77 Works

Data and code from: Opposite, but insufficient, phenological responses to climate in two circumpolar seabirds: relative roles of phenotypic plasticity and selection

Shannon Whelan, Scott A. Hatch, Anthony J. Gaston, H. Grant Gilchrist & Kyle H. Elliott
The magnitude of climate change has been greatest in the Arctic, accelerating climate-induced shifts in phenology, but wildlife responses vary. Variation may be due to the relative importance of phenotypic plasticity or phenotypic selection. Here, we examine and contrast the environmental drivers of plasticity in breeding phenology of two circumpolar seabirds at their receding summer range limit using unique datasets of marked individuals covering 25 and 30 years. Based on prior knowledge of the local...

Data from: Local population collapse of Ross's and lesser snow geese driven by failing recruitment and diminished philopatry

Mitch Weegman, Ray Alisauskas, Dana Kellett, Qing Zhao, Scott Wilson & Tomas Telensky
We estimated survival and per capita production of young, as well as emigration and immigration, from 1997 to 2017 in Ross's goose Anser rossii and lesser snow goose Anser caerulescens caerulescens, which are sympatric species of migratory birds that nest in the central Canadian Arctic at one of the largest breeding colonies in North America. We formed age-structured integrated population models for each species that jointly analyzed live and dead encounter data as well as...

Active season body mass patterns of Little Brown Bats and Northern Myotis: Raw and fitted mass values, environmental conditions and inflection point estimates

Evan Balzer, Adam Grottoli, Lynne Burns & Hugh Broders
Animals are expected to adjust their behavioural patterns to improve fitness outcomes, such as fecundity or offspring survival. For long-lived hibernators, decisions made in each annual cycle may reflect considerations not just for concurrent survival and reproduction, but also the pressure to maximize overwinter survival and future reproductive success. We examined how these elements manifest themselves in the body mass variation patterns of North American northern latitude temperate bats, whose size and roosting habits present...

Data from: Do seaducks minimise the flightless period?: inter- and intra-specific comparisons of remigial moult

Anouck Viain, Jean-Pierre L. Savard, Scott Gilliland, Matthew C. Perry & Magella Guillemette
Remigial moult is one of the crucial events in the annual life cycle of waterfowl as it is energetically costly, lasts several weeks, and is a period of high vulnerability due to flightlessness. In waterfowl, remigial moult can be considered as an energy-predation trade-off, meaning that heavier individuals would minimise the flightless period by increasing feather growth rate and energy expenditure. Alternatively, they could reduce body mass at the end of this period, thereby reducing...

Data from: Positive relationships between association strength and phenotypic similarity characterize the assembly of mixed-species bird flocks worldwide

Hari Sridhar, Umesh Srinivasan, Robert A. Askins, Julio Cesar Canales Delgadillo, Chao-Chieh Chen, David N. Ewert, George A. Gale, Eben Goodale, Wendy K. Gram, Patrick J. Hart, Keith A. Hobson, Richard L. Hutto, Sarath W. Kotagama, Jessie L. Knowlton, Tien Ming Lee, Charles A. Munn, Somchai Nimnuan, B. Z. Nizam, Guillaume Péron, V. V. Robin, Amanda D. Rodewald, Paul G. Rodewald, Robert L. Thomson, Pranav Trivedi, Steven L. Van Wilgenburg … & Kartik Shanker
Competition theory predicts that communities at small spatial scales should consist of species more dissimilar than expected by chance. We find a strikingly different pattern in a multi-continent dataset (55 presence-absence matrices from 24 locations) on the composition of mixed-species bird flocks, important subunits of local bird communities the world over. Using null models and randomization tests followed by meta-analysis, we find the association strength of species in flocks to be strongly related to similarity...

Data from: Latitudinal variation in ecological opportunity and intraspecific competition indicates differences in niche variability and diet specialization of Arctic marine predators

David J. Yurkowski, Steve Ferguson, Emily S. Choy, Lisa L. Loseto, Tanya M. Brown, Derek C. G. Muir, Christina A. D. Semeniuk & Aaron T. Fisk
Individual specialization (IS), where individuals within populations irrespective of age, sex, and body size are either specialized or generalized in terms of resource use, has implications on ecological niches and food web structure. Niche size and degree of IS of near-top trophic-level marine predators have been little studied in polar regions or with latitude. We quantified the large-scale latitudinal variation of population- and individual-level niche size and IS in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and beluga...

Data from: Tracking the history and ecological changes of rising double-crested cormorant populations using pond sediments from islands in eastern Lake Ontario

Emily M. Stewart, Neal Michelutti, Sarah Shenstone-Harris, Christopher Grooms, Chip Weseloh, Linda E. Kimpe, Jules M. Blais & John P. Smol
In the Laurentian Great Lakes region, the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) has seen a thousand-fold population increase in recent decades. These large colonies of birds now often conflict with socioeconomic interests, particularly due to perceived competition with fisheries and the destruction of terrestrial vegetation in nesting habitats. Here we use dated sediment cores from ponds on islands in eastern Lake Ontario that receive waste inputs from dense colonies of cormorants and ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis)...

Data from: Differences in spatial synchrony and interspecific concordance inform guild-level population trends for aerial insectivorous birds

Nicole L. Michel, Adam C. Smith, Robert G. Clark, Christy A. Morrissey & Keith A. Hobson
Many animal species exhibit spatiotemporal synchrony in population fluctuations, which may provide crucial information about ecological processes driving population change. We examined spatial synchrony and concordance among population trajectories of five aerial insectivorous bird species: chimney swift Chaetura pelagica, purple martin Progne subis, barn swallow Hirundo rustica, tree swallow Tachycineta bicolor, and northern rough-winged swallow Stelgidopteryx serripennis. Aerial insectivores have undergone severe guild-wide declines that were considered more prevalent in northeastern North America. Here, we...

Data from: Large-scale biomonitoring of remote and threatened ecosystems via high-throughput sequencing

Joel F. Gibson, Shadi Shokralla, Colin Curry, Donald J. Baird, Wendy A. Monk, Ian King & Mehrdad Hajibabaei
Biodiversity metrics are critical for assessment and monitoring of ecosystems threatened by anthropogenic stressors. Existing sorting and identification methods are too expensive and labour-intensive to be scaled up to meet management needs. Alternately, a high-throughput DNA sequencing approach could be used to determine biodiversity metrics from bulk environmental samples collected as part of a large-scale biomonitoring program. Here we show that both morphological and DNA sequence-based analyses are suitable for recovery of individual taxonomic richness,...

Data from: Identifying management actions to increase foraging opportunities for shorebirds at semi-intensive shrimp farms

Juan G. Navedo, Guillermo Fernández, Nelson Valdivia, Mark C. Drever & Jose A. Masero
The expansion of aquaculture has resulted in widespread habitat conversion throughout the world. Identifying beneficial management measures may dramatically reduce negative impacts of aquaculture for migratory birds. We studied how densities of foraging shorebirds varied at ponds within a semi-intensive shrimp aquaculture farm on the north-western coast of Mexico, as related to timing of harvest and tidal cycles. Further, we estimated the total daily available area for each shorebird species throughout two entire harvesting seasons...

Organic farming benefits birds most in regions with more intensive agriculture

David Anthony Kirk, Amanda Martin & Kathryn Freemark Lindsay
1. Organic farming is considered beneficial for biodiversity conservation in agricultural landscapes but the role of agricultural land use intensity (‘agricultural intensity’), particularly at regional scales, has often been neglected. 2. We used breeding season bird abundance estimates from paired organic-conventional fields in Saskatchewan (31 pairs), Ontario (36), and Québec (15), Canada to test two alternative predictions: That the positive effect of organic farming on bird abundance was; a) smaller when controlling for overall effects...

Data from: The ecology of avian influenza viruses in wild dabbling ducks (Anas spp.) in Canada

Zsuzsanna Papp, Robert G. Clark, E. Jane Parmley, Frederick A. Leighton, Cheryl Waldner & Catherine Soos
Avian influenza virus (AIV) occurrence and transmission remain important wildlife and human health issues in much of the world, including in North America. Through Canada's Inter-Agency Wild Bird Influenza Survey, close to 20,000 apparently healthy, wild dabbling ducks (of seven species) were tested for AIV between 2005 and 2011. We used these data to identify and evaluate ecological and demographic correlates of infection with low pathogenic AIVs in wild dabbling ducks (Anas spp.) across Canada....

Data from: Linking isotopes and panmixia: high within-colony variation in feather δ2H, δ13C, and δ15N across the range of the American white pelican

Matthew W. Reudink, Christopher J. Kyle, Ann E. McKellar, Christopher M. Somers, Robyn L.F. Reudink, T. Kurt Kyser, Samantha E. Franks & Joseph J. Nocera
Complete panmixia across the entire range of a species is a relatively rare phenomenon; however, this pattern may be found in species that have limited philopatry and frequent dispersal. American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhyncos) provide a unique opportunity to examine the role of long-distance dispersal in facilitating gene flow in a species recently reported as panmictic across its broad breeding range. This species is also undergoing a range expansion, with new colonies arising hundreds of...

Science to inform policy: linking population dynamics to habitat for a threatened species in Canada

Cheryl Johnson, Glenn Sutherland, Erin Neave, Mathieu Leblond, Patrick Kirby, Clara Superbie & Philip McLoughlin
Abstract 1. Boreal forests provide numerous ecological services, including the ability to store large amounts of carbon, and are of significance to global biodiversity. Increases in industrial activities in boreal landscapes since the mid-20th century have added to concerns over biodiversity loss and climate change. Boreal forests are home to dwindling populations of boreal caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in Canada, a species at risk that requires large, undisturbed landscapes for persistence. In 2012, the Canadian...

Five-year data tables by province, industry and substance – releases

Paulo Costa &
The National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) is Canada's public inventory of pollutant releases (to air, water and land), disposals and transfers for recycling. These files contain NPRI release data for the past five years in CSV format, aggregated by Province, Industry Type and Substance, and disaggregated by media (air, water and land). The number of reporting facilities represented by each aggregated data point is included*. The results can be further broken down using the pre-defined...

Data from: Seabird species vary in behavioural response to drone census

Émile Brisson-Curadeau, David Bird, Chantelle Burke, David A. Fifield, Paul Pace, Richard B. Sherley & Kyle H. Elliott
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide an opportunity to rapidly census wildlife in remote areas while removing some of the hazards. However, wildlife may respond negatively to the UAVs, thereby skewing counts. We surveyed four species of Arctic cliff-nesting seabirds (glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus, Iceland gull Larus glaucoides, common murre Uria aalge and thick-billed murre Uria lomvia) using a UAV and compared censusing techniques to ground photography. An average of 8.5% of murres flew off in...

Data from: Tracking data and retrospective analyses of diet reveal the consequences of loss of marine subsidies for an obligate scavenger, the Andean condor

Sergio A. Lambertucci, Joan Navarro, Jose Antonio Sánchez-Zapata, Keith A. Hobson, Pablo A.E. Alarcón, Guillermo Wiemeyer, Guillermo Blanco, Fernando Hiraldo & Jose Antonio Donazar
Over the last century, marine mammals have been dramatically reduced in the world’s oceans. We examined evidence that this change caused dietary and foraging pattern shifts of the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) in Patagonia. We hypothesized that, after the decrease in marine mammals and the increase in human use of coastlines, condor diet changed to a more terrestrial diet which, in turn, influenced their foraging patterns. We evaluated the diet by means of stable isotope...

Automated classification of avian vocal activity using acoustic indices in regional and heterogeneous datasets

Daniel Yip, Lisa Mahon, Alex MacPhail & Erin Bayne
Acoustic indices combined with clustering and classification approaches have been increasingly used to automate identification of the presence of vocalizing taxa or acoustic events of interest. While most studies using this approach standardize data collection and study design parameters at the project or study level, recent trends in ecological research are to investigate patterns at regional or continental scales. Large-scale studies often require collaboration between research groups and integration of data from multiple sources to...

Combining point counts and autonomous recording units improves avian survey efficacy across elevational gradients on two continents

Anna Drake, Devin R. De Zwaan, Tomás A. Altamirano, Scott Wilson, Kristina Hick, Camila Bravo, José Tomás Ibarra & Kathy Martin
Accurate biodiversity and population monitoring is a requirement for effective conservation decision-making. Survey method bias is therefore a concern, particularly when research programs face logistical and cost limitations. We employed point counts (PCs) and autonomous recording units (ARUs) to survey avian biodiversity within comparable, high elevation, temperate mountain habitats at opposite ends of the Americas: 9 mountains in British Columbia (BC), Canada and 10 in southern Chile. We compared detected species richness against multi-year species...

Bulk data files for all years – releases, disposals, transfers and facility locations

Costa Paulo &
The National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI) is Canada's public inventory of pollutant releases (to air, water and land), disposals and transfers for recycling. Each file contains data from 1993 to the latest reporting year. These CSV format datasets are in normalized or ‘list’ format and are optimized for pivot table analyses. Here is a description of each file: - The RELEASES file contains all substance release quantities. - The DISPOSALS file contains all on-site and...

Data from: Variable sea-ice conditions influence trophic dynamics in an Arctic community of marine top predators

Isabeau Pratte, Birgit M. Braune, Keith A. Hobson & Mark L. Mallory
Sea‐ice coverage is a key abiotic driver of annual environmental conditions in Arctic marine ecosystems and could be a major factor affecting seabird trophic dynamics. Using stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) in eggs of thick‐billed murres (Uria lomvia), northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis), glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus), and black‐legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), we investigated the trophic ecology of prebreeding seabirds nesting at Prince Leopold Island, Nunavut, and its relationship with sea‐ice conditions....

Data from: Consistent declines in wing lengths of Calidridine sandpipers suggest a rapid morphometric response to environmental change

Alexandra M. Anderson, Christian Friis, Cheri L. Gratto-Trevor, R.I. Guy Morrison, Paul A. Smith & Erica Nol
A recent study demonstrated that semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla) wing lengths have shortened from the 1980s to the present-day. We examined alternative and untested hypotheses for this change at an important stopover site, James Bay, Ontario, Canada. We evaluated morphometric patterns in wing length and bill length by age and sex, when possible, and assessed if wing shape has also changed during this time-period. We investigated patterns of morphological change in two additional Calidridine sandpipers,...

Experimental variation in the spatial deposition of trace metals in feathers revealed using synchrotron x-ray fluorescence

Fardausi Akhter, Graham Fairhurst, Peter Blanchard, Karen Machin, Rob Blyth, Julie Thompson, Jamille McLeod, Renfei Feng & Catherine Soos
Feathers can be used to investigate exposure to pollution in birds because they are a secondary route for the excretion of trace elements. Evidence based on analytical imaging and spectroscopy suggests that the spatial distribution of the essential trace element zinc within feathers is related to melanin pigmentation. However, our understanding of how trace elements are deposited into growing feathers is poor and has been hampered by a lack of analytical tools to examine the...

DNA metabarcoding sequence data for diet analysis of caribou

Greniqueca Mitchell, Paul Wilson, Bridget Redquest, Brent Patterson, Micheline Manseau & Linda Rutledge
Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) are threatened in Canada due to the drastic decline in population size caused primarily by human-induced landscape changes that decrease habitat and increase predation risk. Conservation efforts have largely focused on reducing predators and protecting critical habitat, whereas research on dietary niches and the role of potential food constraints in lichen-poor environments is limited. To improve our understanding of dietary niche variability, we used a next-generation sequencing approach with metabarcoding...

TCCON data from East Trout Lake, SK (CA), Release GGG2020.R0

D. Wunch, J. Mendonca, O. Colebatch, N. T. Allen, J.-F. Blavier, K. Kunz, S. Roche, J. Hedelius, G. Neufeld, S. Springett, D. Worthy, R. Kessler & K. Strong
The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) is a network of ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometers that record direct solar absorption spectra of the atmosphere in the near-infrared. From these spectra, accurate and precise column-averaged abundances of atmospheric constituents including CO2, CH4, N2O, HF, CO, H2O, and HDO, are retrieved. This is the GGG2020 data release of observations from the TCCON station at East Trout Lake, Canada

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