188 Works

Data from: Plant diversity accurately predicts insect diversity in two tropical landscapes

Kai Zhang, Siliang Lin, Yinqiu Ji, Chenxue Yang, Xiaoyang Wang, Chunyan Yang, Hesheng Wang, Haisheng Jiang, Rhett D. Harrison & Douglas W. Yu
Plant diversity surely determines arthropod diversity, but only moderate correlations between arthropod and plant species richness had been observed until Basset et al. (Science, 338, 2012 and 1481) finally undertook an unprecedentedly comprehensive sampling of a tropical forest and demonstrated that plant species richness could indeed accurately predict arthropod species richness. We now require a high-throughput pipeline to operationalize this result so that we can (i) test competing explanations for tropical arthropod megadiversity, (ii) improve...

Data from: Host associated genetic differentiation in a seed parasitic weevil Rhinusa antirrhini (Coleptera: Curculionidae) revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data

Gerardo Hernández-Vera, Milana Mitrović, Jelena Jović, Ivo Toševski, Roberto Caldara, Andre Gassmann & Brent Emerson
Plant feeding insects and the plants they feed upon represent an ecological association that is thought to be a key factor for the diversification of many plant feeding insects, through differential adaptation to different plant selective pressures. While a number of studies have investigated diversification of plant feeding insects above the species level, relatively less attention has been given to patterns of diversification within species, particularly those that also require plants for oviposition and subsequent...

Data from: Genetic elimination of field-cage populations of Mediterranean fruit flies

Philip T. Leftwich, Martha Koukidou, Polychronis Rempoulakis, Hong-Fei Gong, Antigoni Zacharapolou, Tracey Chapman, Aris Economopolous, John Vontas, Luke Alphey, A. Economopoulos & A. Zacharopoulou
The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) is a pest of over 300 fruits, vegetables and nuts. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a control measure used to reduce the reproductive potential of populations through the mass release of sterilized male insects that mate with wild females. However, SIT flies can display poor field performance, due to the effects of mass-rearing and of the irradiation process used for sterilization. The development of female-lethal RIDL...

Data from: Multiple post-mating barriers to hybridisation in field crickets

Frances Tyler, Xavier A. Harrison, Amanda Bretman, Thor Veen, Rolando Rodríguez-Muñoz & Tom Tregenza
Mechanisms that prevent different species from interbreeding are fundamental to the maintenance of biodiversity. Barriers to interspecific matings, such as failure to recognize a potential mate, are often relatively easy to identify. Those occurring after mating, such as differences in the how successful sperm are in competition for fertilisations, are cryptic and have the potential to create selection on females to mate multiply as a defence against maladaptive hybridization. Cryptic advantages to conspecific sperm may...

Data from: The role of species-specific sensory cues in male responses to mating rivals in Drosophila melanogaster fruitflies

Amanda Bretman, James Rouse, James D. Westmancoat & Tracey Chapman
Complex sets of cues can be important in recognising and responding to conspecific mating competitors and avoiding potentially costly heterospecific competitive interactions. Within Drosophila. melanogaster, males can detect sensory inputs from conspecifics to assess the level of competition. They respond to rivals by significantly extending mating duration and gain significant fitness benefits from doing so. Here, we tested the idea that the multiple sensory cues used by D. melanogaster males to detect conspecifics also function...

Data from: Colony and individual life-history responses to temperature in a social insect pollinator

Jacob G. Holland & Andrew F. G. Bourke
1. Pollinating insects are of major ecological and commercial importance, yet they may be facing ecological disruption from a changing climate. Despite this threat, few studies have investigated the life-history responses of pollinators to experimentally controlled changes in temperature, which should be especially informative for species with complex life histories such as eusocial insects. 2. This study uses the key pollinator Bombus terrestris, a eusocial bumblebee with an annual colony cycle, to determine how temperature...

Data from: Subordinate females in the cooperatively breeding Seychelles warbler obtain direct benefits by joining unrelated groups

Frank Groenewoud, Sjouke A. Kingma, Martijn Hammers, Hannah L. Dugdale, Terry Burke, David S. Richardson & Jan Komdeur
1. In many cooperatively breeding animals, a combination of ecological constraints and benefits of philopatry favours offspring taking a subordinate position on the natal territory instead of dispersing to breed independently. However, in many species individuals disperse to a subordinate position in a non-natal group (“subordinate between-group” dispersal), despite losing the kin-selected and nepotistic benefits of remaining in the natal group. It is unclear which social, genetic and ecological factors drive between-group dispersal. 2. We...

Data from: Adaptation to divergent larval diets in the medfly, Ceratitis capitata

Philip T. Leftwich, William J. Nash, Lucy A. Friend & Tracey Chapman
Variation in diet can influence the timing of major life history events and can drive population diversification and ultimately speciation. Proximate responses of life histories to diet have been well studied. However, there are scant experimental data on how organisms adapt to divergent diets over the longer term. We focused on this omission by testing the responses of a global pest, the Mediterranean fruitfly, to divergent selection on larval diets of different nutritional profiles. Tests...

Data from: Pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection favor aggressive, young males in polyandrous groups of red junglefowl

Grant C. McDonald, Lewis G. Spurgin, Eleanor A. Fairfield, David S. Richardson & Tommaso Pizzari
A challenge in evolutionary biology is to understand the operation of sexual selection on males in polyandrous groups, where sexual selection occurs before and after mating. Here, we combine fine-grained behavioural information (>41,000 interactions) with molecular parentage data to study sexual selection in replicated, age-structured groups of polyandrous red junglefowl, Gallus gallus. Male reproductive success was determined by the number of females mated (precopulatory sexual selection) and his paternity share, which was driven by the...

Data from: Hybridization and barriers to gene flow in an island bird radiation

Ben H. Warren, Eldredge Bermingham, Yann Bourgeois, Laura K. Estep, Robert P. Prys-Jones, Dominique Strasberg & Christophe Thébaud
While reinforcement may play a role in all major modes of speciation, relatively little is known about the timescale over which species hybridize without evolving complete reproductive isolation. Birds have high potential for hybridization, and islands provide simple settings for uncovering speciation and hybridization patterns. Here we develop a phylogenetic hypothesis for a phenotypically-diverse radiation of finch-like weaver-birds (Foudia) endemic to the western Indian Ocean islands. We find that unlike Darwin’s finches, each island-endemic Foudia...

Data from: Exploring and visualising spaces of tree reconciliations

Katharina T. Huber, Vincent Moulton, Marie-France Sagot & Blerina Sinaimeri
Tree reconciliation is the mathematical tool that is used to investigate the coevolution of organisms, such as hosts and parasites. A common approach to tree reconciliation involves specifying a model that assigns costs to certain events, such as cospeciation, and then tries to find a mapping between two specified phylogenetic trees which minimises the total cost of the implied events. For such models, it has been shown that there may be a huge number of...

Data from: Scrutinizing key steps for reliable metabarcoding of environmental samples

Antton Alberdi, Ostaizka Aizpurua, M. Thomas P. Gilbert & Kristine Bohmann
1. Metabarcoding of environmental samples has many challenges and limitations that require carefully considered laboratory and analysis pipelines to ensure reliable results. We explore how decisions regarding study design, laboratory work and bioinformatic processing affect the final results, and provide guidelines for reliable study of environmental samples. 2. We evaluate the performance of four primer sets targeting COI and 16S regions characterising arthropod diversity in bat faecal samples, and investigate how metabarcoding results are affected...

Data from: Reproductive conflict in bumblebees and the evolution of worker policing

Lorenzo Roberto Sgobaro Zanette, Sophie D. L. Miller, Christiana M. A. Faria, Edd J. Almond, Tim J. Huggins, William C. Jordan & Andrew F. G. Bourke
Worker policing (mutual repression of reproduction) in the eusocial Hymenoptera represents a leading example of how coercion can facilitate cooperation. The occurrence of worker policing in “primitively” eusocial species with low mating frequencies, which lack relatedness differences conducive to policing, suggests that separate factors may underlie the origin and maintenance of worker policing. We tested this hypothesis by investigating conflict over male parentage in the primitively eusocial, monandrous bumblebee, Bombus terrestris. Using observations, experiments, and...

Data from: Social orienting in gaze leading: a mechanism for shared attention

Stephen Gareth Edwards, Lisa J. Stephenson, Mario Dalmaso & Andrew P. Bayliss
Here, we report a novel social orienting response that occurs after viewing averted gaze. We show, in three experiments, that when a person looks from one location to an object, attention then shifts towards the face of an individual who has subsequently followed the person's gaze to that same object. That is, contrary to ‘gaze following’, attention instead orients in the opposite direction to observed gaze and towards the gazing face. The magnitude of attentional...

Data from: Immunogenetic novelty confers a selective advantage in host-pathogen coevolution

Karl P. Phillips, Joanne Cable, Ryan S. Mohammed, Magdalena Herdegen-Radwan, Jaroslaw Raubic, Karolina J. Przesmycka, Cock Van Oosterhout & Jacek Radwan
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is crucial to the adaptive immune response of vertebrates and is among the most polymorphic gene families known. Its high diversity is usually attributed to selection imposed by fast-evolving pathogens. Pathogens are thought to evolve to escape recognition by common immune alleles, and, hence, novel MHC alleles, introduced through mutation, recombination, or gene flow, are predicted to give hosts superior resistance. Although this theoretical prediction underpins host–pathogen “Red Queen” coevolution,...

Data from: Evidence of opposing fitness effects of parental heterozygosity and relatedness in a critically endangered marine turtle?

Karl P. Phillips, Tove H. Jorgensen, Kevin G. Jolliffe & David S. Richardson
How individual genetic variability relates to fitness is important in understanding evolution and the processes affecting populations of conservation concern. Heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) have been widely used to study this link in wild populations, where key parameters that affect both variability and fitness, such as inbreeding, can be difficult to measure. We used estimates of parental heterozygosity and genetic similarity (‘relatedness’) derived from 32 microsatellite markers to explore the relationship between genetic variability and fitness...

Data from: Costs of sleeping in: circadian rhythms influence cuckoldry risk in a songbird

Timothy Greives, Sjouke Kingma, Bart Kranstauber, Kim Mortega, Martin Wikelski, Kees Van Oers, Christa Mateman, Glen Ferguson, Giulia Beltrami, Michaela Hau, Sjouke A. Kingma & Timothy J. Greives
1. Circadian (i.e. daily) regulation of behaviors is thought to provide fitness benefits to organisms by enabling them to anticipate diel changes in the environment, such as sunrise. 2. A common behavior among socially monogamous songbirds that usually takes place in the early mornings is extra-pair mating, i.e. copulating with partners outside of the social pair bond. 3. Thus, variation in when individuals begin their daily activity may influence their reproductive success; early risers may...

Data from: Carrion fly-derived DNA metabarcoding is an effective tool for mammal surveys: evidence from a known tropical mammal community

Torrey W. Rodgers, Charles C. Y. Xu, Jacalyn Giacalone, Karen M. Kapheim, Kristin Saltonstall, Marta Vargas, Douglas W. Yu, Panu Somervuo, W. Owen McMillan & Patrick A. Jansen
Metabarcoding of vertebrate DNA derived from carrion flies has been proposed as a promising tool for biodiversity monitoring. To evaluate its efficacy, we conducted metabarcoding surveys of carrion flies on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, which has a well-known mammal community, and compared our results against diurnal transect counts and camera-trapping. We collected 1084 flies in 29 sampling days, conducted metabarcoding with mammal-specific (16S) and vertebrate-specific (12S) primers, and sequenced amplicons on Illumina MiSeq. For...

Data from: The effects of male social environment on sperm phenotype and genome integrity

Willian T.A.F. Silva, Paula Saez-Espinosa, Stephanie Torijo Boix, Alejandro Romero, Caroline Devaux, Mathilde Durieux, Maria Jose Gomez Torres & Simone Immler
Sperm function and quality are primary determinants of male reproductive performance and hence fitness. The presence of rival males has been shown to affect ejaculate and sperm traits in a wide range of taxa. However, male physiological conditions may not only affect sperm phenotypic traits but also their genetic and epigenetic signatures, affecting the fitness of the resulting offspring. We investigated the effects of male-male competition on sperm quality using TUNEL assays and geometric morphometrics...

Data from: The influence of Late Quaternary climate-change velocity on species endemism

Brody Sandel, Lars Arge, Richard G. Davies, Kevin J. Gaston, William J. Sutherland, Bo Dalsgaard & Jens-Chrisitan Svenning
The effects of climate change on biodiversity should depend in part on climate displacement rate (climate-change velocity) and its interaction with species’ capacity to migrate. We estimated Late Quaternary glacial-interglacial climate-change velocity by integrating macroclimatic shifts since the Last Glacial Maximum with topoclimatic gradients. Globally, areas with high velocities were associated with marked absences of small-ranged amphibians, mammals and birds. The association between endemism and velocity was weakest in the highly vagile birds and strongest...

Data from: Abundance drives broad patterns of generalisation in plant-hummingbird pollination networks

Benno I. Simmons, Jeferson Vizentin-Bugoni, Pietro K. Maruyama, Peter A. Cotton, Oscar H. Marín-Gómez, Carlos Lara, Liliana Rosero-Lasprilla, María A Maglianesi, Raúl Ortiz-Pulido, Márcia A. Rocca, Licléia C. Rodrigues, Boris Tinocco, Marcelo F. Vasconcelos, Marlies Sazima, Ana M. Martín González, Jesper Sonne, Carsten Rahbek, Lynn V. Dicks, Bo Dalsgaard & William J. Sutherland
Abundant pollinators are often more generalised than rare pollinators. This could be because abundant species have more chance encounters with potential interaction partners. On the other hand, generalised species could have a competitive advantage over specialists, leading to higher abundance. Determining the direction of the abundance-generalisation relationship is therefore a ‘chicken-and-egg’ dilemma. Here we determine the direction of the relationship between abundance and generalisation in plant-hummingbird pollination networks across the Americas. We find evidence that...

Data from: Socio-ecological conditions and female infidelity in the Seychelles warbler

Sara Raj Pant, Jan Komdeur, Terry A. Burke, Hannah L. Dugdale & David S. Richardson
Within socially monogamous breeding systems, levels of extra-pair paternity can vary not only between species, populations and individuals, but also across time. Uncovering how different extrinsic conditions (ecological, demographic and social) influence this behavior will help shed light on the factors driving its evolution. Here, we simultaneously address multiple socio-ecological conditions potentially influencing female infidelity in a natural population of the cooperatively breeding Seychelles warbler, Acrocephalus sechellensis. Our contained study population has been monitored for...

Code for Individual Based Model to assess impact of KHV release on carp population

Kate Mintram, Cock Van Oosterhout & Jackie Lighten
1: Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the top global invasive vertebrates and can cause significant ecological damage. The Australian Government’s National Carp Control Program (NCCP) proposes to release Koi Herpesvirus (KHV) to eradicate feral carp in one of the largest ecological interventions ever attempted. Ecological and human health risks have been highlighted regarding the release of a highly pathogenic viral biocontrol for an aquatic species. The efficacy of KHV has also been questioned,...

Data from: Fertility and mortality impacts of experimental heatwave conditions on different life stages and their reproductive recovery in a model insect

Matthew Gage
With climate change creating a more volatile atmosphere, heatwaves will become stronger and more frequent, influencing living systems. Using the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, we measure the impacts of experimental heatwaves on reproduction and survival across different insect life stages, and the extent and pace of any recovery. We exposed larvae, pupae, juvenile and mature adult male beetles to 5-day heatwaves at 40°C or 42°C, a few degrees above the 35°C optimum for this species’...

Inbreeding reduces fitness of seed beetles under thermal stress

Edward Ivimey-Cook, Sophie Bricout, Victoria Candela, Alexei Maklakov & Elena Berg
Human-induced environmental change can influence populations both at the global level through climatic warming and at the local level through habitat fragmentation. As populations become more isolated, they can suffer from high levels of inbreeding which contributes to a reduction in fitness, termed inbreeding depression. However, it is still unclear if this increase in homozygosity also results in a corresponding increase in sensitivity to stressful conditions, which could intensify the already detrimental effects of environmental...

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