308 Works

Data from: Selective bird predation on the peppered moth: the last experiment of Michael Majerus

Laurence M. Cook, Bruce S. Grant, Ilik J. Saccheri & James Mallet
Colour variation in the peppered moth Biston betularia was long accepted to be under strong natural selection. Melanics were believed to be fitter than pale morphs because of lower predation at daytime resting sites on dark, sooty bark. Melanics became common during the industrial revolution, but since 1970 there has been a rapid reversal, assumed to have been caused by predators selecting against melanics resting on today's less sooty bark. Recently, these classical explanations of...

Data from: Comparative phylogeography reveals a shared impact of Pleistocene environmental change in shaping genetic diversity within nine Anopheles mosquito species across the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot

Katy Morgan, Samantha M. O’Loughlin, Bin Chen, Yvonne-Marie Linton, Damrongpan Thongwat, Pradya Somboon, Mun Yik Fong, Roger Butlin, Robert Verity, Anil Prakash, Thaung Hlaing, Simone Nambanya, Duong Socheat, Trung Ho Dinh & Catherine Walton
Southeast Asia is one of the world’s richest regions in terms of biodiversity. An understanding of the distribution of diversity and the factors shaping it is lacking, yet essential for identifying conservation priorities for the region’s highly threatened biodiversity. Here we take a large scale comparative approach, combining data from nine forest associated Anopheles mosquito species and using statistical phylogeographic methods to disentangle the effects of environmental history, species specific ecology, and random coalescent effects....

Data from: Parasitoid wasps influence where aphids die via an inter-specific indirect genetic effect

Mouhammad Shadi Khudr, Johan A. Oldekop, David M. Shuker & Richard F. Preziosi
Host–parasite interactions are a key paradigm for understanding the process of coevolution. Central to coevolution is how genetic variation in interacting species allows parasites to evolve manipulative strategies. However, genetic variation in the parasite may also be associated with host phenotype changes, thereby changing the selection on both species. For instance, parasites often induce changes in the behaviour of their host to maximize their own fitness, yet the quantitative genetic basis for behavioural manipulation has...

Data from: Can long-range PCR be used to amplify genetically divergent mitochondrial genomes for comparative phylogenetics? A case study within spiders (Arthropoda: Araneae).

Andrew G. Briscoe, Sarah Goodacre, Susan E. Masta, Martin I. Taylor, Miquel A. Arnedo, David Penney, John Kenny, Simon Creer & Sara Goodacre
The development of second generation sequencing technology has resulted in the rapid production of large volumes of sequence data for relatively little cost, thereby substantially increasing the quantity of data available for phylogenetic studies. Despite these technological advances, assembling longer sequences, such as that of entire mitochondrial genomes, has not been straightforward. Existing studies have been limited to using only incomplete or nominally intra-specific datasets resulting in a bottleneck between mitogenome amplification and downstream high-throughput...

Data from: Ancient collagen reveals evolutionary history of the endemic South American ‘ungulates’

Michael Buckley
Since the late eighteenth century, fossils of bizarre extinct creatures have been described from the Americas, revealing a previously unimagined chapter in the history of mammals. The most bizarre of these are the ‘native’ South American ungulates thought to represent a group of mammals that evolved in relative isolation on South America, but with an uncertain affinity to any particular placental lineage. Many authors have considered them descended from Laurasian ‘condylarths’, which also includes the...

Data from: Bias and sensitivity in the placement of fossil taxa resulting from interpretations of missing data

Robert S. Sansom
The utility of fossils in evolutionary contexts is dependent on their accurate placement in phylogenetic frameworks, yet intrinsic and widespread missing data make this problematic. The complex taphonomic processes occurring during fossilization can make it difficult to distinguish absence from non-preservation, especially in the case of exceptionally preserved soft-tissue fossils: is a particular morphological character (e.g. appendage, tentacle or nerve) missing from a fossil because it was never there (phylogenetic absence), or just happened to...

Measurements of respiration and microbial assimilation of carbon substrates and priming of soil organic matter mineralisation in tropical lowland and montane forest soils

J. Whitaker, N. Ostle, N. McNamara, A.T. Nottingham, A.W. Stott, R.D. Bardgett, N. Salinas, A.J.Q. Ccahuana & P. Meir
This dataset includes measurements of microbial community composition by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, soil respiration (Carbon dioxide (CO2)), soil physico-chemical properties and 13C enrichment in CO2 samples and microbial Phospholipid Fatty Acids (PLFAs). Data were produced for an investigation of the effects of carbon (C) substrate addition on soil carbon cycling processes in ten tropical soils from the Peruvian Andes. Soils were amended with 13C labelled substrates (xylose, glycine, vanillin and hemicellulose) and incubated...

Data from: Novel Fibonacci and non-Fibonacci structure in the sunflower: results of a citizen science experiment

Jonathan Swinton & Erinma Ochu
This citizen science study evaluates the occurrence of Fibonacci structure in the spirals of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seedheads. This phenomenon has competing biomathematical explanations, and our core premise is that observation of both Fibonacci and non-Fibonacci structure is informative for challenging such models. We collected data on 657 sunflowers. In our most reliable data subset, we evaluated 768 clockwise or anticlockwise parastichy numbers of which 565 were Fibonacci numbers, and a further 67 had Fibonacci...

Data from: Testing the CREA ‘rule’ in Galliformes

Marta Linde-Medina
Recent comparative studies have indicated the existence of a common cranial evolutionary allometric (CREA) pattern in mammals and birds, in which smaller species have relatively smaller faces and bigger braincases than larger species. In these studies, cranial allometry was tested using a multivariate regression between shape (described using landmarks coordinates) and size (i.e. centroid size), after accounting for phylogenetic relatedness. Alternatively, cranial allometry can be determined by comparing the sizes of two anatomical parts using...

Data from: Illness beliefs in end stage renal disease and associations with self-care modality choice

Anuradha Jayanti, Philip Foden, Alison Wearden & Sandip Mitra
Background: Interest in self-care haemodialysis (HD) has increased because it improves patients’clinical and quality-of-life outcomes. Patients who undertake self-management for haemodialysis may hold illness beliefs differently to those choosing institutional care at the time of making the modality choice or moulded by their illness and dialysis treatment experience. Illness perceptions amongst predialysis patients and in those undertaking fully-assisted and self-care haemodialysis are being investigated in a combined cross-sectional and longitudinal study. Study Design: The study...

Data from: A multi-breed genome-wide association analysis for canine hypothyroidism identifies a shared major risk locus on CFA12

Matteo Bianchi, Stina Dahlgren, Jonathan Massey, Elisabeth Dietschi, Marcin Kierczak, Martine Lund-Ziener, Katarina Sundberg, Stein Istre Thoresen, Olle Kämpe, Göran Andersson, William E. R. Ollier, Åke Hedhammar, Tosso Leeb, Kerstin Lindblad-Toh, Lorna J. Kennedy, Frode Lingaas & Gerli Rosengren Pielberg
Bianchi, Dahlgren et al., Canine Hypothyroidism data

Data from: Endoskeletal structure in Cheirolepis (Osteichthyes, Actinopterygii), an early ray-finned fish

Sam Giles, Michael I. Coates, Russell J. Garwood, Martin D. Brazeau, Robert Atwood, Zerina Johanson & Matt Friedman
As the sister lineage of all other actinopterygians, the Middle to Late Devonian (Eifelian–Frasnian) Cheirolepis occupies a pivotal position in vertebrate phylogeny. Although the dermal skeleton of this taxon has been exhaustively described, very little of its endoskeleton is known, leaving questions of neurocranial and fin evolution in early ray-finned fishes unresolved. The model for early actinopterygian anatomy has instead been based largely on the Late Devonian (Frasnian) Mimipiscis, preserved in stunning detail from the...

Data from: No evidence for a trade-off between sperm length and male premating weaponry

Stefan Lüpold, Leigh W. Simmons, Joseph L. Tomkins & John L. Fitzpatrick
Male ornaments and armaments that mediate success in mate acquisition and ejaculate traits influencing competitive fertilization success are under intense sexual selection. However, relative investment in these pre- and postcopulatory traits depends on the relative importance of either selection episode and on the energetic costs and fitness gains of investing in these traits. Theoretical and empirical work has improved our understanding of how precopulatory sexual traits and investments in sperm production covary in this context....

Data from: A new titanosaurian braincase from the Cretaceous “Lo Hueco” locality in Spain sheds light on neuroanatomical evolution within Titanosauria

Fabien Knoll, Lawrence M. Witmer, Ryan C. Ridgely, Francisco Ortega & Jose Luis Sanz
Despite continuous improvements, our knowledge of the neurocranial anatomy of sauropod dinosaurs as a whole is still poor, which is especially true for titanosaurians even though their postcranial remains are common in many Upper Cretaceous sites worldwide. Here we describe a braincase from the uppermost Cretaceous locality of ‘‘Lo Hueco” in Spain that is one of the most complete titanosaurian braincases found so far in Europe. Although the titanosaurian Ampelosaurus sp. is known from the...

Data from: An advanced shape-fitting algorithm applied to quadrupedal mammals: improving volumetric mass estimates

Charlotte A. Brassey & James D. Gardiner
Body mass is a fundamental physical property of an individual and has enormous bearing upon ecology and physiology. Generating reliable estimates for body mass is therefore a necessary step in many palaeontological studies. Whilst early reconstructions of mass in extinct species relied upon isolated skeletal elements, volumetric techniques are increasingly applied to fossils when skeletal completeness allows. We apply a new ‘alpha shapes’ (α-shapes) algorithm to volumetric mass estimation in quadrupedal mammals. α-shapes are defined...

Data from: Fossilization of melanosomes via sulfurization

Maria E. McNamara, Bart E. Van Dongen, Nick P. Lockyer, Ian D. Bull & Patrick J. Orr
Fossil melanin granules (melanosomes) are an important resource for inferring the evolutionary history of colour and its functions in animals. The taphonomy of melanin and melanosomes, however, is incompletely understood. In particular, the chemical processes responsible for melanosome preservation have not been investigated. As a result, the origins of sulfur-bearing compounds in fossil melanosomes are difficult to resolve. This has implications for interpretations of original colour in fossils based on potential sulfur-rich phaeomelanosomes. Here we...

Data from: Almost a spider: a 305-million-year-old fossil arachnid and spider origins

Russell J. Garwood, Jason A. Dunlop, Paul A. Selden, Alan R. T. Spencer, Robert C. Atwood, Nghia T. Vo & Michael Drakopoulos
Spiders are an important animal group, with a long history. Details of their origins remain limited, with little knowledge of their stem group, and no insights into the sequence of character acquisition during spider evolution. We describe a new fossil arachnid, Idmonarachne brasieri gen. et sp. nov. from the late Carboniferous (Stephanian, ca. 305–299 Ma) of Montceau-les-Mines, France. It is three-dimensionally preserved within a siderite concretion, allowing both laboratory- and synchrotron-based phase-contrast computed tomography (CT)...

Data from: Spatially coordinated dynamic gene transcription in living pituitary tissue

Karen Featherstone, Kirsty Hey, Hiroshi Momiji, Anne V. McNamara, Amanda L. Patist, Joanna Woodburn, David G. Spiller, Helen C. Christian, Alan S. McNeilly, John J. Mullins, Barbel F. Finkenstadt, David A. Rand, Michael R. H. White & Julian R. E. Davis
Transcription at individual genes in single cells is often pulsatile and stochastic. A key question emerges regarding how this behaviour contributes to tissue phenotype, but it has been a challenge to quantitatively analyse this in living cells over time, as opposed to studying snap-shots of gene expression state. We have used imaging of reporter gene expression to track transcription in living pituitary tissue. We integrated live-cell imaging data with statistical modelling for quantitative real-time estimation...

Data from: Simple measures of climate, soil properties and plant traits predict national scale grassland soil carbon stocks

Peter Manning, Franciska T. De Vries, Jerry R. B. Tallowin, Roger Smith, Simon R. Mortimer, Emma S. Pilgrim, Kate A. Harrison, Daniel G. Wright, Helen Quirk, Joseph Benson, Bill Shipley, Johannes H. C. Cornelissen, Jens Kattge, Gerhard Bönisch, Christian Wirth & Richard D. Bardgett
1. Soil carbon (C) storage is a key ecosystem service. Soil C stocks play a vital role in soil fertility and climate regulation, but the factors that control these stocks at regional and national scales are unknown, particularly when their composition and stability are considered. As a result, their mapping relies on either unreliable proxy measures or laborious direct measurements. 2. Using data from an extensive national survey of English grasslands, we show that surface...

Data from: Sperm number trumps sperm size in mammalian ejaculate evolution

Stefan Lüpold & John L. Fitzpatrick
Postcopulatory sexual selection is widely accepted to underlie the extraordinary diversification of sperm morphology. However, why does it favour longer sperm in some taxa but shorter in others? Two recent hypotheses addressing this discrepancy offered contradictory explanations. Under the sperm dilution hypothesis, selection via sperm density in the female reproductive tract favours more but smaller sperm in large, but the reverse in small, species. Conversely, the metabolic constraint hypothesis maintains that ejaculates respond positively to...

Atmospheric gas and vegetation survey data from Parsonage Down, UK, in 2014

E.L. Fry, A.L. Hall, J. Savage, R.D. Bardgett, N. Ostle, R.F. Pywell, J.M. Bullock & S. Oakley
This dataset contains greenhouse gas flux data and vegetation survey data from an experiment based at Parsonage Down, UK. The vegetation survey comprises total species percentage cover and species richness data from four 50 cm by 50 cm quadrats. The greenhouse gas flux data comprises net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange, photosynthesis and respiration data measured with an Infra-red Gas Analyser (IRGA); methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide data measured using gas chromatography; and nitrate and...

Data from: Small airway dysfunction in well-treated never-smoking HIV-infected individuals

Andreas Ronit, Inger Hee Mathiesen, Marco Gelpi, Thomas Benfield, Jan Gerstoft, Tacjana Pressler, Anders Christiansen, Jens Lundgren, Jørgen Vestbo & Susanne Dam Nielsen
Global projections from the World Health Organization rank chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and HIV as the third and eighth leading causes of death by 2030, respectively. An increasingly large number of individuals will consequently face a double burden of disease. The incidence of COPD is relatively high in the HIV-infected population, and HIV has been shown to be an independent risk factor.

Data from: Reconstructing Asian faunal introductions to eastern Africa from multi-proxy biomolecular and archaeological datasets

Mary E. Prendergast, Michael Buckley, Alison Crowther, Heidi Eager, Laurent Frantz, Ophélie Lebrasseur, Rainer Hutterer, Ardern Hulme-Beaman, Wim Van Neer, Katerina Douka, Margaret-Ashley Veall, Eréndira M. Quintana Morales, Verena J. Schuenemann, Ella Reiter, Richard Allen, Evangelos A. Dimopoulos, Richard M. Helm, Ceri Shipton, Ogeto Mwebi, Christiane Denys, Mark C. Horton, Stephanie Wynne-Jones, Jeffrey Fleisher, Chantal Radimilahy, Henry Wright … & Mark Horton
Human-mediated biological exchange has had global social and ecological impacts. In sub-Saharan Africa, several domestic and commensal animals were introduced from Asia in the pre-modern period; however, the timing and nature of these introductions remain contentious. One model supports introduction to the eastern African coast after the mid-first millennium CE, while another posits introduction dating back to 3000 BCE. These distinct scenarios have implications for understanding the emergence of long-distance maritime connectivity, and the ecological...

Data from: Sexual conflict and ecology: species composition and male density interact to reduce male mating harassment and increase female survival

Miguel Gomez, Hanna Mercedes Bensch, Erik I. Svensson & Miguel A. Gomez-Llano
Sexual conflict is a pervasive evolutionary force that can reduce female fitness. Experimental evolution studies in the laboratory might overestimate the importance of sexual conflict since the ecological conditions in such settings typically include only a single species. Here, we experimentally manipulated conspecific male density (high or low) and species composition (sympatric or allopatric) to investigate how ecological conditions affect female survival in a sexually dimorphic insect, the banded demoiselle (Calopteryx splendens). Female survival was...

Data from: Environment and host as large-scale controls of ectomycorrhizal fungi

Sietse Van Der Linde, Laura M. Suz, C. David L. Orme, Filipa Cox, Henning Andreae, Endla Asi, Bonnie Atkinson, Sue Benham, Christopher Carroll, Nathalie Cools, Bruno De Vos, Hans-Peter Dietrich, Johannes Eichhorn, Joachim Germann, Tine Grebenc, Hyun S. Gweon, Karin Hansen, Frank Jacob, Ferdinand Kristöfel, Pawel Lech, Miklos Manninger, Jan Martin, Henning Meesenburg, Päivi Merilä, Manuel Nicolas … & Martin I. Bidartondo
Explaining the large-scale diversity of soil organisms that drive biogeochemical processes—and their responses to environmental change—is critical. However, identifying consistent drivers of belowground diversity and abundance for some soil organisms at large spatial scales remains problematic. Here we investigate a major guild, the ectomycorrhizal fungi, across European forests at a spatial scale and resolution that is—to our knowledge—unprecedented, to explore key biotic and abiotic predictors of ectomycorrhizal diversity and to identify dominant responses and thresholds...

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