196 Works

Data from: Effects of forest degradation on Amazonian ferns in a land-bridge island system as revealed by non-specialist inventories

Danielle Storck-Tonon, Gabriela Zuquim, Maíra Benchimol, Rafael Tonon & Carlos Peres
Background: Tropical deforestation and degradation worldwide have rapidly outpaced biodiversity field sampling. No study to date has assessed the effects of insular habitats induced by hydroelectric dams on Amazonian understorey plants. Fern community responses to anthropogenic effects on tropical forest islands can be efficiently revealed through simple and cheap, yet informative protocols that can be applied by non-specialists. Aims: This study seeks to both understand the drivers of fern and lycophyte assemblages on forest islands...

Functional diversity and trait filtering of insectivorous bats on forest islands created by an Amazonian mega dam

Guthieri T. Colombo, Raffaello Di Ponzio, Maíra Benchimol, Carlos A. Peres & Paulo Estefano D. Bobrowiec
1. Mega dams in lowland tropical forests often create large archipelagos, leading to biodiversity decay and disruption of ecosystem functioning in remnant habitat islands. 2. We investigated the functional diversity and functional trait filtering of aerial insectivorous bats in both insular forest patches created by a vast ~30-yr-old hydropower reservoir and the adjacent mainland continuous forest in Central Amazonia. 3. Bats were surveyed using passive bat recorders across 34 forest sites. Based on a set...

Effects of pair migratory behaviour on breeding phenology and success in a partially migratory shorebird population

Verónica Méndez, Jose Alves, Jennifer Gill, Böðvar Þórisson, Camilio Carneiro, Aldís Pálsdóttir, Sölvi Vignisson & Tomas Gunnarsson
In migratory systems, variation in individual phenology can arise through differences in individual migratory behaviours, and this may be particularly apparent in partial migrant systems, where migrant and resident individuals are present within the same population. Links between breeding phenology and migratory behaviour or success are generally investigated at the individual level. However, for breeding phenology in particular, the migratory behaviours of each member of the pair may need to be considered simultaneously, as breeding...

Vanuatu Water Quality Dataset - CTD Profiles - 2016-2018

CTD depth profiles from a dataset supporting a baseline assessment of marine water quality around Vanuatu, South Pacific. As part of the Commonwealth Marine Economies Programme, water quality measurements were collected over three years in the coastal waters around the island of Efate, and on one occasion around the island of Tanna. Observations focus on Port Vila (Efate), which is the main urbanised area on the Island. Parameters included are: salinity, temperature, turbidity, light attenuation,...

Additional file 1 of Regional industrial growth and biopharma patent networks: empirical insights from the UK

Yuan Gao & Zhen Zhu
Additional file 1. Appendix 1.csv.

Data from: Telomere heritability and parental age at conception effects in a wild avian population

Alexandra Sparks, Lewis Spurgin, Marco Van Der Velde, Eleanor Fairfield, Jan Komdeur, Terry Burke, David Richardson & Hannah Dugdale
Individual variation in telomere length is predictive of health and mortality risk across a range of species. However, the relative influence of environmental and genetic variation on individual telomere length in wild populations remains poorly understood. Heritability of telomere length has primarily been calculated using parent–offspring regression which can be confounded by shared environments. To control for confounding variables, quantitative genetic ‘animal models’ can be used, but few studies have applied animal models in wild...

Clinical competency committee perceptions of entrustable professional activities and their value in assessing fellows: A qualitative study of pediatric subspecialty program directors

Melissa L. Langhan, Diane E. J. Stafford, Angela L. Myers, Bruce E. Herman, Megan L. Curran, Angela S. Czaja, David A. Turner, Pnina Weiss & Richard Mink
To examine the composition and processes of Clinical Competency Committees (CCCs) assigning entrustable professional activity (EPA) levels of supervision for pediatric subspecialty fellows and to examine fellowship program director (FPD) perspectives about using EPAs to determine fellows’ graduation readiness. A qualitative study was performed using one-on-one interviews with a purposeful sample of pediatric subspecialty FPDs to yield a thematic analysis. Semi-structured interview guides were used for participants who self-identified as EPA users or non-users. Inductive...

Data from: Genetic elimination of field-cage populations of Mediterranean fruit flies

Philip T. Leftwich, Martha Koukidou, Polychronis Rempoulakis, Hong-Fei Gong, Antigoni Zacharapolou, Tracey Chapman, Aris Economopolous, John Vontas, Luke Alphey, A. Economopoulos & A. Zacharopoulou
The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) is a pest of over 300 fruits, vegetables and nuts. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a control measure used to reduce the reproductive potential of populations through the mass release of sterilized male insects that mate with wild females. However, SIT flies can display poor field performance, due to the effects of mass-rearing and of the irradiation process used for sterilization. The development of female-lethal RIDL...

Data from: Host associated genetic differentiation in a seed parasitic weevil Rhinusa antirrhini (Coleptera: Curculionidae) revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data

Gerardo Hernández-Vera, Milana Mitrović, Jelena Jović, Ivo Toševski, Roberto Caldara, Andre Gassmann & Brent Emerson
Plant feeding insects and the plants they feed upon represent an ecological association that is thought to be a key factor for the diversification of many plant feeding insects, through differential adaptation to different plant selective pressures. While a number of studies have investigated diversification of plant feeding insects above the species level, relatively less attention has been given to patterns of diversification within species, particularly those that also require plants for oviposition and subsequent...

Data from: Elevated substitution rate estimates from ancient DNA: model violation and bias of Bayesian methods

Miguel Navascués & Brent Emerson
The increasing ability to extract and sequence DNA from non-contemporaneous tissue offers biologists the opportunity to analyze ancient DNA (aDNA) together with modern DNA (mDNA) to address the taxonomy of extinct species, evolutionary origins, historical phylogeography and biogeography. Perhaps more exciting are recent developments in coalescence-based Bayesian inference that offer the potential to use temporal information from aDNA and mDNA for the estimation of substitution rates and divergence dates as an alternative to fossil and...

Data from: Hybridization and barriers to gene flow in an island bird radiation

Ben H. Warren, Eldredge Bermingham, Yann Bourgeois, Laura K. Estep, Robert P. Prys-Jones, Dominique Strasberg & Christophe Thébaud
While reinforcement may play a role in all major modes of speciation, relatively little is known about the timescale over which species hybridize without evolving complete reproductive isolation. Birds have high potential for hybridization, and islands provide simple settings for uncovering speciation and hybridization patterns. Here we develop a phylogenetic hypothesis for a phenotypically-diverse radiation of finch-like weaver-birds (Foudia) endemic to the western Indian Ocean islands. We find that unlike Darwin’s finches, each island-endemic Foudia...

Data from: The influence of Late Quaternary climate-change velocity on species endemism

Brody Sandel, Lars Arge, Richard G. Davies, Kevin J. Gaston, William J. Sutherland, Bo Dalsgaard & Jens-Chrisitan Svenning
The effects of climate change on biodiversity should depend in part on climate displacement rate (climate-change velocity) and its interaction with species’ capacity to migrate. We estimated Late Quaternary glacial-interglacial climate-change velocity by integrating macroclimatic shifts since the Last Glacial Maximum with topoclimatic gradients. Globally, areas with high velocities were associated with marked absences of small-ranged amphibians, mammals and birds. The association between endemism and velocity was weakest in the highly vagile birds and strongest...

Data from: Multiple post-mating barriers to hybridisation in field crickets

Frances Tyler, Xavier A. Harrison, Amanda Bretman, Thor Veen, Rolando Rodríguez-Muñoz & Tom Tregenza
Mechanisms that prevent different species from interbreeding are fundamental to the maintenance of biodiversity. Barriers to interspecific matings, such as failure to recognize a potential mate, are often relatively easy to identify. Those occurring after mating, such as differences in the how successful sperm are in competition for fertilisations, are cryptic and have the potential to create selection on females to mate multiply as a defence against maladaptive hybridization. Cryptic advantages to conspecific sperm may...

Data from: Colony and individual life-history responses to temperature in a social insect pollinator

Jacob G. Holland & Andrew F. G. Bourke
1. Pollinating insects are of major ecological and commercial importance, yet they may be facing ecological disruption from a changing climate. Despite this threat, few studies have investigated the life-history responses of pollinators to experimentally controlled changes in temperature, which should be especially informative for species with complex life histories such as eusocial insects. 2. This study uses the key pollinator Bombus terrestris, a eusocial bumblebee with an annual colony cycle, to determine how temperature...

Data from: Costs of sleeping in: circadian rhythms influence cuckoldry risk in a songbird

Timothy Greives, Sjouke Kingma, Bart Kranstauber, Kim Mortega, Martin Wikelski, Kees Van Oers, Christa Mateman, Glen Ferguson, Giulia Beltrami, Michaela Hau, Sjouke A. Kingma & Timothy J. Greives
1. Circadian (i.e. daily) regulation of behaviors is thought to provide fitness benefits to organisms by enabling them to anticipate diel changes in the environment, such as sunrise. 2. A common behavior among socially monogamous songbirds that usually takes place in the early mornings is extra-pair mating, i.e. copulating with partners outside of the social pair bond. 3. Thus, variation in when individuals begin their daily activity may influence their reproductive success; early risers may...

Data from: Reproductive conflict in bumblebees and the evolution of worker policing

Lorenzo Roberto Sgobaro Zanette, Sophie D. L. Miller, Christiana M. A. Faria, Edd J. Almond, Tim J. Huggins, William C. Jordan & Andrew F. G. Bourke
Worker policing (mutual repression of reproduction) in the eusocial Hymenoptera represents a leading example of how coercion can facilitate cooperation. The occurrence of worker policing in “primitively” eusocial species with low mating frequencies, which lack relatedness differences conducive to policing, suggests that separate factors may underlie the origin and maintenance of worker policing. We tested this hypothesis by investigating conflict over male parentage in the primitively eusocial, monandrous bumblebee, Bombus terrestris. Using observations, experiments, and...

Data from: Genetic and phenotypic divergence in an island bird: isolation by distance, by colonisation or by adaptation?

Lewis G. Spurgin, Juan Carlos Illera, Tove H. Jorgensen, Deborah A. Dawson & David S. Richardson
Discerning the relative roles of adaptive and non-adaptive processes in generating differences among populations and species, as well as how these processes interact, are fundamental aims in biology. Both genetic and phenotypic divergence across populations can be the product of limited dispersal and gradual genetic drift across populations (isolation by distance), of colonisation history and founder effects (isolation by colonisation) or of adaptation to different environments preventing migration between populations (isolation by adaptation). Here we...

Data from: Plant diversity accurately predicts insect diversity in two tropical landscapes

Kai Zhang, Siliang Lin, Yinqiu Ji, Chenxue Yang, Xiaoyang Wang, Chunyan Yang, Hesheng Wang, Haisheng Jiang, Rhett D. Harrison & Douglas W. Yu
Plant diversity surely determines arthropod diversity, but only moderate correlations between arthropod and plant species richness had been observed until Basset et al. (Science, 338, 2012 and 1481) finally undertook an unprecedentedly comprehensive sampling of a tropical forest and demonstrated that plant species richness could indeed accurately predict arthropod species richness. We now require a high-throughput pipeline to operationalize this result so that we can (i) test competing explanations for tropical arthropod megadiversity, (ii) improve...

Data from: Social orienting in gaze leading: a mechanism for shared attention

Stephen Gareth Edwards, Lisa J. Stephenson, Mario Dalmaso & Andrew P. Bayliss
Here, we report a novel social orienting response that occurs after viewing averted gaze. We show, in three experiments, that when a person looks from one location to an object, attention then shifts towards the face of an individual who has subsequently followed the person's gaze to that same object. That is, contrary to ‘gaze following’, attention instead orients in the opposite direction to observed gaze and towards the gazing face. The magnitude of attentional...

Data from: The contrasting role of male relatedness in different mechanisms of sexual selection in red junglefowl

Cedric Tan Kai Wei, Philippa Doyle, Emma Bagshaw, David S. Richardson, Stuart L. Wigby, Tom Pizzari, Cedric Kai Wei Tan, Stuart Wigby & Tommaso Pizzari
In structured populations, competition for reproductive opportunities should be relaxed among related males. The few tests of this prediction often neglect the fact that sexual selection acts through multiple mechanisms, both before and after mating. We performed experiments to study the role of within-group male relatedness across pre- and postcopulatory mechanisms of sexual selection in social groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, in which two related males and one unrelated male competed over females unrelated...

Data from: Adaptation to divergent larval diets in the medfly, Ceratitis capitata

Philip T. Leftwich, William J. Nash, Lucy A. Friend & Tracey Chapman
Variation in diet can influence the timing of major life history events and can drive population diversification and ultimately speciation. Proximate responses of life histories to diet have been well studied. However, there are scant experimental data on how organisms adapt to divergent diets over the longer term. We focused on this omission by testing the responses of a global pest, the Mediterranean fruitfly, to divergent selection on larval diets of different nutritional profiles. Tests...

Feather isotope ratios and sexing of oystercatchers breeding in Iceland, 2013-2017

J.A. Gill, V. Mendez, T.G. Gunnarsson, J.A. Alves & B. Thorrison
Dataset comprises of the delta-13C and delta-15N stable isotopic information from feather samples (for 552 individuals) and the sex (assigned by DNA-analysis of blood samples for 321 individuals) of oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus) breeding in Iceland during the summers of 2013-2017. The Icelandic oystercatcher population contains individuals that stay in Iceland year-round and individuals that migrate to mainland Europe in the non-breeding season, and feather isotope ratios provide a means of distinguishing between these migratory behaviours...

Data from: Trade-off between somatic and germline repair in a vertebrate supports the expensive germ line hypothesis

Simone Immler, Hwei-Yen Chen, Kasparas Bublys, Cecile Jolly & Daniel Marcu
The disposable soma theory is a central tenet of the biology of aging where germline immortality comes at the cost of an aging soma [T. B. L. Kirkwood, Nature 270, 301–304 (1977); T. B. L. Kirkwood, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 205, 531–546 (1979); T. B. L. Kirkwood, S. N. Austad, Nature 408, 233–238 (2000)]. Limited resources and a possible trade-off between the repair and maintenance of the germ cells and growth and...

Data from: The role of species-specific sensory cues in male responses to mating rivals in Drosophila melanogaster fruitflies

Amanda Bretman, James Rouse, James D. Westmancoat & Tracey Chapman
Complex sets of cues can be important in recognising and responding to conspecific mating competitors and avoiding potentially costly heterospecific competitive interactions. Within Drosophila. melanogaster, males can detect sensory inputs from conspecifics to assess the level of competition. They respond to rivals by significantly extending mating duration and gain significant fitness benefits from doing so. Here, we tested the idea that the multiple sensory cues used by D. melanogaster males to detect conspecifics also function...

Data from: Evidence of opposing fitness effects of parental heterozygosity and relatedness in a critically endangered marine turtle?

Karl P. Phillips, Tove H. Jorgensen, Kevin G. Jolliffe & David S. Richardson
How individual genetic variability relates to fitness is important in understanding evolution and the processes affecting populations of conservation concern. Heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) have been widely used to study this link in wild populations, where key parameters that affect both variability and fitness, such as inbreeding, can be difficult to measure. We used estimates of parental heterozygosity and genetic similarity (‘relatedness’) derived from 32 microsatellite markers to explore the relationship between genetic variability and fitness...

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