169 Works

Data from: Impact of disease on diversity and productivity of plant populations

Henry E. Creissen, Tove H. Jorgensen & James K. M. Brown
Experiments were conducted on the role of intra- and inter-genotypic competition in ecological processes operating at the population scale in diseased plant populations. Combinations of Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes showing variation for phenotypic traits relating to competitive ability and pathogen compatibility were infected with the oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis and Turnip yellows virus in separate experiments. Plant fitness and competitive ability were estimated from phenotypic measurements. Pathogen-induced reduction in competitive ability for susceptible genotypes increased the competitive...

Data from: Resource limitation and responses to rivals in males of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster

Janet S. Mason, Wayne G. Rostant & Tracey Chapman
Diet has a profound direct and indirect effect on reproductive success in both sexes. Variation in diet quality and quantity can significantly alter the capacity of females to lay eggs and of males to deliver courtship. Here, we tested the effect of dietary resource limitation on the ability of male Drosophila melanogaster to respond adaptively to rivals by extending their mating duration. Previous work carried out under ad libitum diet conditions showed that males exposed...

Data from: Telomere length and dynamics predict mortality in a wild longitudinal study

Emma L. B. Barrett, Terry A. Burke, Martijn Hammers, Jan Komdeur & David S. Richardson
Explaining variation in life expectancy between individuals of the same age is fundamental to our understanding of population ecology and life-history evolution. Variation in the length and rate of loss of the protective telomere chromosome caps has been linked to cellular lifespan. Yet, the extent to which telomere length and dynamics predict organismal lifespan in nature is still contentious. Using longitudinal samples taken from a closed population of Acrocephalus sechellensis (Seychelles warblers) studied for over...

Data from: Lineages evolved under stronger sexual selection show superior ability to invade conspecific competitor populations

Joanne L. Godwin, Lewis G. Spurgin, L. Michalczyk, Oliver Y. Martin, Alyson J. Lumley, Tracey Chapman & Matthew J.G. Gage
Despite limitations on offspring production, almost all multicellular species use sex to reproduce. Sex gives rise to sexual selection, a widespread force operating through competition and choice within reproduction, however, it remains unclear whether sexual selection is beneficial for total lineage fitness, or if it acts as a constraint. Sexual selection could be a positive force because of selection on improved individual condition and purging of mutation load, summing into lineages with superior fitness. On...

Data from: Experimentally induced anti-predator responses are mediated by social and environmental factors

Frank Groenewoud, Sjouke A. Kingma, Kat Bebbington, David Richardson & Jan Komdeur
Nest predation is a common cause of reproductive failure for many bird species, and various anti-predator defense behaviors have evolved to reduce the risk of nest predation. However, trade-offs between current reproductive duties and future reproduction often limit the parent’s ability to respond to nest predation risk. Individual responses to experimentally increased nest predation risk can give insights into these trade-offs. Here, we investigate whether social and ecological factors affect individual responses to predation risk...

Data from: The cost of prospecting for dispersal opportunities in a social bird

Sjouke A. Kingma, Jan Komdeur, Martijn Hammers & David S. Richardson
Understanding why individuals delay dispersal and become subordinates within a group is central to studying the evolution of sociality. Hypotheses predict that dispersal decisions are influenced by costs of extra-territorial prospecting that are often required to find a breeding vacancy. Little is known about such costs, partly because it is complicated to demonstrate them empirically. For example, prospecting individuals may be of inferior quality already before prospecting and/or have been evicted. Moreover, costs of prospecting...

Data from: The effects of recombination, mutation and selection on the evolution of the Rp1 resistance genes in grasses

Agathe Jouet, Mark McMullan & Cock Van Oosterhout
Plant immune genes, or resistance genes, are involved in a co-evolutionary arms race with a diverse range of pathogens. In agronomically important grasses, such R genes have been extensively studied because of their role in pathogen resistance and in the breeding of resistant cultivars. In this study, we evaluate the importance of recombination, mutation and selection on the evolution of the R gene complex Rp1 of Sorghum, Triticum, Brachypodium, Oryza and Zea. Analyses show that...

Data from: Climatic niche evolution is faster in sympatric than allopatric lineages of the butterfly genus Pyrgus

Camille Pitteloud, Nils Arrigo, Tomasz Suchan, Alicia Mastretta-Yanes, Roger Vila, Vlad Dinca, Juan Hernández-Roldán, Ernst Brockmann, Yannick Chittaro, Irena Kleckova, Luca Fumagalli, Sven Buerki, Loïc Pellissier & Nadir Alvarez
Understanding how speciation relates to ecological divergence has long fascinated biologists. It is assumed that ecological divergence is essential to sympatric speciation, as a mechanism to avoid competition and eventually lead to reproductive isolation, while divergence in allopatry is not necessarily associated with niche differentiation. The impact of the spatial context of divergence on the evolutionary rates of abiotic dimensions of the ecological niche has rarely been explored for an entire clade. Here, we compare...

Data from: Quantifying uncertainty of taxonomic placement in DNA barcoding and metabarcoding

Panu Somervuo, Douglas W. Yu, Charles C.Y. Xu, YinQiu Ji, Jenni Hultman, Helena Wirta & Otso Ovaskainen
A crucial step in the use of DNA markers for biodiversity surveys is the assignment of Linnaean taxonomies (species, genus, etc.) to sequence reads. This allows the use of all the information known based on the taxonomic names. Taxonomic placement of DNA barcoding sequences is inherently probabilistic because DNA sequences contain errors, because there is natural variation among sequences within a species, and because reference data bases are incomplete and can have false annotations. However,...

Data from: Assessing bottom-trawling impacts based on the longevity of benthic invertebrates

Jan Geert Hiddink, Simon Jennings, Marija Sciberras, Stefan Bolam, Giulia Cambie, Robert McConnaughey, Tessa Mazor, Ray Hilborn, Jeremy Collie, C. Roland Pitcher, Ana Parma, Petri Suuronen, Michel Kaiser, Adriaan Rijnsdorp, Jeremy S. Collie, Michel J. Kaiser, Adriaan D. Rijnsdorp & Robert A. McConnaughey
1. Bottom trawling is the most widespread human activity directly affecting seabed habitats. Assessment and effective management of the effects of bottom trawling at the scale of fisheries requires an understanding of differences in sensitivity of biota to trawling. Responses to disturbance are expected to depend on the intrinsic rate of increase of populations (r), which is expected to be linearly related to the reciprocal of longevity. 2. We examine the relationship between the longevity...

Payoff of the Grain for Green policy

Shixiong Cao, Chengqi Xia, Junli Xian, Hao Guo & Heran Zheng
1. To protect the global ecological environment and prevent threats to human safety and property, nations around the world have invested heavily in ecological restoration programmes. However, we don’t know whether these investments have been repaid by the resultant benefits. 2. To answer this question, we developed an improved method of quantifying costs and benefits that accounts for more of the costs associated with ecological restoration, thereby letting us calculate the net benefit. 3. To...

Helpers compensate for age-related declines in parental care and offspring survival in a cooperatively breeding bird

Martijn Hammers, Sjouke Kingma, Lotte Van Boheemen, Alexandra Sparks, Terry Burke, Hannah Dugdale, David Richardson & Jan Komdeur
Offspring from elderly parents often have lower survival due to parental senescence. In cooperatively breeding species, where offspring care is shared between breeders and helpers, the alloparental care provided by helpers is predicted to mitigate the impact of parental senescence on offspring provisioning and, subsequently, offspring survival. We test this prediction using data from a long-term study on cooperatively breeding Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis). We find that the nestling-provisioning rate of female breeders declines with...

Mating patterns influence vulnerability to the extinction vortex

Joanne Godwin, Alyson J. Lumley, Łukasz Michalczyk, Oliver Y. Martin & Matthew J. G. Gage
Earth’s biodiversity is undergoing mass extinction due to anthropogenic compounding of environmental, demographic and genetic stresses. These different stresses can trap populations within a reinforcing feedback loop known as the extinction vortex, in which synergistic pressures build upon one another through time, driving down population viability. Sexual selection, the widespread evolutionary force arising from competition, choice and reproductive variance within animal mating patterns, could have vital consequences for population viability and the extinction vortex: 1)...

Transgenerational fitness effects of lifespan extension by dietary restriction in Caenorhabditis elegans

Edward Ivimey-Cook, Kris Sales, Hanne Carlsson, Simone Immler, Tracey Chapman & Alexei Maklakov
Dietary restriction increases lifespan in a broad variety of organisms and improves health in humans. However, long-term transgenerational consequences of dietary interventions are poorly understood. Here we investigated the effect of dietary restriction by temporary fasting (TF) on mortality risk, age-specific reproduction and fitness across three generations of descendants in C. elegans. We show that while TF robustly reduces mortality risk and improves late-life reproduction of the individuals subject to TF (P0), it has a...

Ageing as early-life inertia: disentangling life-history trade-offs along a lifetime of an individual

Edward Ivimey-Cook, Hanne Carlsson, Elizabeth Duxbury, Nathan Edden, Kris Sales & Alexei Maklakov
The theory that ageing evolves because of competitive resource allocation between the soma and the germline has been challenged by studies showing that somatic maintenance can be improved without impairing reproduction. However, it has been suggested that cost-free improvement in somatic maintenance is possible only under a narrow range of benign conditions. Here we show that experimental downregulation of insulin/IGF-1 signalling (IIS) in C. elegans nematodes, a robustly reproducible lifespan and healthspan-extending treatment, reduces fitness...

Plankton Imager zooplankton data, acoustic fish biomass estimates, chlorophyll measurements and CTD data from the Celtic Sea and Western English Channel in October 2018

Zooplankton species and size data from the Plankton Imager taken from the Celtic Sea and Western English Channel onboard the RV “Cefas Endeavour” in October 2018, also included are pelagic fish biomass estimates from acoustics, chlorophyll measurements and temperature and salinity data from CTDs. All data were recorded as part of the annual PELTIC survey (Pelagic ecosystem in the western English Channel and eastern Celtic Sea). During the day, multifrequency acoustic data are acquired along...

Data from: Telomere heritability and parental age at conception effects in a wild avian population

Alexandra Sparks, Lewis Spurgin, Marco Van Der Velde, Eleanor Fairfield, Jan Komdeur, Terry Burke, David Richardson & Hannah Dugdale
Individual variation in telomere length is predictive of health and mortality risk across a range of species. However, the relative influence of environmental and genetic variation on individual telomere length in wild populations remains poorly understood. Heritability of telomere length has primarily been calculated using parent–offspring regression which can be confounded by shared environments. To control for confounding variables, quantitative genetic ‘animal models’ can be used, but few studies have applied animal models in wild...

Survival and reproductive success of migrant and resident wildlife in published studies of partially migratory populations

C. Buchan, J.J. Gilroy, I. Catry & A.M.A. Franco
This is a dataset generated from information extracted from previously published studies, for the purpose of a meta-analysis investigating fitness benefits of different migratory strategies in partially migratory populations. Each line of data includes a mean and associated variance for a given fitness metric for both migrants and residents extracted from a study, in addition to information concerning population location, study species, type of fitness metric, year data were collected, and details on the publication...

Geographic distances between pairs of wild bumblebee colonies across an agricultural landscape in Buckinghamshire, UK

S. Dreier, J.W. Redhead, I. Warren, A.F.G. Bourke, M.S. Heard, W.C. Jordan, S. Sumner, J. Wang & C. Carvell
Geographic distances between pairs of wild bumblebee colonies across an agricultural landscape centred on the Hillesden Estate, Buckinghamshire, UK. Colony locations were estimated using the foraging locations of workers sampled in summer 2011, genotyped and grouped into full-sib families. The spatial structure of five Bombus species (Bombus terrestris, B. lapidarius, B. pascuorum, B. hortorum and B. ruderatus) was determined, with inter-colony distances varying from 7 to 5264 metres. Data were collected as part of a...

Data from: Effects of forest degradation on Amazonian ferns in a land-bridge island system as revealed by non-specialist inventories

Danielle Storck-Tonon, Gabriela Zuquim, Maíra Benchimol, Rafael Tonon & Carlos Peres
Background: Tropical deforestation and degradation worldwide have rapidly outpaced biodiversity field sampling. No study to date has assessed the effects of insular habitats induced by hydroelectric dams on Amazonian understorey plants. Fern community responses to anthropogenic effects on tropical forest islands can be efficiently revealed through simple and cheap, yet informative protocols that can be applied by non-specialists. Aims: This study seeks to both understand the drivers of fern and lycophyte assemblages on forest islands...

Zooplankton abundance data derived from the Plankton Imager system from the Western English Channel and Eastern Irish Sea from 2016 to 2019

These data are abundances (in numbers per meters cubed) of zooplankton taxa, calculated from the analysis of images taken using the Plankton Imager system also included are station positions and sampling date / times. The images where collected using the PI (formerly known as Plankton Image Analyser (PIA)), during the PELTIC (Pelagic ecosystem in the western English Channel and eastern Celtic Sea) surveys from 2016 to 2019, on board the RV Cefas Endeavour. Zooplankton samples...

Ageing, Well-being and Development Project 2002, 2008

Armando Barrientos & Peter Lloyd-Sherlock

Life history, developmental and morphometric data for individual flies from an experiment manipulating larval nutrition in female fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster)

D.H. Collins, D.C. Prince, J.L. Donelan, T. Chapman & A.F.G. Bourke
Data on developmental time, fecundity, morphometrics, experimental treatment, mating and sampling from an experiment manipulating larval nutrition in female fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster).

Beneficial cumulative effects of old parental age on offspring fitness

Laura Travers, Hanne Carlsson, Martin Lind & Alexei Maklakov
Old parental age is commonly associated with negative effects on offspring life-history traits. Such parental senescence effects are predicted to have a cumulative detrimental effect over successive generations. However, old parents may benefit from producing higher quality offspring when these compete for seasonal resources. Thus, old parents may choose to increase investment in their offspring, thereby producing fewer but larger and more competitive progeny. We show that Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodites increase parental investment with advancing...

Multispectral airborne imagery and associated classifications, training data and validation data, for mapping nectar-rich floral resources for pollinators, Northamptonshire, UK 2020

S.B. Barnsley, A.A. Lovett & L.V. Dicks
Data presented here include imagery with ground-sampling distances of 3 cm and 7 cm for March 2019, May 2019 and July 2019. Also included are the corresponding ground-truth training and verification data presented as shapefiles, as well as the classification output and other data relevant to the project such as the width of floral units. The imagery was acquired by Spectrum Aviation using A6D-100c (50mm) Hasselblad cameras with bayer filters, mounted on a Sky Arrow...

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