193 Works

Data from: How much information is needed to infer reticulate evolutionary histories?

Katharina T. Huber, Leo Van Iersel, Vincent Moulton & Taoyang Wu
Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of evolutionary trees and are an important tool for analyzing reticulate evolutionary histories. Recently, there has been great interest in developing new methods to construct rooted phylogenetic networks, that is, networks whose internal vertices correspond to hypothetical ancestors, whose leaves correspond to sampled taxa, and in which vertices with more than one parent correspond to taxa formed by reticulate evolutionary events such as recombination or hybridization. Several methods for constructing...

Data from: Reconstructing paternal genotypes to infer patterns of sperm storage and sexual selection in the hawksbill turtle

Karl P. Phillips, Tove H. Jorgensen, Kevin G. Jolliffe, San-Marie Joliffe, Jock Henwood & David S. Richardson
Postcopulatory sperm storage can serve a range of functions, including ensuring fertility, allowing delayed fertilization and facilitating sexual selection. Sperm storage is likely to be particularly important in wide-ranging animals with low population densities, but its prevalence and importance in such taxa, and its role in promoting sexual selection, are poorly known. Here, we use a powerful microsatellite array and paternal genotype reconstruction to assess the prevalence of sperm storage and test sexual selection hypotheses...

Data from: Continental-scale patterns of pathogen prevalence: a case study on the corncrake

Yoan Fourcade, Oskars Keišs, David S. Richardson & Jean Secondi
Pathogen infections can represent a substantial threat to wild populations, especially those already limited in size. To determine how much variation in the pathogens observed among fragmented populations is caused by ecological factors, one needs to examine systems where host genetic diversity is consistent among the populations, thus controlling for any potentially confounding genetic effects. Here, we report geographic variation in haemosporidian infection among European populations of corncrake. This species now occurs in fragmented populations,...

Data from: Experimental evolution exposes female and male responses to sexual selection and conflict in Tribolium castaneum

Łukasz Michalczyk, Anna L. Millard, Oliver Y. Martin, Alyson J. Lumley, Brent C. Emerson & Matthew J. G. Gage
Between-individual variance in potential reproductive rate theoretically creates a load in reproducing populations by driving sexual selection of male traits for winning competitions, and female traits for resisting the costs of multiple mating. Here, using replicated experimental evolution under divergent operational sex ratios (OSR, 9:1 or 1:6 ?:?) we empirically identified the parallel reproductive fitness consequences for males and females in the promiscuous flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Our results revealed clear evidence that sexual conflict...

Data from: Manipulation of feeding regime alters sexual dimorphism for lifespan and reduces sexual conflict in Drosophila melanogaster

Elizabeth M.L. Duxbury, Wayne G. Rostant, Tracey Chapman & Elizabeth M. L. Duxbury
Sexual dimorphism for lifespan (SDL) is widespread, but poorly understood. A leading hypothesis, which we test here, is that strong SDL can reduce sexual conflict by allowing each sex to maximize its sex-specific fitness. We used replicated experimental evolution lines of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, which had been maintained for over 360 generations on either unpredictable ‘Random’ or predictable ‘Regular’ feeding regimes. This evolutionary manipulation of feeding regime led to robust, enhanced SDL in...

Data from: Genomic associations with bill length and disease reveal drift and selection across island bird populations

Claire Armstrong, David S. Richardson, Helen Hipperson, Gavin J. Horsburgh, Clemens Kuepper, Lawrence Percival-Alwyn, Matt Clark, Terry Burke & Lewis G. Spurgin
Island species provide excellent models for investigating how selection and drift operate in wild populations, and for determining how these processes act to influence local adaptation and speciation. Here, we examine the role of selection and drift in shaping genomic and phenotypic variation across recently separated populations of Berthelot's pipit (Anthus berthelotii), a passerine bird endemic to three archipelagos in the Atlantic. We first characterised genetic diversity and population structuring, which supported previous inferences of...

Data from: Contrasting impacts of land use change on phylogenetic and functional diversity of tropical forest birds

Phillip M. Chapman, Joseph A. Tobias, David P. Edwards, Richard G. Davies & Philip M. Chapman
1.Biodiversity conservation strategies increasingly target maintaining evolutionary history and the resilience of ecosystem function, not just species richness (SR). This has led to the emergence of two metrics commonly proposed as tools for decision making: phylogenetic diversity (PD) and functional diversity (FD). Yet the extent to which they are interchangeable remains poorly understood. 2.We explore shifts in and relationships between FD and PD of bird communities across a disturbance gradient in Borneo, from old-growth tropical...

Data from: Revisiting niche fundamentals with Tukey depth

Jorge Orestes Cerdeira, Tiago Monteiro-Henriques, Maria João Martins, Pedro C. Silva, Diogo Alagador, Aldina M. A. Franco, Manuel L. Campagnolo, Pedro Arsénio, Francisca C. Aguiar & Mar Cabeza
The first attempts to describe species ecological niches were simple geometric procedures that depict the niche boundaries directly from environmental data. The convex hull was one of such procedures, popular for its simplicity, clear ecological rational and precise definition of the niche. However, it lacked the ability to differentiate areas of the niche with different probabilities of occurrence according to environmental suitability. We incorporate the Tukey depth, a mathematical tool to measure the centrality of...

Data from: Cryptic haplotype-specific gamete selection yields offspring with optimal MHC immune genes

Tobias L. Lenz, Nina Hafer, Irene E. Samonte, Sarah E. Yeates & Manfred Milinski
Females choose specific mates in order to produce fitter offspring. However, several factors interfere with females' control over fertilization of their eggs, including sneaker males and phenotypically unpredictable allele segregation during meiosis. Mate choice at the individual level thus provides only a poor approximation for obtaining the best genetic match. Consequently, post-copulatory sperm selection by female oocytes has been proposed as a mechanism to achieve complementary combinations of parental haplotypes. Here, using controlled in vitro...

Data from: Is saltmarsh restoration success constrained by matching natural environments or altered succession? a test using niche models

Martin J. P. Sullivan, Anthony J. Davy, Alastair Grant & Hannah L. Mossman
1.Restored habitats, such as saltmarsh created through managed realignment, sometimes fail to meet targets for biological equivalence with natural reference sites. Understanding why this happens is important in order to improve restoration outcomes. 2.Elevation in the tidal frame and sediment redox potential are major controls on the distribution of saltmarsh plants. We use niche models to characterize ten species’ responses to these, and test whether differences in species occurrence between restored and natural saltmarshes in...

Data from: Joint care can outweigh costs of nonkin competition in communal breeders

Kat Bebbington, Eleanor A. Fairfield, Lewis G. Spurgin, Sjouke Anne Kingma, Hannah Dugdale, Jan Komdeur & David S. Richardson
Competition between offspring can greatly influence offspring fitness and parental investment decisions, especially in communal breeders where unrelated competitors have less incentive to concede resources. Given the potential for escalated conflict, it remains unclear what mechanisms facilitate the evolution of communal breeding among unrelated females. Resolving this question requires simultaneous consideration of offspring in noncommunal and communal nurseries, but such comparisons are missing. In the Seychelles warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis, we compare nestling pairs from communal...

Data from: Fitness consequences of redundant cues of competition in male D. melanogaster

Tracey Chapman, Alice Dore & Amanda Bretman
Phenotypic plasticity can allow animals to adapt their behaviour, such as their mating effort, to their social and sexual environment. However, this relies on the individual receiving accurate and reliable cues of the environmental conditions. This can be achieved via the receipt of multimodal cues, which may provide redundancy and robustness. Male Drosophila melanogaster detect presence of rivals via combinations of any two or more redundant cue components (sound, smell and touch) and respond by...

Intrinsic post-ejaculation sperm ageing does not affect offspring fitness in Atlantic salmon

Simone Immler, Cosima Hotzy, Bao Xuhui & Tuuli Larva
Postmeiotic sperm ageing, both before and after ejaculation, has been shown to negatively affect offspring fitness by lowering the rate of embryonic development, reducing embryonic viability, and decreasing offspring condition. These negative effects are thought to be caused by intrinsic factors such as oxidative stress and ATP depletion or extrinsic factors such as temperature and osmosis. Effects of post-ejaculation sperm ageing on offspring fitness have so far almost exclusively been tested in internal fertilisers. Here,...

Pollution control can help mitigate future climate change impacts on European grayling in the UK

J. Vanessa Huml, W. Edwin Harris, Martin I. Taylor, Robin Sen, Christel Prudhomme & Jonathan S. Ellis
Aim We compare the performance of habitat suitability models using climate data only or climate data together with water chemistry, land cover and predation pressure data to model the distribution of European grayling (Thymallus thymallus). From these models, we (1) investigate the relationship between habitat suitability and genetic diversity; (2) project the distribution of grayling under future climate change and (3) model the effects of habitat mitigation on future distributions. Location United Kingdom Methods Maxent...

Data from: A critical analysis of the potential for EU Common Agricultural Policy measures to support wild pollinators on farmland

Lorna Cole, David Kleijn, Lynn Dicks, Jane Stout, Simon Potts, Matthias Albrecht, Mario Balzan, Ignasi Bartomeus, Penelope Bebeli, Danilo Bevk, Jacobus Biesmeijer, Róbert Chlebo, Anželika Dautartė, Nikolaos Emmanouil, Chris Hartfield, John Holland, Andrea Holzschuh, Nieke Knoben, Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki, Yael Mandelik, Heleni Panou, Robert Paxton, Theodora Petanidou, Miguel Pinheiro De Carvalho, … & Jeroen Scheper
1. Agricultural intensification and associated loss of high-quality habitats are key drivers of insect pollinator declines. With the aim of decreasing the environmental impact of agriculture, the 2014 EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) defined a set of habitat and landscape features (Ecological Focus Areas: EFAs) farmers could select from as a requirement to receive basic farm payments. To inform the post-2020 CAP, we performed a European-scale evaluation to determine how different EFA options vary in...

Data from: Neutral variation does not predict immunogenetic variation in the European grayling (Thymallus thymallus) - implications for management

Jana Vanessa Huml, Martin I. Taylor, W. Edwin Harris, Robin Sen & Jonathan S. Ellis
Preservation of genetic diversity is critical to successful conservation and there is increasing demand for the inclusion of ecologically meaningful genetic information in management decisions. Supportive breeding programmes are increasingly implemented to combat declines in many species, yet their effect on adaptive genetic variation is understudied. This is despite the fact that supportive breeding may interfere with natural evolutionary processes. Here, we assessed the performance of neutral and adaptive markers (Major Histocompatibility Complex; MHC) to...

Haematocrit, age and survival in a vertebrate population

Thomas Brown, Martijn Hammers, Martin Taylor, Hannah Dugdale, Jan Komdeur & David Richardson
Understanding trade-offs in wild populations is difficult, but important if we are to understand the evolution of life histories and the impact of ecological variables upon them. Markers that reflect physiological state and predict future survival would be of considerable benefit to unravelling such trade-offs and could provide insight into individual variation in senescence. However, currently used markers often yield inconsistent results. One underutilised measure is haematocrit, the proportional of blood comprising of erythrocytes, which...

Raw data for Leigh et al 2020: Satyrization in Drosophila fruiflies

Tracey Chapman
The satyr of Greek mythology was half-man, half-goat, with an animal persona signifying immoderate sexual appetites. In biology, satyrization is the disruption of reproduction in matings between closely-related species. Interestingly, its effects are often reciprocally asymmetric, manifesting more strongly in one direction of heterospecific mating than the other. Heterospecific matings are well known to result in female fitness costs due to the production of sterile or inviable hybrid offspring and can also occur due to...

Brain size and life history variables in birds

Dante Jiménez-Ortega, Niclas Kolm, Simone Immler, Alexei A. Maklakov & Alejandro González-Voyer
The database contains information on brain size, body mass, life-history traits and development mode for a total of 620 bird species. The taxonomy follows Jetz et. al. (2012). For life-history the database includes information for the following six variables: clutch size, egg size, incubation period, fledging age, maximum longevity; as well as development mode (altricial, semialtricial, precocial and semiprecocial). Additionally, in most cases there is information about the origin or the sampled specimen (captivity vs...

Data from: With a little help from my friends – Physiological integration facilitates invasion of wetland grass Elymus athericus into flooded soils

Peter Mueller, Hai T. Do, Christian Smit, Christoph Reisdorff, Kai Jensen & Stefanie Nolte
Tidal wetlands worldwide are undergoing rapid invasions by tall-growing clonal grasses. Prominent examples are invasions by species of the genera Spartina, Phragmites, and Elymus. The responsible physiological and ecological drivers of these invasions are poorly understood. Physiological integration (PI) is a key trait of clonal plants, which enables the exchange of resources among ramets. We investigated PI in Elymus athericus, which has been rapidly spreading from high-marsh into low-marsh environments of European salt marshes during...

Data from: Genomic variation, population history and within-archipelago adaptation between island bird populations

Claudia A. Martin, Claire Armstrong, Juan Carlos Illera, Brent C. Emerson, David Richardson & Lewis G. Spurgin
Oceanic island archipelagos provide excellent models to understand evolutionary processes. Colonisation events and gene flow can interact with selection to shape genetic variation at different spatial scales. Landscape-scale variation in biotic and abiotic factors may drive fine-scale selection within islands, while long-term evolutionary processes may drive divergence between distantly related populations. Here, we examine patterns of population history and selection between recently diverged populations of the Berthelot’s pipit (Anthus berthelotii), a passerine endemic to three...

No severe genetic bottleneck in a rapidly range-expanding bumblebee pollinator

Ryan Edward Brock, Liam Crowther, David Wright, David Richardson, Claire Carvell, Martin Taylor & Andrew Bourke
Genetic bottlenecking can limit the success of populations colonising new ranges. However, successful colonisations can occur despite bottlenecking, a phenomenon known as the genetic paradox of invasion. Eusocial Hymenoptera such as bumblebees (Bombus spp.) should be particularly vulnerable to genetic bottlenecking, since homozygosity at the sex-determining locus leads to costly diploid male production. The Tree Bumblebee (B. hypnorum) has rapidly colonised the UK since 2001 and has been highlighted as exemplifying the genetic paradox of...

Standardised site-level trends, mean productivity, and survival for migrant (arid and humid-zone) and resident species breeding across Europe

Catriona Morrison
Wildlife conservation policies directed at common and widespread, but declining, species are difficult to design and implement effectively, as multiple environmental changes are likely to contribute to population declines. Conservation actions ultimately aim to influence demographic rates, but targeting actions towards feasible improvements in these is challenging in widespread species with ranges that encompass a wide range of environmental conditions. Across Europe, sharp declines in the abundance of migratory landbirds have driven international calls for...

Data from: Transposable element annotation in non-model species - on the benefits of species specific repeat libraries using semi-automated EDTA and DeepTE de novo pipelines

Ellen Bell, Christopher Butler & Martin Taylor
Transposable elements (TEs) are significant genomic components which can be detected either through sequence homology against existing databases or de novo, with the latter potentially reducing underestimates of TE abundance. Here, we describe the semi-automated generation of a de-novo TE library which combines the newly described EDTA pipeline and DeepTE classifier in a non-model teleost (Corydoras sp. C115). We assess performance using both genomic and transcriptomic input by five metrics: (i) abundance (ii) composition (iii)...

Structural equation modeling reveals determinants of fitness in a cooperatively breeding bird

Michela Busana, Franz J Weissing, Martijn Hammers, Joke Bakker, Hannah L Dugdale, Sara Raj Pant, David S Richardson, Terrence A Burke & Jan Komdeur
Even in well-studied organisms, it is often challenging to uncover the social and environmental determinants of fitness. Typically, fitness is determined by a variety of factors that act in concert, thus forming complex networks of causal relationships. Moreover, even strong correlations between social and environmental conditions and fitness components may not be indicative of direct causal links, as the measured variables may be driven by unmeasured (or unmeasurable) causal factors. Standard statistical approaches, like multiple...

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