188 Works

Data from: Experimental evolution reveals that sperm competition intensity selects for longer, more costly sperm

Joanne L. Godwin, Ramakrishnan Vasudeva, Lukasz Michalczyk, Oliver Y. Martin, Alyson J. Lumley, Tracey Chapman & Matthew J. G. Gage
It is the differences between sperm and eggs that fundamentally underpin the differences between the sexes within reproduction. For males, it is theorized that widespread sperm competition leads to selection for investment in sperm numbers, achieved by minimizing sperm size within limited resources for spermatogenesis in the testis. Here, we empirically examine how sperm competition shapes sperm size, after more than 77 generations of experimental selection of replicate lines under either high or low sperm...

Data from: Lineages evolved under stronger sexual selection show superior ability to invade conspecific competitor populations

Joanne L. Godwin, Lewis G. Spurgin, L. Michalczyk, Oliver Y. Martin, Alyson J. Lumley, Tracey Chapman & Matthew J.G. Gage
Despite limitations on offspring production, almost all multicellular species use sex to reproduce. Sex gives rise to sexual selection, a widespread force operating through competition and choice within reproduction, however, it remains unclear whether sexual selection is beneficial for total lineage fitness, or if it acts as a constraint. Sexual selection could be a positive force because of selection on improved individual condition and purging of mutation load, summing into lineages with superior fitness. On...

Data from: Experimentally induced anti-predator responses are mediated by social and environmental factors

Frank Groenewoud, Sjouke A. Kingma, Kat Bebbington, David Richardson & Jan Komdeur
Nest predation is a common cause of reproductive failure for many bird species, and various anti-predator defense behaviors have evolved to reduce the risk of nest predation. However, trade-offs between current reproductive duties and future reproduction often limit the parent’s ability to respond to nest predation risk. Individual responses to experimentally increased nest predation risk can give insights into these trade-offs. Here, we investigate whether social and ecological factors affect individual responses to predation risk...

Data from: Queen longevity and fecundity affect conflict with workers over resource inheritance in a social insect

Edward J. Almond, Timothy J. Huggins, Liam P. Crowther, Joel D. Parker & Andrew F. G. Bourke
Resource inheritance is a major source of conflict in animal societies. However, the assumptions and predictions of models of conflict over resource inheritance have not been systematically tested within a single system. We developed an inclusive fitness model for annual eusocial Hymenoptera that predicts a zone of conflict in which future reproductive workers are selected to enforce nest inheritance before the queen is selected to cede the nest. We experimentally tested key elements of this...

Data from: Assessing bottom-trawling impacts based on the longevity of benthic invertebrates

Jan Geert Hiddink, Simon Jennings, Marija Sciberras, Stefan Bolam, Giulia Cambie, Robert McConnaughey, Tessa Mazor, Ray Hilborn, Jeremy Collie, C. Roland Pitcher, Ana Parma, Petri Suuronen, Michel Kaiser, Adriaan Rijnsdorp, Jeremy S. Collie, Michel J. Kaiser, Adriaan D. Rijnsdorp & Robert A. McConnaughey
1. Bottom trawling is the most widespread human activity directly affecting seabed habitats. Assessment and effective management of the effects of bottom trawling at the scale of fisheries requires an understanding of differences in sensitivity of biota to trawling. Responses to disturbance are expected to depend on the intrinsic rate of increase of populations (r), which is expected to be linearly related to the reciprocal of longevity. 2. We examine the relationship between the longevity...

Mating patterns influence vulnerability to the extinction vortex

Joanne Godwin, Alyson J. Lumley, Łukasz Michalczyk, Oliver Y. Martin & Matthew J. G. Gage
Earth’s biodiversity is undergoing mass extinction due to anthropogenic compounding of environmental, demographic and genetic stresses. These different stresses can trap populations within a reinforcing feedback loop known as the extinction vortex, in which synergistic pressures build upon one another through time, driving down population viability. Sexual selection, the widespread evolutionary force arising from competition, choice and reproductive variance within animal mating patterns, could have vital consequences for population viability and the extinction vortex: 1)...

Survival and reproductive success of migrant and resident wildlife in published studies of partially migratory populations

C. Buchan, J.J. Gilroy, I. Catry & A.M.A. Franco
This is a dataset generated from information extracted from previously published studies, for the purpose of a meta-analysis investigating fitness benefits of different migratory strategies in partially migratory populations. Each line of data includes a mean and associated variance for a given fitness metric for both migrants and residents extracted from a study, in addition to information concerning population location, study species, type of fitness metric, year data were collected, and details on the publication...

Payoff of the Grain for Green policy

Shixiong Cao, Chengqi Xia, Junli Xian, Hao Guo & Heran Zheng
1. To protect the global ecological environment and prevent threats to human safety and property, nations around the world have invested heavily in ecological restoration programmes. However, we don’t know whether these investments have been repaid by the resultant benefits. 2. To answer this question, we developed an improved method of quantifying costs and benefits that accounts for more of the costs associated with ecological restoration, thereby letting us calculate the net benefit. 3. To...

Helpers compensate for age-related declines in parental care and offspring survival in a cooperatively breeding bird

Martijn Hammers, Sjouke Kingma, Lotte Van Boheemen, Alexandra Sparks, Terry Burke, Hannah Dugdale, David Richardson & Jan Komdeur
Offspring from elderly parents often have lower survival due to parental senescence. In cooperatively breeding species, where offspring care is shared between breeders and helpers, the alloparental care provided by helpers is predicted to mitigate the impact of parental senescence on offspring provisioning and, subsequently, offspring survival. We test this prediction using data from a long-term study on cooperatively breeding Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis). We find that the nestling-provisioning rate of female breeders declines with...

Data from: Telomere heritability and parental age at conception effects in a wild avian population

Alexandra Sparks, Lewis Spurgin, Marco Van Der Velde, Eleanor Fairfield, Jan Komdeur, Terry Burke, David Richardson & Hannah Dugdale
Individual variation in telomere length is predictive of health and mortality risk across a range of species. However, the relative influence of environmental and genetic variation on individual telomere length in wild populations remains poorly understood. Heritability of telomere length has primarily been calculated using parent–offspring regression which can be confounded by shared environments. To control for confounding variables, quantitative genetic ‘animal models’ can be used, but few studies have applied animal models in wild...

Data from: Effects of forest degradation on Amazonian ferns in a land-bridge island system as revealed by non-specialist inventories

Danielle Storck-Tonon, Gabriela Zuquim, Maíra Benchimol, Rafael Tonon & Carlos Peres
Background: Tropical deforestation and degradation worldwide have rapidly outpaced biodiversity field sampling. No study to date has assessed the effects of insular habitats induced by hydroelectric dams on Amazonian understorey plants. Fern community responses to anthropogenic effects on tropical forest islands can be efficiently revealed through simple and cheap, yet informative protocols that can be applied by non-specialists. Aims: This study seeks to both understand the drivers of fern and lycophyte assemblages on forest islands...

Ageing as early-life inertia: disentangling life-history trade-offs along a lifetime of an individual

Edward Ivimey-Cook, Hanne Carlsson, Elizabeth Duxbury, Nathan Edden, Kris Sales & Alexei Maklakov
The theory that ageing evolves because of competitive resource allocation between the soma and the germline has been challenged by studies showing that somatic maintenance can be improved without impairing reproduction. However, it has been suggested that cost-free improvement in somatic maintenance is possible only under a narrow range of benign conditions. Here we show that experimental downregulation of insulin/IGF-1 signalling (IIS) in C. elegans nematodes, a robustly reproducible lifespan and healthspan-extending treatment, reduces fitness...

Transgenerational fitness effects of lifespan extension by dietary restriction in Caenorhabditis elegans

Edward Ivimey-Cook, Kris Sales, Hanne Carlsson, Simone Immler, Tracey Chapman & Alexei Maklakov
Dietary restriction increases lifespan in a broad variety of organisms and improves health in humans. However, long-term transgenerational consequences of dietary interventions are poorly understood. Here we investigated the effect of dietary restriction by temporary fasting (TF) on mortality risk, age-specific reproduction and fitness across three generations of descendants in C. elegans. We show that while TF robustly reduces mortality risk and improves late-life reproduction of the individuals subject to TF (P0), it has a...

Functional diversity and trait filtering of insectivorous bats on forest islands created by an Amazonian mega dam

Guthieri T. Colombo, Raffaello Di Ponzio, Maíra Benchimol, Carlos A. Peres & Paulo Estefano D. Bobrowiec
1. Mega dams in lowland tropical forests often create large archipelagos, leading to biodiversity decay and disruption of ecosystem functioning in remnant habitat islands. 2. We investigated the functional diversity and functional trait filtering of aerial insectivorous bats in both insular forest patches created by a vast ~30-yr-old hydropower reservoir and the adjacent mainland continuous forest in Central Amazonia. 3. Bats were surveyed using passive bat recorders across 34 forest sites. Based on a set...

Effects of pair migratory behaviour on breeding phenology and success in a partially migratory shorebird population

Verónica Méndez, Jose Alves, Jennifer Gill, Böðvar Þórisson, Camilio Carneiro, Aldís Pálsdóttir, Sölvi Vignisson & Tomas Gunnarsson
In migratory systems, variation in individual phenology can arise through differences in individual migratory behaviours, and this may be particularly apparent in partial migrant systems, where migrant and resident individuals are present within the same population. Links between breeding phenology and migratory behaviour or success are generally investigated at the individual level. However, for breeding phenology in particular, the migratory behaviours of each member of the pair may need to be considered simultaneously, as breeding...

Vanuatu Water Quality Dataset - CTD Profiles - 2016-2018

CTD depth profiles from a dataset supporting a baseline assessment of marine water quality around Vanuatu, South Pacific. As part of the Commonwealth Marine Economies Programme, water quality measurements were collected over three years in the coastal waters around the island of Efate, and on one occasion around the island of Tanna. Observations focus on Port Vila (Efate), which is the main urbanised area on the Island. Parameters included are: salinity, temperature, turbidity, light attenuation,...

Data from: Genetic elimination of field-cage populations of Mediterranean fruit flies

Philip T. Leftwich, Martha Koukidou, Polychronis Rempoulakis, Hong-Fei Gong, Antigoni Zacharapolou, Tracey Chapman, Aris Economopolous, John Vontas, Luke Alphey, A. Economopoulos & A. Zacharopoulou
The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) is a pest of over 300 fruits, vegetables and nuts. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a control measure used to reduce the reproductive potential of populations through the mass release of sterilized male insects that mate with wild females. However, SIT flies can display poor field performance, due to the effects of mass-rearing and of the irradiation process used for sterilization. The development of female-lethal RIDL...

Data from: Host associated genetic differentiation in a seed parasitic weevil Rhinusa antirrhini (Coleptera: Curculionidae) revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data

Gerardo Hernández-Vera, Milana Mitrović, Jelena Jović, Ivo Toševski, Roberto Caldara, Andre Gassmann & Brent Emerson
Plant feeding insects and the plants they feed upon represent an ecological association that is thought to be a key factor for the diversification of many plant feeding insects, through differential adaptation to different plant selective pressures. While a number of studies have investigated diversification of plant feeding insects above the species level, relatively less attention has been given to patterns of diversification within species, particularly those that also require plants for oviposition and subsequent...

Data from: Elevated substitution rate estimates from ancient DNA: model violation and bias of Bayesian methods

Miguel Navascués & Brent Emerson
The increasing ability to extract and sequence DNA from non-contemporaneous tissue offers biologists the opportunity to analyze ancient DNA (aDNA) together with modern DNA (mDNA) to address the taxonomy of extinct species, evolutionary origins, historical phylogeography and biogeography. Perhaps more exciting are recent developments in coalescence-based Bayesian inference that offer the potential to use temporal information from aDNA and mDNA for the estimation of substitution rates and divergence dates as an alternative to fossil and...

Data from: Hybridization and barriers to gene flow in an island bird radiation

Ben H. Warren, Eldredge Bermingham, Yann Bourgeois, Laura K. Estep, Robert P. Prys-Jones, Dominique Strasberg & Christophe Thébaud
While reinforcement may play a role in all major modes of speciation, relatively little is known about the timescale over which species hybridize without evolving complete reproductive isolation. Birds have high potential for hybridization, and islands provide simple settings for uncovering speciation and hybridization patterns. Here we develop a phylogenetic hypothesis for a phenotypically-diverse radiation of finch-like weaver-birds (Foudia) endemic to the western Indian Ocean islands. We find that unlike Darwin’s finches, each island-endemic Foudia...

Data from: The influence of Late Quaternary climate-change velocity on species endemism

Brody Sandel, Lars Arge, Richard G. Davies, Kevin J. Gaston, William J. Sutherland, Bo Dalsgaard & Jens-Chrisitan Svenning
The effects of climate change on biodiversity should depend in part on climate displacement rate (climate-change velocity) and its interaction with species’ capacity to migrate. We estimated Late Quaternary glacial-interglacial climate-change velocity by integrating macroclimatic shifts since the Last Glacial Maximum with topoclimatic gradients. Globally, areas with high velocities were associated with marked absences of small-ranged amphibians, mammals and birds. The association between endemism and velocity was weakest in the highly vagile birds and strongest...

Data from: Multiple post-mating barriers to hybridisation in field crickets

Frances Tyler, Xavier A. Harrison, Amanda Bretman, Thor Veen, Rolando Rodríguez-Muñoz & Tom Tregenza
Mechanisms that prevent different species from interbreeding are fundamental to the maintenance of biodiversity. Barriers to interspecific matings, such as failure to recognize a potential mate, are often relatively easy to identify. Those occurring after mating, such as differences in the how successful sperm are in competition for fertilisations, are cryptic and have the potential to create selection on females to mate multiply as a defence against maladaptive hybridization. Cryptic advantages to conspecific sperm may...

Data from: Colony and individual life-history responses to temperature in a social insect pollinator

Jacob G. Holland & Andrew F. G. Bourke
1. Pollinating insects are of major ecological and commercial importance, yet they may be facing ecological disruption from a changing climate. Despite this threat, few studies have investigated the life-history responses of pollinators to experimentally controlled changes in temperature, which should be especially informative for species with complex life histories such as eusocial insects. 2. This study uses the key pollinator Bombus terrestris, a eusocial bumblebee with an annual colony cycle, to determine how temperature...

Data from: Costs of sleeping in: circadian rhythms influence cuckoldry risk in a songbird

Timothy Greives, Sjouke Kingma, Bart Kranstauber, Kim Mortega, Martin Wikelski, Kees Van Oers, Christa Mateman, Glen Ferguson, Giulia Beltrami, Michaela Hau, Sjouke A. Kingma & Timothy J. Greives
1. Circadian (i.e. daily) regulation of behaviors is thought to provide fitness benefits to organisms by enabling them to anticipate diel changes in the environment, such as sunrise. 2. A common behavior among socially monogamous songbirds that usually takes place in the early mornings is extra-pair mating, i.e. copulating with partners outside of the social pair bond. 3. Thus, variation in when individuals begin their daily activity may influence their reproductive success; early risers may...

Data from: Reproductive conflict in bumblebees and the evolution of worker policing

Lorenzo Roberto Sgobaro Zanette, Sophie D. L. Miller, Christiana M. A. Faria, Edd J. Almond, Tim J. Huggins, William C. Jordan & Andrew F. G. Bourke
Worker policing (mutual repression of reproduction) in the eusocial Hymenoptera represents a leading example of how coercion can facilitate cooperation. The occurrence of worker policing in “primitively” eusocial species with low mating frequencies, which lack relatedness differences conducive to policing, suggests that separate factors may underlie the origin and maintenance of worker policing. We tested this hypothesis by investigating conflict over male parentage in the primitively eusocial, monandrous bumblebee, Bombus terrestris. Using observations, experiments, and...

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