77 Works

Data from: Mother-offspring transmission and age-dependent accumulation of simian foamy virus in wild chimpanzees

Anja Blasse, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Kevin Merkel, Adeelia S. Goffe, Christophe Boesch, Roger Mundry & Fabian H. Leendertz
Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) are thought to infect virtually any adult non-human primate (NHP). While much data have accumulated about patterns of co-divergence with their hosts and cross-species transmission events, little is known about the modalities of SFV transmission within NHP species, especially in the wild. Here we provide a detailed investigation of the dynamics of SFV circulation in a wild community of Western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus). We demonstrate that mother–offspring (vertical) SFV transmission...

Data from: Detection dog efficacy for collecting fecal samples from the critically endangered Cross River gorilla (Gorilla gorilla diehli) for genetic censusing

Mimi Arandjelovic, Richard A. Bergl, Romanus Ikfuingei, Christopher Jameson, Megan Parker & Linda Vigilant
Population estimates using genetic capture–recapture methods from non-invasively collected wildlife samples are more accurate and precise than those obtained from traditional methods when detection and resampling rates are high. Recently, detection dogs have been increasingly used to find elusive species and their by-products. Here we compared the effectiveness of dog- and human-directed searches for Cross River gorilla (Gorilla gorilla diehli) faeces at two sites. The critically endangered Cross River gorilla inhabits a region of high...

Data from: Opsins in Onychophora (velvet worms) suggest a single origin and subsequent diversification of visual pigments in arthropods

Lars Hering, Miriam J. Henze, Martin Kohler, Almut Kelber, Christoph Bleidorn, Maren Leschke, Birgit Nickel, Matthias Meyer, Martin Kircher, Paul Sunnucks & Georg Mayer
Multiple visual pigments, prerequisites for color vision, are found in arthropods, but the evolutionary origin of their diversity remains obscure. In this study, we explore the opsin genes in five distantly related species of Onychophora, using deep transcriptome sequencing and screening approaches. Surprisingly, our data reveal the presence of only one opsin gene (onychopsin) in each onychophoran species, and our behavioral experiments indicate a maximum sensitivity of onychopsin to blue–green light. In our phylogenetic analyses,...

Data from: Parent-offspring facial resemblance increases with age in rhesus macaques

Anahita J.N. Kazem, Yvonne Barth, Dana Pfefferle, Lars Kulik & Anja Widdig
Kin recognition is a key ability which facilitates the acquisition of inclusive fitness benefits and enables optimal outbreeding. In primates, phenotype matching is considered particularly important for the recognition of patrilineal relatives, as information on paternity is unlikely to be available via social familiarity. Phenotypic cues to both paternal and maternal relatedness exist in the facial features of humans and other primates. However, theoretical models suggest that in systems with parentage uncertainty it may be...

Data from: Evolutionary dynamics of the cryptocurrency market

Abeer ElBahrawy, Laura Alessandretti, Anne Kandler, Romualdo Pastor-Satorras & Andrea Baronchelli
The cryptocurrency market surpassed the barrier of $100 billion market capitalization in June 2017, after months of steady growth. Despite its increasing relevance in the financial world, a comprehensive analysis of the whole system is still lacking, as most studies have focused exclusively on the behaviour of one (Bitcoin) or few cryptocurrencies. Here, we consider the history of the entire market and analyse the behaviour of 1469 cryptocurrencies introduced between April 2013 and May 2017....

Information transfer efficiency differs in wild chimpanzees and bonobos, but not social-cognition

Cedric Girard-Buttoz, Martin Surbeck, Liran Samuni, Patrick Tkaczynski, Christophe Boesch, Barbara Fruth, Roman Wittig, Gottfried Hohmann & Catherine Crockford
Several theories have been generated to understand the socio-cognitive mechanisms underlying the unique cooperative abilities of humans. The “interdependence hypothesis” posits that the cognitive dimension of human cooperation evolved in contexts when several individuals needed to collaborate to achieve a common goal and that more interdependent individuals are more likely to cooperate (provide services to conspecifics) in non-collaborative contexts. Alternatively, the “social tolerance hypothesis” proposes that higher social tolerance allows conspecifics to cooperate more efficiently...

Data from: Using geometric morphometric visualizations of directional selection gradients to investigate morphological differentiation

Timothy D. Weaver & Philipp Gunz
Researchers studying extant and extinct taxa are often interested in identifying the evolutionary processes that have lead to the morphological differences among the taxa. Ideally, one could distinguish the influences of neutral evolutionary processes (genetic drift, mutation) from natural selection, and in situations for which selection is implicated, identify the targets of selection. The directional selection gradient is an effective tool for investigating evolutionary process, because it can relate form (size and shape) differences between...

Data from: Early maternal loss affects diurnal cortisol slopes in immature but not mature wild chimpanzees

Cedric Girard-Buttoz, Patrick Tkaczynski, Liran Samuni, Pawel Fedurek, Cristina Gomes, Therese Löhrich, Virgile Manin, Anna Preis, Prince Valé, Tobias Deschner, Roman Wittig & Catherine Crockford
Biological embedding of stress experienced early in life is a mechanism proposed to explain the fitness costs of maternal loss in mammals. This embedding is expected to lead to long-term alterations of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis activity. This idea has, however, rarely been tested in wild long-lived animals. We assessed whether, as in humans, maternal loss had short and long-term impacts on orphan wild chimpanzee urinary cortisol levels and diurnal urinary cortisol slopes,...

Pleistocene sediment DNA reveals hominin and faunal turnovers at Denisova Cave

Elena Irene Zavala
Denisova Cave in southern Siberia is the type locality of the Denisovans, an archaic hominin group related to Neanderthals. The dozen hominin remains recovered from the deposits also include Neanderthals and the child of a Neanderthal and a Denisovan, suggesting that Denisova Cave was a contact zone between these archaic hominins. Uncertainties persist, however, about the order in which they appeared at the site, the timing and environmental context of hominin occupation, and their association...

Female fertile phase synchrony, and male mating and reproductive skew, in the crested macaque

James Higham, Michael Heistermann, Muhammad Agil, Dyah Perwitasari-Farajallah, Anja Widdig & Antje Engelhardt
High social status is the primary determinant of reproductive success among group-living male mammals. Primates living in multimale–multifemale groups show the greatest variation in the strength of this link, with marked variation in reproductive skew by male dominance among species, dependent on the degree of female fertile phase synchrony, and the number of competing males. Here, we present data on two groups of wild crested macaques (Macaca nigra), living in the Tangkoko Reserve, Sulawesi, Indonesia....

NGS Data from: Improved gRNA secondary structures allow editing of target sites resistant to CRISPR-Cas9 cleavage

Stephan Riesenberg, Nelly Helmbrecht, Philipp Kanis, Tomislav Maricic & Svante Pääbo
We engineered gRNAs with highly stable hairpins in their constant parts and further enhanced their stability by chemical modifications. The ‘Genome-editing Optimized Locked Design’ (GOLD)-gRNA increases genome editing efficiency up to around 1000-fold (from 0.08% to 80.5%) with a mean increase across different other targets of 7.4-fold. The related NGS data is deposited here.

Quantifying and reducing cross-contamination in single- and multiplex hybridization capture of ancient DNA

Elena Zavala, Ayinuer Aximu-Petri, Julia Richter, Birgit Nickel, Benjamin Vernot & Matthias Meyer
The use of hybridization capture has enabled a massive upscaling in sample sizes for ancient DNA studies, allowing the analysis of hundreds of skeletal remains (Mathieson et al., 2015; Narasimhan et al., 2019) or sediments (Vernot et al., 2021; Wang et al., 2021; Zavala et al., 2021) in single studies. Yet demands in throughput continue to grow, and hybridization capture has become a limiting step in sample preparation due to the large consumption of reagents,...

Data from: Coordination strategies of chimpanzees and human children in a stag hunt game

Shona Duguid, Emily Wyman, Anke F. Bullinger, Katharina Herfurth-Majstorovic & Michael Tomasello
Much of human cooperation takes place in mutualistic contexts in which the main challenge for individuals is how to coordinate decisions. In the current studies, we compared the abilities of chimpanzees and young children to coordinate with a partner in two versions of a Stag Hunt game. When risks were low (the hare was of low value) and information was cheap (the partner's behaviour was readily observable), partners of both species were able to successfully...

Data from: Bystanders intervene to impede grooming in Western chimpanzees and sooty mangabeys

Alexander Mielke, Liran Samuni, Anna Preis, Jan F. Gogarten, Catherine Crockford & Roman M. Wittig
Grooming interactions benefit groomers, but may have negative consequences for bystanders. Grooming limits bystanders’ grooming access and ensuing alliances could threaten the bystander’s hierarchy rank or their previous investment in the groomers. To gain a competitive advantage, bystanders could intervene into a grooming bout to increase their own grooming access or to prevent the negative impact of others’ grooming. We test the impact of dominance rank and social relationships on grooming intervention likelihood and outcome...

Data from: Persistent anthrax as a major driver of wildlife mortality in a tropical rainforest

Constanze Hoffmann, Fee Zimmermann, Roman Biek, Hjalmar Kuehl, Kathrin Nowak, Roger Mundry, Anthony Agbor, Samuel Angedakin, Mimi Arandjelovic, Anja Blankenburg, Gregory Brazolla, Katherine Corogenes, Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann, Tobias Deschner, Paula Dieguez, Karsten Dierks, Ariane Düx, Susann Dupke, Henk Eshuis, Pierre Formenty, Yisa Ginath Yuh, Annemarie Goedmakers, Jan Gogarten, Anne-Céline Granjon, Scott McGraw … & Fabian Leendertz
Anthrax is a globally significant animal disease and zoonosis. Despite this, current knowledge of anthrax ecology is largely limited to arid ecosystems, where outbreaks are most commonly reported. We reveal cryptic the dynamics of an anthrax causing agent, Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis, in a tropical rainforest with severe consequences for local wildlife communities. Using data and samples collected over three decades we found that rainforest anthrax is a persistent and widespread cause of death for...

Data from: Flexible decision-making in grooming partner choice in sooty mangabeys and chimpanzees

Alexander Mielke, Anna Preis, Liran Samuni, Jan F. Gogarten, Roman M. Wittig & Catherine Crockford
Living in permanent social groups forces animals to make decisions about when, how and with whom to interact, requiring decisions to be made that integrate multiple sources of information. Changing social environments can influence this decision-making process by constraining choice or altering the likelihood of a positive outcome. Here, we conceptualised grooming as a choice situation where an individual chooses one of a number of potential partners. Studying two wild populations of sympatric primate species,...

Data from: Model selection with overdispersed distance sampling data

Eric J. Howe, Stephen T. Buckland, Marie-Lyne Després-Einspenner & Hjalmar S. Kühl
1. Distance sampling (DS) is a widely-used framework for estimating animal abundance. DS models assume that observations of distances to animals are independent. Non-independent observations introduce overdispersion, causing model selection criteria such as AIC or AICc to favour overly complex models, with adverse effects on accuracy and precision. 2. We describe, and evaluate via simulation and with real data, estimators of an overdispersion factor (c ̂), and associated adjusted model selection criteria (QAIC) for use...

Data from: Convergent evolution of the ladder-like ventral nerve cord in Annelida

Conrad Helm, Patrick Beckers, Thomas Bartolomaeus, Stephan H. Drukewitz, Ioannis Kourtesis, Anne Weigert, Günter Purschke, Katrine Worsaae, Torsten H. Struck & Christoph Bleidorn
Background: A median, segmented, annelid nerve cord has repeatedly been compared to the arthropod and vertebrate nerve cords and became the most used textbook representation of the annelid nervous system. Recent phylogenomic analyses, however, challenge the hypothesis that a subepidermal rope-ladder-like ventral nerve cord (VNC) composed of a paired serial chain of ganglia and somata-free connectives represents either a plesiomorphic or a typical condition in annelids. Results: Using a comparative approach by combining phylogenomic analyses...

Data from: To grunt or not to grunt: factors governing call production in female olive baboons, Papio anubis

Joan B. Silk, Eila R. Roberts, Veronika Staedele, Shirley C. Strum & Veronika Städele
Vocal signals often play an important role in synchronizing the activities of group members, coordinating decisions about when and where to travel, and facilitating social interactions in which there are potential conflicts of interest. In chacma baboons, Papio ursinus, low amplitude grunts facilitate nonaggressive social interactions and reconcile conflicts. Grunts seem to function as signals of benign intent and reduce uncertainty about the signaler's subsequent behavior. Here, we replicate and extend these findings in another...

Data from: Quadratic relationships between group size and foraging efficiency in a herbivorous primate

Cyril C. Grueter, Andrew M. Robbins, Didier Abavandimwe, V. Vecellio, F. Ndagijimana, Tara S. Stoinski & Martha M. Robbins
Data ON DAILY TRAVEL, ACTIVITY BUDGETS AND ENERGY INTAKEDATA FOR DAILY TRAVEL DISTANCES, ACTIVITY BUDGET (FOR TIME SPENT FEEDING AND TRAVELING), AND FOOD SITES (FOR ENERGY INTAKE AND INDIVIDUAL TRAVEL).Data for repository.xls

Data from: Computer simulations show that Neanderthal facial morphology represents adaptation to cold and high energy demands, but not heavy biting

Stephen Wroe, William C.H. Parr, Justin A. Ledogar, Jason Bourke, Samuel P. Evans, Luca Fiorenza, Stefano Benazzi, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Chris Stringer, Ottmar Kullmer, Michael Curry, Todd C. Rae, Todd R. Yokley & William C. H. Parr
Three adaptive hypotheses have been forwarded to explain the distinctive Neanderthal face: 1) an improved ability to accommodate high anterior bite forces, 2) more effective conditioning of cold and/or dry air, and, 3) adaptation to facilitate greater ventilatory demands. We test these hypotheses using three-dimensional models of Neanderthals, modern humans, and a close outgroup (H. heidelbergensis), applying finite element analysis (FEA) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This is the most comprehensive application of either approach...

Beyond the group: how food, mates and group size influence inter-group encounters in wild bonobos

Stefano Lucchesi, Leveda Cheng, Karline Janmaat, Roger Mundry, Anne Pisor & Surbeck Martin
In social-living animals, interactions between groups are frequently agonistic, but they can also be tolerant and even cooperative. Inter-group tolerance and cooperation are regarded as a crucial step in the formation of highly-structured multilevel societies. Behavioral ecological theory suggests that inter-group tolerance and cooperation can emerge either when the costs of hostility outweigh the benefits of exclusive resource access, or when both groups gain fitness benefits through their interactions. However, the factors promoting inter-group tolerance...

Images of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for SARS-CoV-2 testing and optimized 'Cap-iLAMP'

Stephan Riesenberg, Lukas Bokelmann, Tomislav Maricic, Svante Pääbo, Matthias Meyer, Olaf Nickel & Stephan Borte
Here we present images of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and optimized Cap-iLAMP (capture and improved ‎loop-mediated isothermal amplification). Cap-iLAMP combines a hybridization capture-based RNA extraction of gargle lavage samples with an improved colorimetric RT-LAMP assay and smartphone-based color scoring. Cap-iLAMP is compatible with point-of-care testing and enables the detection of SARS-CoV-2 positive samples in less than one hour. The sensitivity is 97% and the specificity is 99%.

Better together? how intergroup associations affect energy balance and feeding behavior in wild bonobos

Stefano Lucchesi
When the benefits of interacting with out-group members exceed the associated costs, social groups may be expected to be tolerant towards each other. However, in many species exhibiting intergroup tolerance, the nature of benefits gained from intergroup encounters remains unclear. We investigated the potential costs and benefits associated with intergroup associations in bonobos, a species with varying degrees of intergroup tolerance, by testing whether these associations conferred energetic benefits to participants under different socioecological contexts,...

Gorilla data code from Association patterns of female gorillas

Christopher Young & Martha M. Robbins
R notebook with code required for the analysis

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