona, Walter Oechel, Ivan Janssens & Xiaofeng Xu
Grassland ecosystems account for more than 10% of the global CH4 sink in soils. A 4-year field experiment found that addition of P alone did not affect CH4 uptake and experimental addition of N alone significantly suppressed CH4 uptake, while concurrent N and P additions suppressed CH4 uptake to a lesser degree. A meta-analysis including 382 data points in global grasslands corroborated these findings. Global extrapolation with an empirical modeling approach estimated that contemporary N...

Soil dissolved organic carbon in terrestrial ecosystems: global budget, spatial distribution and controls

Xiaofeng Xu, Ziyu Guo, Yihui Wang & Zhongmei Wan
Aims: Soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a primary form of labile carbon in terrestrial ecosystems and therefore plays a vital role in soil carbon cycling. This study aims to quantify the budgets of soil DOC at biome- and global levels and to examine the variations in soil DOC and their environmental controls. Location: Global Time period: 1981 - 2019 Method: We compiled a global dataset and analyzed the concentration and distribution of DOC across...

Automated total and heterotrophic soil respiration in semi-arid shrubland and annual invasive patches

Marguerite Mauritz & David A Lipson
Soil respiration (Rs) is the largest terrestrial source of carbon (C) flux to the atmosphere but our understanding of Rs controls with shifts in plant-community composition remains limited. We used high frequency soil respiration measurements and root exclusion to evaluate how Rs component fluxes, autotrophic respiration (Ra) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh), vary between a perennial semi-arid shrub community and annual invasive community.

Data from: Management actions shape dung beetle community structure and functional traits in restored tallgrass prairie

Nicholas A. Barber, Sheryl C. Hosler, Holly P. Jones & Melissa Nelson
1. Ecosystem restoration often focuses on reestablishing species richness and diversity of native organisms, especially plants. However, effective restoration requires re-establishment of ecosystem functions and processes by all trophic levels. Functional trait descriptions of communities, including decomposer communities, may provide more comprehensive evaluations of restoration activities and management than taxonomic community metrics alone. 2. We examined species and functional trait composition of dung beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Geotrupidae) communities across a 3-31 year chronosequence of restored...

Sequence-capture phylogenomics of true spiders reveals convergent evolution of respiratory systems

Marshal Hedin
The common ancestor of spiders likely used silk to line burrows or make simple webs, with specialized spinning organs and aerial webs originating with the evolution of the megadiverse “true spiders” (Araneomorphae). The base of the araneomorph tree also concentrates the greatest number of changes in respiratory structures, a character system whose evolution is still poorly understood, and that might be related to the evolution of silk glands. Emphasizing a dense sampling of multiple araneomorph...

Data from: eDNA metabarcoding bioassessment of endangered fairy shrimp (Branchinecta spp.) - Part B

Zachary Gold, Adam R. Wall, Emily E. Curd, Ryan P. Kelly, N. Dean Pentcheff, Lee Ripma, Paul H. Barber & Regina Wetzer
Fairy shrimp are integral components of vernal pool ecosystems, providing key food resources for migratory birds and amphibians. However, habitat degradation and land use change severely threaten the health of both vernal pools and the survival of fairy shrimp species. Branchinecta sandiegonensis Fugate, 1993 has been particularly affected by urban and agricultural development in its small native range within San Diego County, California, USA. It is listed as an endangered species under federal laws and...

Data from: eDNA metabarcoding bioassessment of endangered fairy shrimp (Branchinecta spp.) - Part A

Zachary Gold, Adam Wall, Paul Barber, Emily Curd, N. Dean Pentcheff, Lee Ripma & Regina Wetzer
Fairy shrimp are integral components of vernal pool ecosystems, providing key food resources for migratory birds and amphibians. However, habitat degradation and land use change severely threaten the health of both vernal pools and the survival of fairy shrimp species. Branchinecta sandiegonensis has been particularly affected by urban and agricultural development in its small native range within San Diego County, California, USA. It is listed as an endangered species under both state and federal laws...

Rethinking megafauna

Marcos Moleón, José Sánchez-Zapata, José Donázar, Eloy Revilla, Berta Martín-López, Cayetano Gutiérrez-Cánovas, Wayne Getz, Zebensui Morales-Reyes, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz, Larry Crowder, Mauro Galetti, Manuela González-Suárez, Fengzhi He, Pedro Jordano, Rebecca Lewison, Robin Naidoo, Norman Owen-Smith, Nuria Selva, Jens-Christian Svenning, José Tella, Christiane Zarfl, Sonja Jähnig, Matt Hayward, Søren Faurby, Nuria García … & Klement Tochner
Concern for megafauna is increasing among scientists and non-scientists. Many studies have emphasized that megafauna play prominent ecological roles and provide important ecosystem services to humanity. But, what precisely are “megafauna”? Here we critically assess the concept of megafauna and propose a goal-oriented framework for megafaunal research. First, we review definitions of megafauna and analyze associated terminology in the scientific literature. Second, we conduct a survey among ecologists and paleontologists to assess the species traits...

Feeding in Marine Mammals: an integration of evolution and ecology through time

Agnese Lanzetti & Annalisa Berta
Marine mammals are key components of aquatic ecosystems. Feeding strategies identified in extant cetaceans, pinnipeds, sirenians, marine otters, and polar bears are associated with anatomical specializations of the head (rostrum, palate, temporomandibular joint, teeth/baleen, mandible). Genetic and ontogenetic evidence of skull and tooth morphology provide the mechanisms that underlie patterns of feeding diversity. Based on a comprehensive diversity data set derived from the Paleobiology Database, we considered feeding strategies (suction, biting, filter feeding, grazing), prey...

Global biogeography of fungal and bacterial biomass carbon in topsoil

Liyuan He, Jorge Rodrigues, Nadejda Soudzilovskaia, Milagros Barceló, Pål Axel Olsson, Changchun Song, Leho Tedersoo, Fenghui Yuan, Fengming Yuan, David Lipson & Xiaofeng Xu
Bacteria and fungi, representing two major soil microorganism groups, play an important role in global nutrient biogeochemistry. Biogeographic patterns of bacterial and fungal biomass are of fundamental importance for mechanistically understanding nutrient cycling. We synthesized 1323 data points of phospholipid fatty acid-derived fungal biomass C (FBC), bacterial biomass C (BBC), and fungi:bacteria (F:B) ratio in topsoil, spanning 11 major biomes. The FBC, BBC, and F:B ratio display clear biogeographic patterns along latitude and environmental gradients...

The population genetics of non-migratory Allen's Hummingbird (Selasphorus sasin sedentarius) following a recent mainland colonization

Brian Myers, Kevin Burns, Christopher Clark & Alan Brelsford
Allen's Hummingbird comprises two subspecies, one migratory (Selasphorus sasin sasin) and one non-migratory (S. s. sedentarius). The non-migratory subspecies, previously endemic to the California Channel Islands, apparently colonized the California mainland on the Palos Verdes Peninsula some time before 1970, and now breeds throughout coastal southern California. We sequenced and compared populations of mainland non-migratory Allen's Hummingbird to Channel Island populations from Santa Catalina, San Clemente, and Santa Cruz Island. We found no evidence of...

Reintroduced grazers and prescribed fire effects on beetle assemblage structure and function in restored grasslands

Nicholas Barber, Melissa Nelson, Sheryl Hosler, Fabian Boetzl & Holly Jones
Ecological restoration seeks to re-establish functioning ecosystems, but planning and evaluation often focus on taxonomic community structure and neglect consumers and their functional roles. The functional trait composition of insect assemblages, which make up the majority of animal diversity in many systems, can reveal how they are affected by restoration management and the consequences for ecosystem function. We sampled ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in restored tallgrass prairies varying in management with prescribed fire and...

Allometric modelling of plant biomass from drone-acquired photographs: drone images, ground control marker coordinates and biomass data from 36 sites, 2016-2020

A. Cunliffe, K. Anderson, F. Boschetti, H. Graham, R. Brazier, I. Myers-Smith, T. Astor, M. Boer, L. Calvo, P. Clark, M. Cramer, M. Encinas-Lara, S. Escarzaga, J. Fernández-Guisuraga, A. Fisher, K. Gdulová, B. Gillespie, A. Griebel, N. Hanan, M. Hanggito, S. Haselberger, C. Havrilla, W. Ji, J. Karl, M. Kirchhoff … & R. Wojcikiewicz
This dataset contains RGB photographs acquired from drone surveys. There are 741 harvest plots from 38 surveys at 36 sites around the world. Each site was approximately 1 ha in area. Included with the photographic images are the coordinates of ground control markers, biomass, taxonomic and location data for harvest plots and ancillary metadata. The observations can be used to obtain allometric size-biomass models. This work was supported by the Natural Environment Research Council award...

Data from: Sierra Nevada mountain lake microbial communities are structured by temperature, resources, and geographic location

Marika Schulhof, Andrew Allen, Eric Allen, Natalie Mladenov, John McCrow, Natalie Jones, Jessica Blanton, Hamanda Badona Cavalheri, Drishti Kaul, Celia Symons & Jonathan Shurin
Warming, eutrophication (nutrient fertilization) and brownification (increased loading of allochthonous organic matter) are three global trends impacting lake ecosystems. However, the independent and synergistic effects of resource addition and warming on autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms are largely unknown. In this study, we investigate the independent and interactive effects of temperature, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, both allochthonous and autochthonous), and nitrogen (N) supply, in addition to the effect of spatial variables, on the composition, richness, and...

Data from: Flowering plant composition shapes pathogen infection intensity and reproduction in bumble bee colonies

Nicholas Barber, Lynn Adler, Olivia Biller & Rebecca Irwin
Pathogens pose significant threats to pollinator health and food security. Pollinators can transmit diseases during foraging, but the consequences of plant species composition for infection is unknown. In agroecosystems, flowering strips or hedgerows are often used to augment pollinator habitat. We used canola as a focal crop in tents, and manipulated flowering strip composition using plant species we had previously shown to result in higher or lower bee infection in short-term trials. We also manipulated...

Data from: The effects of temperature on the defensive strikes of rattlesnakes

Malachi D. Whitford, Grace A. Freymiller, Timothy E. Higham & Rulon W. Clark
Movements of ectotherms are constrained by their body temperature owing to the effects of temperature on muscle physiology. As physical performance often affects the outcome of predator–prey interactions, environmental temperature can influence the ability of ectotherms to capture prey and/or defend themselves against predators. However, previous research on the kinematics of ectotherms suggests that some species may use elastic storage mechanisms when attacking or defending, thereby mitigating the effects of sub-optimal temperature. Rattlesnakes (Crotalus spp.)...

Data matrices for: Phylogenomics of peacock spiders and their kin (Salticidae, Maratus), with implications for the evolution of male courtship displays

Damian Elias & Marshal Hedin
Understanding diversity has been a pursuit in evolutionary biology since its inception. A challenge arises when sexual selection has played a role in diversification. Questions of what constitutes a “species”, homoplasy versus synapomorphy, and whether sexually-selected traits show phylogenetic signal have hampered work on many systems. Peacock spiders are famous for sexually selected male courtship dances and peacock-like abdominal ornamentation. This lineage of jumping spiders currently includes over 90 species classified into two genera, Maratus...

The intensity of sexual selection, body size and reproductive success in a mating system with male-male combat: Is bigger better?

Xavier Glaudas, Stephen Rice, Rulon Clark & Graham Alexander
Body size is a key selected trait in many animal systems: larger size is sexually selected for in males because it confers a reproductive advantage during contest competition for access to females, and larger females are naturally selected for fecundity. Herein, we used radio-telemetry to gather a large dataset of male-female interactions and DNA paternity analyses to characterize the intensity of sexual selection and the link between two body size metrics (body length and condition,...

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • San Diego State University
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences
  • Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County
  • Northern Illinois University
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • University of California, Riverside
  • University of the Witwatersrand
  • University of California Los Angeles
  • Minzu University of China
  • University of Oviedo