46 Works

Piñon Flats Small Aperture Array, High Frequency Array

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The Piñon Flat Passive Source High Frequency Array Experiment of the IRIS Eurasian Seismic Studies Program was conducted in April and May, 1990, at Piñon Flat Observatory, California. Goals of the field portion of the experiment were to obtain a detailed, unaliased record of the seismic wavefields from local and regional events, as well as to test and prepare equipment and personnel for similar ESSP deployments in the Soviet Union during 1991 and 1992. Piñon...

Data from: Dissecting genome-wide association signals for loss-of-function phenotypes in sorghum flavonoid pigmentation traits

Geoffrey P. Morris, Davina H. Rhodes, Zachary Brenton, Punna Ramu, Vinayan Madhumal Thayil, Santosh Deshpande, C. Thomas Hash, Charlotte Acharya, Sharon E. Mitchell, Edward S. Buckler, Jianming Yu & Stephen Kresovich
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are a powerful method to dissect the genetic basis of traits, though in practice the effects of complex genetic architecture and population structure remain poorly understood. To compare mapping strategies we dissect the genetic control of flavonoid pigmentation traits in the cereal grass sorghum using high-resolution genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) SNP markers. Studying the grain tannin trait, we find that General Linear Models (GLM) are not able to precisely map tan1-a, a known...

Data from: Naturally-occurring changes in social-cognitive factors modify change in physical activity during early adolescence

Rodney K. Dishman, Marsha Dowda, Kerry L. McIver, Ruth P. Saunders, Russell R. Pate & Rod K. Dishman
Purpose. To determine whether naturally-occurring changes in children's motives and beliefs are associated with the steep decline in physical activity observed from childhood to early adolescence. Methods. Latent growth modeling was applied in longitudinal tests of social-cognitive influences, and their interactions, on physical activity in a large cohort of boys and girls evaluated annually between 5th and 7th grades. Results. Measurement equivalence of motives and beliefs was confirmed between boys and girls. After adjustment for...

Data from: An artificial habitat facilitates a climate-mediated range expansion into a suboptimal novel ecosystem

Zachary J. Cannizzo & Blaine D. Griffen
Distribution Survey DataPresence/absence of A. pisonii during distribution surveysCrab Size DataSizes of all A. pisonii measured throughout study.Cold Tolerance DataData from cold tolerance experiment including temperature of death of each crab.Relative Abundance DataData from relative abundance study. Relative abundance of A. pisonii are expressed in Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE) in crabs caught per minute.Lethal Temperature Logger DataThermal logger data used to determine the number of days and hours spent under the lethal temperature 50...

Data from: Probing the ecology and climate of the Eocene Southern Ocean with sand tiger sharks Striatolamia macrota

Sora Kim, Sarah Zeichner, Albert Colman, Howie Scher, Jürgen Kriwet & Thomas Mörs
During the Eocene, the Earth climate system transitioned from greenhouse to icehouse conditions. Central to many explanations is the Southern Ocean—where tectonic configurations influenced oceanic gateways, ocean circulation reduced heat transport, and/or greenhouse gas declines prompted glaciation. To date, few studies have explored the implications of this climate transition on high latitude, marine vertebrates. Seymour Island near the Antarctic Peninsula preserves a rich, diverse fossil assemblage in the Tertiary Eocene La Meseta (TELM) Formation (Fm)....

Climate change and lithium mining influence flamingo abundance in the Lithium Triangle

Jorge Gutiérrez, Johnnie Moore, Patrick Donnelli, Cristina Dorador, Juan Navedo & Nathan Senner
The development of technologies to slow climate change has been identified as a global imperative. Nonetheless, such ‘green’ technologies can potentially have negative impacts on biodiversity. We explored how climate change and the mining of lithium for green technologies influence surface water availability, primary productivity, and the abundance of three threatened and economically important flamingo species in the ‘Lithium Triangle’ of the Chilean Andes. We combined climate and primary productivity data with remotely sensed measures...

Piñon Flats Small Aperture Array, Broadband Triggered Array

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During the winter and spring of 1991 the Kirghizia Seismic Array Committee (KSAC) of IRIS's Joint Seismic Program conducted a small aperture broadband array experiment in the vicinity of the Piñon Flat Observatory (PFO) in Southern California. This report is intended primarily to document the technical details of these data, their organization on data tapes that are the companion to this report, and any problems that are known to exist with these data. Piñon Flat...

Data from: Strong selection genome-wide enhances fitness trade-offs across environments and episodes of selection

Jill Theresa Anderson, Cheng-Ruei Lee & Thomas Mitchell-Olds
Fitness trade-offs across episodes of selection and environments influence life-history evolution and adaptive population divergence. Documenting these trade-offs remains challenging as selection can vary in magnitude and direction through time and space. Here, we evaluate fitness trade-offs at the levels of the whole organism and the quantitative trait locus (QTL) in a multiyear field study of Boechera stricta (Brassicaceae), a genetically tractable mustard native to the Rocky Mountains. Reciprocal local adaptation was pronounced for viability,...

High-frequency measurements of aeolian saltation flux: time series data

Raleigh L. Martin, Jasper F. Kok, Chris H. Hugenholtz, Thomas E. Barchyn, Marcelo Chamecki & Jean T. Ellis
High-frequency (25-50 Hz) coupled observations of wind speed and aeolian saltation flux (i.e, the wind-blown movement of sand) were measured at three field sites: Jericoacoara, Brazil; Rancho Guadalupe, California; and Oceano, California. The dataset provided here contains the full record of raw and processed time series of saltation flux and wind speed measured at multiple heights above the sediment surface.

Sex identification PCR-RFLP assay tested in eight species of Sebastes rockfish

Felix Vaux, Hannah M. Aycock, Sandra Bohn, Leif K. Rasmuson & Kathleen G. O'Malley
Files for 'Sex identification PCR-RFLP assay tested in eight species of Sebastes rockfish'. Files include a sampling spreadsheet for eight species of Sebastes rockfish, and a .fasta file of DNA sequences for a male and female from each species for the Sch.182255-210250 locus.

Geolocators lead to better measures of timing and renesting in Black-tailed Godwits and reveal the bias of traditional observational methods

Mo Verhoeven, Jelle Loonstra, Alice McBride, Pablo Macias, Wiebe Kaspersma, Jos Hooijmeijer, Egbert Van Der Velde, Christiaan Both, Nathan Senner & Theunis Piersma
Long‐term population studies can identify changes in population dynamics over time. However, to realize meaningful conclusions, these studies rely on accurate measurements of individual traits and population characteristics. Here, we evaluate the accuracy of the observational methods used to measure reproductive traits in individually marked black‐tailed godwits (Limosa limosa limosa). By comparing estimates from traditional methods with data obtained from light‐level geolocators, we provide an accurate estimate of the likelihood of renesting in godwits and...

Data from: Chronic exposure to low-dose radiation at Chernobyl favours adaptation to oxidative stress in birds

Ismael Galván, Andrea Bonisoli-Alquati, Shanna Jenkinson, Ghanem Ghanem, Kazumasa Wakamatsu, Timothy A. Mousseau & Anders P. Møller
1. Ionizing radiation produces oxidative stress, but organisms can adapt to their exposure with physiological adaptive responses. However, the role of radioadaptive responses in wild populations remains poorly known. 2. At Chernobyl, studies of birds and other taxa including humans show that chronic exposure to radiation depletes antioxidants and increases oxidative damage. Here we present analyses of levels of the most important intracellular antioxidant (i.e., glutathione, GSH), its redox status, DNA damage and body condition...

Data from: Ontogenetic variation in epibiont community structure in the deep-sea yeti crab, Kiwa puravida: convergence among crustaceans

Shana K. Goffredi, Ann Gregory, William Joe Jones, Norma M. Morella & Reid I. Sakamoto
Recent investigations have demonstrated that unusually ‘hairy’ yeti crabs within the family Kiwaidae associate with two predominant filamentous bacterial families, the Epsilon and Gammaproteobacteria. These analyses, however, were based on samples collected from a single body region, the setae of pereopods. To more thoroughly investigate the microbiome associated with Kiwa puravida, a yeti crab species from Costa Rica, we utilized barcoded 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing, as well as microscopy and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism...

Data from: Effects of increased flight on the energetics and life history of the butterfly Speyeria mormonia

Kristjan Niitepõld & Carol L. Boggs
Movement uses resources that may otherwise be allocated to somatic maintenance or reproduction. How does increased energy expenditure affect resource allocation? Using the butterfly Speyeria mormonia, we tested whether experimentally increased flight affects fecundity, lifespan or flight capacity. We measured body mass (storage), resting metabolic rate and lifespan (repair and maintenance), flight metabolic rate (flight capacity), egg number and composition (reproduction), and food intake across the adult lifespan. The flight treatment did not affect body...

Burrowing behavior and burrowing energetics of a bioindicator under human disturbance

Mustafa Gul & Blaine Griffen
Bioindicator species are extensively used for rapid assessment of ecological changes. Their use commonly focuses on changes in population abundance and individual sizes in response to environmental change. These numerical and demographic shifts likely have behavioral and physiological mechanistic drivers that, if understood, could provide additional insights into the use of these species as bioindicators of habitat health. The Atlantic ghost crab, Ocypode quadrata, is a global bio-indicator species of human disturbance on sandy shores....

Data From: An artificial habitat increases the reproductive fitness of a range-shifting species within a newly colonized ecosystem

Zachary Cannizzo, Susan Lang, Bryan Benitez-Nelson & Blaine Griffen
When a range-shifting species colonizes an ecosystem it has not previously inhabited, it may experience suboptimal conditions that challenge its continued persistence and expansion. Some impacts may be partially mitigated by artificial habitat analogues: artificial habitats that more closely resemble a species’ historic ecosystem than the surrounding habitat. If conditions provided by such habitats increase reproductive success, they could be vital to the expansion and persistence of range-shifting species. We investigated the reproduction of the...

Data from: A snapping shrimp has the fastest vision of any aquatic animal

Alexandra Kingston, Daniel Chappell & Daniel Speiser
Animals use their sensory systems to sample information from their environments. The physiological properties of sensory systems differ, leading animals to perceive their environments in different ways. For example, eyes have different temporal sampling rates, with faster-sampling eyes able to resolve faster-moving scenes. Eyes can also have different dynamic ranges. For every eye, there is a light level below which vision is unreliable because of an insufficient signal-to-noise ratio and a light level above which...

Dynamic sensitivity to resource availability influences population responses to mismatches in a shorebird

Luke Wilde, Josiah Simmons, Rose Swift & Nathan Senner
Climate change has caused shifts in seasonally recurring biological events leading to the temporal decoupling of consumer-resource pairs – i.e., phenological mismatching. Although mismatches often affect individual fitness, they do not invariably scale up to affect populations, making it difficult to assess the risk they pose. Individual variation may contribute to this inconsistency, with changes in resource availability and consumer needs leading mismatches to have different outcomes over time. Nevertheless, most models estimate a consumer’s...

Data from: Historical mutation rates predict susceptibility to radiation in Chernobyl birds

Anders P Møller, Johannes Erritzøe, Filiz Karadas & Timothy A Mousseau
Extreme environmental perturbations are rare, but may have important evolutionary consequences. Responses to current perturbations may provide important information about the ability of living organisms to cope with similar conditions in the evolutionary past. Radioactive contamination from Chernobyl constitutes one such extreme perturbation, with significant but highly variable impact on local population density and mutation rates of different species of animals and plants. We explicitly tested the hypothesis that species with strong impacts of radiation...

Data from: Experimental manipulation of population-level MHC diversity controls pathogen virulence evolution in Mus musculus

Douglas H. Cornwall, Jason L. Kubinak, Elisabeth Zachary, Derek L. Stark, Dustan Seipel & Wayne K. Potts
The virulence levels attained by serial passage of pathogens through similar host genotypes are much higher than observed in natural systems, however, it is unknown what keeps natural virulence levels below these empirically demonstrated maximum levels. One hypothesis suggests that host diversity impedes pathogen virulence, because adaptation to one host genotype carries tradeoffs in the ability to replicate and cause disease in other host genotypes. To test this hypothesis, with the simplest level of population...

Data from: Ecological and evolutionary implications of allometric growth in stomach size of brachyuran crabs

Blaine D. Griffen, Zachary J. Cannizzo & Mustafa R. Gul
Individual characteristics often scale allometrically with organismal body size and the form of this scaling can be influenced by ecological and evolutionary factors. Examining the specific form of this scaling can therefore yield important insights into organismal ecology and evolution and the ability of organisms to respond to future environmental changes. We examine the allometric scaling of stomach volume with body mass for 17 species of brachyuran crabs. We also examine how this scaling is...

Data from: Trait-mediated functional responses: predator behavioral type mediates prey consumption

Benjamin J. Toscano & Blaine D. Griffen
1. The predator functional response (i.e. per capita consumption rate as a function of prey density) is central to our understanding of predator-prey population dynamics. This response is behavioral, depending on the rate of attack and time it takes to handle prey. 2. Consistent behavioral differences between conspecific individuals, termed behavioral types, are a widespread feature of predator and prey populations but the effects of behavioral types on the functional response remain unexplored. 3. We...

Data from: Thermal sensitivity and the role of behavior in driving an intertidal predator-prey interaction

Cristian J. Monaco, David S. Wethey & Brian Helmuth
Environmental stress models (ESM) provide a useful framework to study the direct and indirect ecological drivers of community diversity and resilience. ESMs make predictions about the relative importance of structuring processes (e.g., predation) based on the relative stress suffered by consumers and prey. Their practical application, i.e., determining the conditions under which consumers and prey performance is more negatively affected, has been limited because the roles of behavior and physiology are not usually considered. We...

Data from: Assessment of plasma proteomics biomarker’s ability to distinguish benign from malignant lung nodules

Gerard A. Silvestri, Nichole T. Tanner, Paul Kearney, Anil Vachani, Pierre P. Massion, Alexander Porter, Steven C. Springmeyer, Kenneth C. Fang, David Midthun, Peter J. Mazzone, D. Madtes, J. Landis, A. Levesque, K. Rothe, M. Balaan, B. Dimitt, B. Fortin, N. Ettinger, A. Pierre, L. Yarmus, K. Oakjones-Burgess, N. Desai, Z. Hammoud, A. Sorenson, R. Murali … & F. Allison
Background: Lung nodules are a diagnostic challenge, with an estimated yearly incidence of 1.6 million in the United States. This study evaluated the accuracy of an integrated proteomic classifier in identifying benign nodules in patients with a pretest probability of cancer (pCA) ≤ 50%. Methods: A prospective, multicenter observational trial of 685 patients with 8- to 30-mm lung nodules was conducted. Multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry was used to measure the relative abundance of two...

Data from: Correlated responses to clonal selection in populations of Daphnia pulicaria: mechanisms of genetic correlation and the creative power of sex

Jeffry L. Dudycha, Margaret Snoke-Smith & Ricardo Alia
Genetic correlations among traits alter evolutionary trajectories due to indirect selection. Pleiotropy, chance linkage, and selection can all lead to genetic correlations, but have different consequences for phenotypic evolution. We sought to assess the mechanisms contributing to correlations with size at maturity in the cyclic parthenogen Daphnia pulicaria. We selected on size in each of four populations that differ in the frequency of sex, and evaluated correlated responses in a life table. Size at advanced...

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  • University of South Carolina
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