The uncertainty in biospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) flux estimates drives divergent projections of future climate and uncertainty in prescriptions for climate mitigation. The terrestrial carbon sink can be inferred from atmospheric CO2 observations with transport models via inversion methods. Regional CO2 flux estimates remain uncertain due to the mixture of uncertainties caused by transport models, prior estimates of biospheric fluxes, large-scale CO2 boundary inflow, the assumptions in the inversion process, and the limited density of...
Data from: Substrate stoichiometry determines nitrogen fixation throughout succession in southern Chinese forestsMianhai Zheng, Hao Chen, Dejun Li, Yiqi Luo & Jiangming Mo
The traditional view holds that biological nitrogen (N) fixation often peaks in early- or mid-successional ecosystems and declines throughout succession based on the hypothesis that soil N richness and/or phosphorus (P) depletion become disadvantageous to N fixers. This view, however, fails to support the observation that N fixers can remain active in many old-growth forests despite the presence of N-rich and/or P-limiting soils. Here, we found unexpected increases in N fixation rates in the soil,...
Plant diversity is critical to the functioning of ecosystems, potentially mediated in part by interactions with soil biota. Here, we characterized multiple groups of soil biota across a plant diversity gradient in a long-term experiment. We then subjected soil samples taken along this gradient to drought, freezing, and a mechanical disturbance to test how plant diversity affects the responses of soil biota and growth of a focal plant to these disturbances. High plant diversity resulted...
Data from: Modeling multilocus selection in an individual-based, spatially-explicit landscape genetics frameworkErin Landguth, Brenna R. Forester, Andrew J. Eckert, Andrew J. Shirk, Mitra Menon, Amy Whipple, Casey C. Day & Samuel A. Cushman
We implemented multilocus selection in a spatially-explicit, individual-based framework that enables multivariate environmental gradients to drive selection in many loci as a new module for the landscape genetics programs, CDPOP and CDMetaPOP. Our module simulates multilocus selection using a linear additive model, providing a flexible platform to evaluate a wide range of genotype-environment associations. Importantly, the module allows simulation of selection in any number of loci under the influence of any number of environmental variables....
Linear features can benefit wildlife by assisting animal movement. We captured bats along barbed-wire and live-tree fences connecting Tropical Dry Forest patches in Nicaragua. Bat species richness and captures were higher along live fences but we noted differences in sex ratios, richness, and species composition compared to surrounding natural forests.
Data from: Repeatability of adaptive radiation depends on spatial scale: regional versus global replicates of stickleback in lake versus stream habitatsAntoine Paccard, Dieta Hanson, Yoel E Stuart, Frank A Von Hippel, Martin Kalbe, Tom Klepaker, Skúli Skúlason, Bjarni K Kristjánsson, Daniel I Bolnick, Andrew P Hendry & Rowan D H Barrett
The repeatability of adaptive radiation is expected to be scale dependent, with determinism decreasing as greater spatial separation among “replicates” leads to their increased genetic and ecological independence. Threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) provide an opportunity to test whether this expectation holds for the early stages of adaptive radiation -their diversification in freshwater ecosystems has been replicated many times. To better understand the repeatability of that adaptive radiation, we examined the influence of geographic scale on...
Data from: Extinction debt and delayed colonization have had comparable but unique effects on plant community-climate lags since the Last Glacial MaximumBradley J. Butterfield, R. Scott Anderson, Camille A. Holmgren & Julio L. Betancourt
Aim: Plant communities typically exhibit lagged responses to climate change due to poorly-understood effects of colonization and local extinction. Here, we quantify rates of change in mean cold tolerances, and contributions of colonization and local extinction to those rates, recorded in plant macrofossil assemblages from North American hot deserts over the last 30,000 years. Location: Mojave, Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts Time period: 30-0 thousand years before present (kybp) Major taxa studied: Vascular plants Methods: Colonization...
1. Multiple ecosystem functions need to be considered simultaneously to manage and protect the many ecosystem services that are essential to people and their environments. Despite this, cost effective, tangible, relatively simple, and globally-relevant methodologies to monitor in situ soil multifunctionality, i.e. the provision of multiple ecosystem functions by soils, have not been tested at the global scale. 2. We combined correlation analysis and structural equation modelling to explore whether we could find easily measured,...
Fungal infection alters the selection, dispersal, and drift processes structuring the amphibian skin microbiomeMark Q Wilber, Andrea J Jani, Joseph R Mihaljevic & Cheryl J Briggs
Symbiotic microbial communities are important for host health, but the processes shaping these communities are poorly understood. Understanding how community assembly processes jointly affect microbial community composition is limited because inflexible community models rely on rejecting dispersal and drift before considering selection. We developed a flexible community assembly model based on neutral theory to ask: How do dispersal, drift, and selection concurrently affect the microbiome across environmental gradients? We applied this approach to examine how...
Data from: Tracing the footprints of a moving hybrid zone under a demographic history of speciation with gene flowMitra Menon, Erin Landguth, Alejandro Leal-Saenz, Justin Bagley, Anna Schoettle, Christian Wehenkel, Lluvia Flores-Renteria, Sam Cushman, Kristen Waring & Andrew Eckert
A lack of optimal gene combinations, as well as low levels of genetic diversity are often associated with the formation of species range margins. Conservation efforts rely on predictive modelling using abiotic variables and assessments of genetic diversity to determine target species and populations for controlled breeding, germplasm conservation and assisted migration. Biotic factors such as interspecific competition and hybridization, however, are largely ignored, despite their prevalence across diverse taxa and their role as key...
Data from: Ectomycorrhizas and tree seedling establishment are strongly influenced by forest edge proximity but not soil inoculumSara Grove, Norah P. Saarman, Gregory S. Gilbert, Brant Faircloth, Karen A. Haubensak & Ingrid M. Parker
Reforestation is challenging when timber harvested areas have been degraded, invaded by non-native species, or are of marginal suitability to begin with. Conifers form mutualistic partnerships with ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) to obtain greater access to soil resources, and these partnerships may be especially important in degraded areas. However, timber harvest can impact mycorrhizal fungi by removing or compacting topsoil, removing host plants, and warming and drying the soil. We used a field experiment to evaluate...
Data from: Linking plant genes to insect communities: identifying the genetic bases of plant traits and community compositionHilary L. Barker, Jennifer F. Riehl, Carolina Bernhardsson, Kennedy Rubert-Nason, Liza Holeski, Pär K. Ingvarsson & Richard L. Lindroth
Community genetics aims to understand the effects of intraspecific genetic variation on community composition and diversity, thereby connecting community ecology with evolutionary biology. Thus far, research has shown that plant genetics can underlie variation in the composition of associated communities (e.g., insects, lichen, endophytes), and those communities can therefore be considered as extended phenotypes. This work, however, has been conducted primarily at the plant genotype level and has not identified the key underlying genes. To...
Northern Arizona University12
University of Montana2
Virginia Commonwealth University2
Colorado State University2
Rocky Mountain Research Station2
Hólar University College1
Haut-Commissariat aux Eaux et Forêts et à la Lutte Contre la Désertification1
NSW Office of Environment & Heritage1
University of Washington1
The University of Texas at Austin1