23 Works

Ageing, Well-being and Development Project 2002, 2008

Armando Barrientos & Peter Lloyd-Sherlock

The effect of parasite dose on disease severity in the rodent malaria Plasmodium chabaudi

Andrew Read, Nick Colegrave, Brian Chan & Rebecca Tims
Experiments were designed to look at the relationship between infective dose and disease severity using two clones of Plasmodium chabaudi that differ in virulence. We asked whether there were dose–severity relationships, whether clone differences in virulence were maintained over a range of doses, and whether disease severity could be accounted for by parasite dynamics. Groups of mice were infected with parasite doses differing by an order of magnitude, ranging from 100 to 1×108 parasites. Infective...

Assigning occurrence data to cryptic taxa improves climatic niche assessments: biodecrypt, a new tool tested on European butterflies

Leonardo Dapporto, Platania Leonardo, Mattia Menchetti, Cecília Corbella, Isaac Kay-Lavelle, Roger Vila, Martin Wiemers & Oliver Schweiger
Aim Occurrence data are fundamental to macroecology, but accuracy is often compromised when multiple units are lumped together (e.g. in recently separated cryptic species or citizen science records). Using amalgamated data leads to inaccuracy in species mapping, to biased beta-diversity assessments and to potentially erroneously predicted responses to climate change. We provide a set of R functions (biodecrypt) to objectively attribute undetermined occurrences to the most probable taxon based on a subset of identified records....

Data from: Context-dependent consequences of colour biases in a social fish

Brett Culbert, Sanduni Talagala, Emily Stanbrook, Parker Smale, Sigal Balshine & James Barnett
Colourful visual signals can provide receivers with valuable information about food, danger, and the quality of social partners. However, the value of the information that colour provides varies depending on the situation, and colour may even act as a sensory trap where signals that evolved under one context are exploited in another. Despite some elegant early work on colour as a sensory trap, few empirical studies have examined how colour biases may vary depending on...

Evolution of ecospace occupancy by Mesozoic marine tetrapods

Jane C. Reeves, Benjamin C. Moon, Michael J. Benton & Thomas L. Stubbs
Ecology and morphology are different, and yet in comparative studies of fossil vertebrates the two are often conflated. The macroevolution of Mesozoic marine tetrapods has been explored in terms of morphological disparity, but less commonly using ecological-functional categories. Here we use ecospace modelling to quantify ecological disparity across all Mesozoic marine tetrapods. We document the explosive radiation of marine tetrapod groups in the Triassic and their rapid attainment of high ecological disparity. Late Triassic extinctions...

Competition for resources can promote the divergence of social learning phenotypes

R. Tucker Gilman, Fern Johnson & Marco Smolla
Social learning occurs when animals acquire knowledge or skills by observing or interacting with others, and is the fundamental building block of culture. Within populations, some individuals use social learning more frequently than others, but why social learning phenotypes differ among individuals is poorly understood. We modelled the evolution of social learning frequency in a system where foragers compete for resources and there are many different foraging options to learn about. Social learning phenotypes diverged...

Maladaptive migration behaviour in hybrids links to predator-mediated ecological selection

Varpu Pärssinen, Kaj Hulthén, Christer Brönmark, Christian Skov, Jakob Brodersen, Henrik Baktoft, Ben Chapman, Lars-Anders Hansson & Anders Nilsson
1. Different migratory species have evolved distinct migratory characteristics that improve fitness in their particular ecological niches. However, when such species hybridize, migratory traits from parental species can combine maladaptively and cause hybrids to fall between parental fitness peaks, with potential consequences for hybrid viability and species integrity. 2. Here, we take advantage of a natural cross-breeding incident to study migratory behaviour in naturally occurring hybrids as well as in their parental species and explore...

Stoichiometric traits (N:P) of understory plants contribute to reductions in plant diversity following long-term nitrogen addition in subtropical forest

Jianping Wu, Fangfang Shen, Jill Thompson, Wenfei Liu, Honglang Duan & Richard Bardgett
Nitrogen enrichment is pervasive in forest ecosystems, but its influence on understory plant communities and their stoichiometric characteristics is poorly understood. We hypothesize that when forest is enriched with nitrogen (N), the stoichiometric characteristics of plant species explains changes in understory plant diversity. A 13 year field experiment was conducted to explore the effects of N addition on foliar carbon (C): N: phosphorus (P) stoichiometry and understory plant species richness in a subtropical Chinese fir...

Data from: Evaluation of a pharmacist-led actionable audit and feedback intervention for improving medication safety in primary care: an interrupted time series analysis

Niels Peek
Background. We evaluated the impact of a pharmacist-led Safety Medication dASHboard (SMASH) intervention on medication safety in primary care. Methods and findings. SMASH comprised: (1) training of clinical pharmacists to deliver the intervention; (2) a web-based dashboard providing actionable, patient-level feedback; and (3) pharmacists reviewing individual at-risk patients, and initiating remedial actions or advising general practitioners on doing so. It was implemented in forty-three general practices covering a population of 235,595 people in Salford (Greater...

Data from: Seafloor microplastic hotspots controlled by deep-sea circulation

Ian Kane, Michael Clare, Elda Miramontes, Roy Wogelius, James Rothwell, Pierre Garreau & Florian Pohl
While microplastics are known to pervade the global seafloor, the processes that control their dispersal and concentration in the deep sea remain largely unknown. Here we show that thermohaline-driven currents, which build extensive seafloor sediment accumulations, can control the distribution of microplastics and create hotspots of up to 1.9 million pieces m^2. This is the highest reported value for any seafloor setting, globally. Previous studies propose that microplastics are transported to the seafloor by vertical...

Categorical versus geometric morphometric approaches to characterising the evolution of morphological disparity in Osteostraci (Vertebrata, stem-Gnathostomata)

Humberto Ferron, Jenny Greenwood, Bradley Deline, Carlos Martínez Pérez, Hector Botella, Robert Sansom, Marcello Ruta & Philip Donoghue
Morphological variation (disparity) is almost invariably characterised by two non-mutually exclusive approaches: (i) quantitatively, through geometric morphometrics, and (ii) in terms of discrete, ‘cladistic’, or categorical characters. Uncertainty over the comparability of these approaches diminishes the potential to obtain nomothetic insights into the evolution of morphological disparity and the few benchmarking studies conducted so far show contrasting results. Here, we apply both approaches to characterising morphology in the stem-gnathostome clade Osteostraci in order to assess...

Supplemental material for: Morphological phylogenetics evaluated using novel evolutionary simulations

Joseph Keating, Robert S Sansom, Mark D Sutton, Christopher G Knight & Russell J Garwood
Evolutionary inferences require reliable phylogenies. Morphological data has traditionally been analysed using maximum parsimony, but recent simulation studies have suggested that Bayesian analyses yield more accurate trees. This debate is ongoing, in part, because of ambiguity over modes of morphological evolution and a lack of appropriate models. Here we investigate phylogenetic methods using two novel simulation models – one in which morphological characters evolve stochastically along lineages and another in which individuals undergo selection. Both...

Data from: A new Devonian euthycarcinoid evidences the use of different respiratory strategies during the marine-to-terrestrial transition in the myriapod lineage

Pierre Gueriau, James C. Lamsdell, Roy A. Wogelius, Phillip L. Manning, Victoria M. Egerton, Uwe Bergmann, Loïc Bertrand & Julien Denayer
Myriapods were, together with arachnids, the earliest animals to occupy terrestrial ecosystems, by at least the Silurian. The origin of myriapods and their land colonization have long remained puzzling until euthycarcinoids, an extinct group of aquatic arthropods considered amphibious, were shown to be stem group myriapods, extending the lineage to the Cambrian and evidencing a marine-to-terrestrial transition. Although possible respiratory structures comparable to the air-breathing tracheal system of myriapods are visible in several euthycarcinoids, little...

Closure investigation on cloud condensation nuclei ability of processed anthropogenic aerosols

Dawei Hu
Whether the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) ability of aerosol could be predicted by compositions has been long debated. Measurements of sub-micron aerosol compositions and size-resolved CCN activation fraction were conducted at a mountain site (1344 m) near Beijing region during wintertime. The site was influenced in the noon-afternoon by ground anthropogenic sources through convective mixing (CM) and for certain period received aged pollutants by regional advection (RA). By comparing the measured CCN-derived hygroscopicity parameter (κCCNc)...

Plagioclase and clinopyroxene mineral chemical and Sr isotope data from Unit 10, Rum Layered Suite, NW Scotland

Brian O'Driscoll, Luke Hepworth & Stephen Daly
These plagioclase and clinopyroxene mineral chemical and Sr isotope data come from Unit 10, Rum Layered Suite, NW Scotland. They underpin a publication entitled 'Rapid crystallisation of precious metal-mineralised layers in mafic magmatic systems', to be published in Nature Geoscience in 2020.

Estimating phylogenies from shape and similar multidimensional data: why it is not reliable

Ceferino Varón González, Simon Whelan & Christian Peter Klingenberg
In recent years, there has been controversy whether multidimensional data such as geometric morphometric data or information on gene expression can be used for estimating phylogenies. This study uses simulations of evolution in multidimensional phenotype spaces to address this question and to identify specific factors that are important for answering it. Most of the simulations use phylogenies with four taxa, so that there are just three possible unrooted trees and the effect of different combinations...

Data from: Uncovering genetic mechanisms of hypertension through multi-omic analysis of the kidney

James Eales
The kidney is an organ of key relevance to blood pressure (BP) regulation, hypertension and antihypertensive treatment. However, genetically mediated renal mechanisms underlying susceptibility to hypertension remain poorly understood. We integrated genotype, gene expression, alternative splicing and DNA methylation profiles of up to 430 human kidneys to characterise the effects of BP index variants from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on renal transcriptome and epigenome. We uncovered kidney targets for 479 (58.3%) BP-GWAS variants and paired...

Data from: Repeated evidence that the accelerated evolution of sperm is associated with their fertilization function

John Fitzpatrick, Daisy Bridge & Rhonda Snook
Spermatozoa are the most morphologically diverse cell type, leading to the widespread assumption that they evolve rapidly. However, there is no direct evidence that sperm evolve faster than other male traits. Such a test requires comparing male traits that operate in the same selective environment, ideally produced from the same tissue, yet vary in function. Here we examine rates of phenotypic evolution in sperm morphology using two insect groups where males produce fertile and non-fertile...

MOBIO

Chris McCool, Sébastien Marcel, Abdenour Hadid, Matti Pietikainen, Pavel Matejka, Jan Cernocky, Norman Poh, Josef Kittler, Anthony Larcher, Lévy Christophe, Driss Matrouf, jean-francois Bonastre, Phil Tresadern & Timothy Cootes
MOBIO is a dataset for mobile face and speaker recognition. The dataset consists of bi-modal (audio and video) data taken from 152 people. The dataset has a female-male ratio of nearly 1:2 (100 males and 52 females) and was collected from August 2008 until July 2010 in six different sites from five different countries. This led to a diverse bi-modal dataset with both native and non-native English speakers.

Dominant native and non-native graminoids differ in key leaf traits irrespective of nutrient availability

Arthur Broadbent, Jennifer Firn, James McGree, Elizabeth Borer, Yvonne Buckley, W. Stanley Harpole, Kimberly Komatsu, Andrew MacDougall, Kate Orwin, Nicholas Ostle, Eric Seabloom, Jonathan Bakker, Lori Biedermann, Maria Caldeira, Nico Eisenhauer, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Joslin Moore, Carla Nogueira, Pablo Peri, Anita Risch, Christiane Roscher, Martin Schuetz & Carly Stevens
Aim Nutrient enrichment is associated with plant invasions and biodiversity loss. Functional trait advantages may predict the ascendancy of invasive plants following nutrient enrichment but this is rarely tested. Here, we investigate 1) whether dominant native and non-native plants differ in important morphological and physiological leaf traits, 2) how their traits respond to nutrient addition, and 3) whether responses are consistent across functional groups. Location Australia, Europe, North America and South Africa Time period 2007...

Data from: Chemical signals from eggs facilitate cryptic female choice in humans

John Fitzpatrick, Charlotte Willis, Alessandro Devigili, Amy Young, Michael Carroll, Helen Hunter & Daniel Brison
Mate choice can continue after mating via chemical communication between the female reproductive system and sperm. While there is a growing appreciation that females can bias sperm use and paternity by exerting cryptic female choice for preferred males, we know surprisingly little about the mechanisms underlying these post-mating choices. In particular, whether chemical signals released from eggs (chemoattractants) allow females to exert cryptic female choice to favour sperm from specific males remains an open question,...

Was the Devonian placoderm Titanichthys a suspension-feeder?

Samuel Coatham, Jakob Vinther, Emily Rayfield & Christian Klug
Large nektonic suspension-feeders have evolved multiple times. The apparent trend among apex predators for some evolving into feeding on small zooplankton is of interest for understanding the associated shifts in anatomy and behaviour while the spatial and temporal distribution gives clues to an inherent relationship with ocean primary productivity and how past and future perturbations to these may impact on the different tiers of the food web. The evolution of large nektonic suspension-feeders - 'gentle...

Data from: Effects of maternal genotypic identity and genetic diversity of the red mangrove Rhizophora mangle on associated soil bacterial communities: a field-based experiment

Hayley Craig, John Paul Kennedy, Donna J. Devlin, Richard D. Bardgett & Jennifer K. Rowntree
Loss of plant biodiversity can result in reduced abundance and diversity of associated species with implications for ecosystem functioning. In ecosystems low in plant species diversity, such as Neotropical mangrove forests, it is thought that genetic diversity within the dominant plant species could play an important role in shaping associated communities. Here, we used a manipulative field experiment to study the effects of maternal genotypic identity and genetic diversity of the red mangrove Rhizophora mangle...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    23

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    23

Affiliations

  • University of Manchester
    23
  • University of Bristol
    3
  • Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research
    2
  • Manchester Metropolitan University
    2
  • Keele University
    1
  • Yunnan University
    1
  • National Oceanography Centre
    1
  • University of Liège
    1
  • Nanchang Institute of Technology
    1
  • University of Pennsylvania
    1