194 Works

Data from: Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene sequence variation and melanism in the gray (Sciurus carolinensis), fox (Sciurus niger) and red (Sciurus vulgaris) squirrel

Helen R. McRobie, Linda M. King, Cristina Fanutti, Peter J. Coussons, Nancy D. Montcrief & Alison P. M. Thomas
Sequence variations in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene are associated with melanism in many different species of mammals, birds, and reptiles. The gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), found in the British Isles, was introduced from North America in the late 19th century. Melanism in the British gray squirrel is associated with a 24-bp deletion in the MC1R. To investigate the origin of this mutation, we sequenced the MC1R of 95 individuals including 44 melanic gray...

Data from: The impact of translocations on neutral and functional genetic diversity within and among populations of the Seychelles warbler

David J. Wright, Lewis G. Spurgin, Nigel J. Collar, Jan Komdeur, Terry Burke & David S. Richardson
Translocations are an increasingly common tool in conservation. The maintenance of genetic diversity through translocation is critical for both the short and long term persistence of populations and species. However, the relative spatio-temporal impacts of translocations on neutral and functional genetic diversity and how this affects genetic structure among the conserved populations overall has received little investigation. We compared the impact of translocating different numbers of founders on both microsatellite and major histocompatibility complex (MHC)...

Data from: Widespread forest vertebrate extinctions induced by a mega hydroelectric dam in lowland Amazonia

Maíra Benchimol & Carlos A. Peres
Mega hydropower projects in tropical forests pose a major emergent threat to terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity worldwide. Despite the unprecedented number of existing, under-construction and planned hydroelectric dams in lowland tropical forests, long-term effects on biodiversity have yet to be evaluated. We examine how medium and large-bodied assemblages of terrestrial and arboreal vertebrates (including 35 mammal, bird and tortoise species) responded to the drastic 26-year post-isolation history of archipelagic alteration in landscape structure and habitat...

Microsatellite genotype data for five species of bumblebee across an agricultural landscape in Buckinghamshire, UK

S. Dreier, J.W. Redhead, I. Warren, A.F.G. Bourke, M.S. Heard, W.C. Jordan, S. Sumner, J. Wang & C. Carvell
Microsatellite data for five species of common and declining bumblebee (Bombus terrestris, B. lapidarius, B. pascuorum, B. hortorum and B. ruderatus) collected across the Hillesden Estate, Buckinghamshire, UK, in summer 2011. Worker genotypes were determined from individuals sampled across an agricultural landscape and queen genotypes were reconstructed from sampled worker offspring. Data were collected as part of a project led by the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, funded under the Insect Pollinators Initiative.

Data from: The genomes of two key bumblebee species with primitive eusocial organisation

Ben M. Sadd, Seth M. Barribeau, Guy Bloch, Dirk C. De Graaf, Peter Dearden, Christine Elsik, Jurgen Gadau, Cornelius Grimmelikhuijzen, Martin Hasselmann, Jeffrey Lozier, Hugh Robertson, Guy Smagghe, Eckart Stolle, Matthias Van Vaerenbergh, Robert Waterhouse, Erich Bornberg-Bauer, Steffan Klasberg, Anna Bennett, Francisco Camara, Roderic Guigo, Katharina Hoff, Marco Mariotti, Monica Munos-Torres, Terence Murphy, Didac Santesmasses … & Kim C. Worley
Background: The shift from solitary to social behavior is one of the major evolutionary transitions. Primitively eusocial bumblebees are uniquely placed to illuminate the evolution of highly eusocial insect societies. Bumblebees are also invaluable natural and agricultural pollinators, and there is widespread concern over recent population declines in some species. High-quality genomic data will inform key aspects of bumblebee biology, including susceptibility to implicated population viability threats. Results: We report the high quality draft genome...

Data from: A further cost for the sicker sex? Evidence for male-biased parasite-induced vulnerability to predation

Jessica F. Stephenson, Cormac Kinsella, Joanne Cable & Cock Van Oosterhout
Males are typically the sicker sex. Data from multiple taxa indicate that they are more likely to be infected with parasites, and are less “tolerant,” or less able to mitigate the fitness costs of a given infection, than females. One cost of infection for many animals is an increased probability of being captured by a predator. A clear, hitherto untested, prediction is therefore that this parasite-induced vulnerability to predation is more pronounced among males than...

Family lineage and landscape quality data for wild bumblebee colonies across an agricultural landscape in Buckinghamshire, U.K.

C. Carvell, A.F.G. Bourke, S. Dreier, S.N. Freeman, S. Hulmes, W.C. Jordan, J.W. Redhead, J. Wang, S. Sumner & M.S. Heard
Family lineage relationships between spring queens, daughter workers and sister queens of three bumblebee species (Bombus terrestris, B. lapidarius and B. pascuorum) collected across the Hillesden Estate, Buckinghamshire, UK, between spring 2011 and spring 2012. A combination of land-use and habitat surveys, molecular genetics and spatial modelling was used to estimate the locations of wild colonies represented by greater than 1 worker and to calculate the proportions of cover represented by different habitat quality and...

Data from: Delayed dispersal and the costs and benefits of different routes to independent breeding in a cooperatively breeding bird

Sjouke A. Kingma, Kat Bebbington, Martijn Hammers, David S. Richardson & Jan Komdeur
Why sexually mature individuals stay in groups as nonreproductive subordinates is central to the evolution of sociality and cooperative breeding. To understand such delayed dispersal, its costs and benefits need to be compared with those of permanently leaving to float through the population. However, comprehensive comparisons, especially regarding differences in future breeding opportunities, are rare. Moreover, extraterritorial prospecting by philopatric individuals has generally been ignored, even though the factors underlying this route to independent breeding...

Data from: Adaptive phenotypic response to climate enabled by epigenetics in a K-strategy species, the fish Leucoraja ocellata (Rajidae)

Jackie Lighten, Danny Incarnato, Ben J. Ward, Cock Van Oosterhout, Ian Bradbury, Mark Hanson & Paul Bentzen
The relative importance of genetic versus epigenetic changes in adaptive evolution is a hotly debated topic, with studies showing that some species appear to be able to adapt rapidly without significant genetic change. Epigenetic mechanisms may be particularly important for the evolutionary potential of species with long maturation times and low reproductive potential (‘K-strategists’), particularly when faced with rapidly changing environmental conditions. Here we study the transcriptome of two populations of the winter skate (Leucoraja...

Data from: Landscape-scale variation in an anthropogenic factor shapes immune gene variation within a wild population

Catalina Gonzalez-Quevedo, Richard G. Davies, Karl P. Phillips, Lewis G. Spurgin, David S. Ricardson & David S. Richardson
Understanding the spatial scale at which selection acts upon adaptive genetic variation in natural populations is fundamental to our understanding of evolutionary ecology, and has important ramifications for conservation. The environmental factors to which individuals of a population are exposed can vary at fine spatial scales, potentially generating localized patterns of adaptation. Here, we compared patterns of neutral and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) variation within an island population of Berthelot's pipit (Anthus berthelotii) to assess...

Data from: Plasticity in growth of farmed and wild Atlantic salmon: is the increased growth rate of farmed salmon caused by evolutionary adaptations to the commercial diet?

Alison C. Harvey, Monica F. Solberg, Eva Troianou, Gary R. Carvalho, Martin I. Taylor, Simon Creer, Lise Dyrhovden, Ivar Helge Matre & Kevin A. Glover
Background: Domestication of Atlantic salmon for commercial aquaculture has resulted in farmed salmon displaying substantially higher growth rates than wild salmon under farming conditions. In contrast, growth differences between farmed and wild salmon are much smaller when compared in the wild. The mechanisms underlying this contrast between environments remain largely unknown. It is possible that farmed salmon have adapted to the high-energy pellets developed specifically for aquaculture, contributing to inflated growth differences when fed on...

Data from: Slow development as an evolutionary cost of long life

Martin I. Lind, Hwei-Yen Chen, Sara Meurling, Ana Cristina Guevara Gil, Hanne Carlsson, Martyna K. Zwoinska, Johan Andersson, Tuuli Larva & Alexei A. Maklakov
Life-history theory predicts a trade-off between early-life fitness and life span. While the focus traditionally has been on the fecundity-life span trade-off, there are strong reasons to expect trade-offs with growth rate and/or development time. We investigated the roles of growth rate and development time in the evolution of life span in two independent selection experiments in the outcrossing nematode Caenorhabditis remanei. First, we found that selection under heat-shock leads to the evolution of increased...

Data from: A combined field survey and molecular identification protocol for comparing forest arthropod biodiversity across spatial scales

Brent C. Emerson, Juliane Casquet, Heriberto López, Pedro Cardoso, Paulo A. V. Borges, Noémy Mollaret, Pedro Oromí, Dominique Strasberg & Christophe Thébaud
Obtaining fundamental biodiversity metrics such as alpha, beta and gamma diversity for arthropods is often complicated by a lack of prior taxonomic information and/or taxonomic expertise, which can result in unreliable morphologically based estimates. We provide a set of standardized ecological and molecular sampling protocols that can be employed by researchers whose taxonomic skills may be limited, and where there may be a lack of robust a priori information regarding the regional pool of species....

Data from: Metabarcoding of freshwater invertebrates to detect the effects of a pesticide spill

Carmelo Andujar, Paula Arribas, Clare Gray, Katherine Bruce, Guy Woodward, Douglas W. Yu & Alfried P. Vogler
Biomonitoring underpins the environmental assessment of freshwater ecosystems and guides management and conservation. Current methodology for surveys of (macro)invertebrates uses coarse taxonomic identification where species-level resolution is difficult to obtain. Next-generation sequencing of entire assemblages (metabarcoding) provides a new approach for species detection, but requires further validation. We used metabarcoding of invertebrate assemblages with two fragments of the cox1 "barcode" and partial nuclear ribosomal (SSU) genes, to assess the effects of a pesticide spill in...

Data from: Oxidative status and fitness components in the Seychelles warbler

Janske Van De Crommenacker, Martijn Hammers, Jildou Van Der Woude, Marina Louter, Peter Santema, David S. Richardson & Jan Komdeur
Oxidative damage, caused by reactive oxygen species during aerobic respiration, is thought to be an important mediator of life-history trade-offs. To mitigate oxidative damage, antioxidant defence mechanisms are deployed, often at the cost of resource allocation to other body functions. Both reduced resource allocation to body functions and direct oxidative damage may decrease individual fitness, through reducing survival and/or reproductive output. The oxidative costs of reproduction have gained much attention recently, but few studies have...

Data from: FlatNJ: a novel network-based approach to visualize evolutionary and biogeographical relationships

Monika Balvočūtė, Andreas Spillner & Vincent Moulton
Split networks are a type of phylogenetic network that allow visualization of conflict in evolutionary data. We present a new method for constructing such networks called FlatNetJoining (FlatNJ). A key feature of FlatNJ is that it produces networks that can be drawn in the plane in which labels may appear inside of the network. For complex data sets that involve, for example, non-neutral molecular markers, this can allow additional detail to be visualized as compared...

Data from: Evolution of ageing, costs of reproduction and the fecundity–longevity trade-off in eusocial insects

Pierre Blacher, Timothy J. Huggins, Andrew F.G. Bourke & Andrew F. G. Bourke
Eusocial insects provide special opportunities to elucidate the evolution of ageing as queens have apparently evaded costs of reproduction and reversed the fecundity-longevity trade-off generally observed in non-social organisms. But how reproduction affects longevity in eusocial insects has rarely been tested experimentally. In this study, we took advantage of the reproductive plasticity of workers to test the causal role of reproduction in determining longevity in eusocial insects. Using the eusocial bumblebee Bombus terrestris, we found...

Data from: Paternal personality and social status influence offspring activity in zebrafish

Susanne Zajitschek, James E. Herbert-Read, Nasir M. Abbasi, Felix Zajitschek & Simone Immler
Background: Evidence for the transmission of non-genetic information from father to offspring is rapidly accumulating. While the impact of chemical and physical factors such as toxins or diet on the fitness of the parents and their offspring have been studied extensively, the importance of behavioural and social circumstances has only recently been recognised. Behavioural traits such as personality characteristics can be relatively stable, and partly comprise a genetic component but we know little about the...

Data from: Long-term in situ persistence of biodiversity in tropical sky-islands revealed by landscape genomics

Alicia Mastretta-Yanes, Alexander T. Xue, Alejandra Moreno-Letelier, Tove H. Jørgensen, Nadir Alvarez, Daniel Piñero, Brent C. Emerson & Tove H. Jorgensen
Tropical mountains are areas of high species richness and endemism. Two historical phenomena may have contributed to this: (1) fragmentation and isolation of habitats may have promoted the genetic differentiation of populations and increased the possibility of allopatric divergence and speciation, and; (2) the mountain areas may have allowed long-term population persistence during global climate fluctuations. These two phenomena have been studied using either species occurrence data or estimating species divergence times. However, only few...

Data from: Experimental heatwaves compromise sperm function and cause transgenerational damage in a model insect

Kris Sales, Ramakrishnan Vasudeva, Matthew E. Dickinson, Joanne L. Godwin, Alyson J. Lumley, Lukasz Michalkzyk, Laura Hebberecht, Paul Thomas, Aldina Franco & Matthew J.G. Gage
Climate change is affecting biodiversity, but proximate drivers remain poorly understood. Here, we examine how experimental heatwaves impact on reproduction in an insect system. Male sensitivity to heat is recognised in endotherms, but ectotherms have received limited attention, despite comprising most of biodiversity and being more influenced by temperature variation. Using a flour beetle model system, we find that heatwave conditions (5 to 7 °C above optimum for 5 days) damaged male, but not female,...

Data from: How quantitative is metabarcoding: a meta-analytical approach

Philip D. Lamb, Ewan Hunter, John K. Pinnegar, Simon Creer, Richard G. Davies & Martin I. Taylor
Metabarcoding has been used in a range of ecological applications such as taxonomic assignment, dietary analysis, and the analysis of environmental DNA. However, after a decade of use in these applications there is little consensus on the extent to which proportions of reads generated corresponds to the original proportions of species in a community. To quantify our current understanding we conducted a structured review and meta-analysis. The analysis suggests that a weak quantitative relationship may...

Data from: Contribution of maternal effects to dietary selection in Mediterranean fruit flies.

Philip T. Leftwich, William J. Nash, Lucy A. Friend & Tracey Chapman
Individual responses to dietary variation represent a fundamental component of fitness, and nutritional adaptation can occur over just a few generations. Maternal effects can show marked proximate responses to nutrition, but whether they contribute to longer-term dietary adaptation is unclear. Here we tested the hypotheses that maternal effects: (i) contribute to dietary adaptation, (ii) diminish when dietary conditions are constant between generations, (iii) are trait-specific and (iv) interact with high- and low-quality food. We used...

Data from: Habitat use of the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in Brazilian Amazon

Bingxin Wang, Daniel G. Rocha, Mark I. Abrahams, André P. Antunes, Hugo C. M. Costa, André Luis Sousa Gonçalves, Wilson Roberto Spironello, Milton José De Paula, Carlos A. Peres, Juarez Pezzuti, Emiliano Ramalho, Marcelo Lima Reis, , Fabio Rohe, David W. Macdonald & Cedric Kai Wei Tan
Amazonia forest plays a major role in providing ecosystem services for human and sanctuaries for wildlife. However, ongoing deforestation and habitat fragmentation in the Brazilian Amazon has threatened both. The ocelot is an ecologically important mesopredator and a potential conservation ambassador species, yet there are no previous studies on its habitat preference and spatial patterns in this biome. From 2010 to 2017, twelve sites were surveyed, totaling 899 camera trap stations, the largest known dataset...

Data from: Drivers of power line use by white storks: a case study of birds nesting on anthropogenic structures

Francisco Moreira, Ricardo C. Martins, Ines Catry & Marcello D'Amico
1. Anthropogenic structures are mainly known to have negative impacts on wildlife populations but sometimes arethey can be beneficial. Power lines are a main driver of bird mortality through collision or electrocution, but electricity pylons are also commonly used for nest building by some species. Birds and nests cause power outages that need to be tackled by electricity companies. However, the use of pylons by threatened species provides an opportunity for conservation purposes. 2. In...

Data from: Moving from frugivory to seed dispersal: incorporating the functional outcomes of interactions in plant-frugivore networks

Benno I. Simmons, William J. Sutherland, Lynn V. Dicks, Jörg Albrecht, Nina Farwig, Daniel Garcia, Pedro Jordano & Juan P. González-Varo
1.There is growing interest in understanding the functional outcomes of species interactions in ecological networks. For many mutualistic networks, including pollination and seed dispersal networks, interactions are generally sampled by recording animal foraging visits to plants. However, these visits may not reflect actual pollination or seed dispersal events, despite these typically being the ecological processes of interest. 2.Frugivorous animals can act as seed dispersers, by swallowing entire fruits and dispersing their seeds, or as pulp...

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