71 Works

Dataframe from: Diversity of European habitat types is correlated with geography more than climate and human pressure

Marco Cervellini, Michele Di Musciano, Piero Zannini, Simone Fattorini, Borja Jiménez-Alfaro, Emiliano Agrillo, Fabio Attorre, Pierangela Angelini, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Laura Casella, Richard Field, Jan-Christopher Fischer, Piero Genovesi, Samuel Hoffmann, Severin D.H. Irl, Juri Nascimbene, Duccio Rocchini, Manuel Steinbauer, Ole R. Vetaas & Alessandro Chiarucci
We generated this dataframe to model EU habitat richness at continental scale as a function of geographical, climate and anthropogenic variables (please, see Material and Method section in the published paper version for all the details). We found geographical variables were by far the most strongly correlated with habitat richness, followed by climate. However, anthropogenic variables gained importance when consindering their interactions, with important implications for conservation planning.

Database PCA: A middle Pleistocene Homo from Nesher Ramla, Israel

Hila May, Israel Hershkovitz, Rachel Sarig, Ariel Pokhojaev, Dominique Grimaud-Hervé, Emiliano Bruner, Cinzia Fornai, Rolf Quam, Juan-Luis Arsuaga, Viktoria A. Krenn, Maria Martinón-Torres, José María Bermúdez De Castro, Laura Martín-Francés, Viviane Slon, Lou Albessard-Ball, Amélie Vialet, Tim Schüler, Giorgio Manzi, Antonio Profico, Fabio Di Vincenzo, Gerhard W. Weber & Yossi Zaidner
It has long been believed that Neanderthals originated and flourished on the European continent. However, recent morphological and genetic studies have suggested that they may have received a genetic contribution from a yet unknown non-European group. Here we report on the recent discovery of archaic Homo fossils from the site of Nesher Ramla, Israel, which we dated to 140,000 to 120,000 years ago. Comprehensive qualitative and quantitative analyses of the parietal bones, mandible, and lower...

Area of habitat maps for amphibians and reptiles of Italy

Dario Nania
Area of Habitat (AOH) maps reveal the distribution of the habitat available to the species within their geographic range. Information on the distribution of species’ habitats can help identify sites where viable populations of a species are found. We produced high resolution (100 m), freely accessible global area of habitat maps for 60 species of reptiles and amphibians distributed in Italy, which represent 60% of all Italian amphibian and reptile species. AOH maps can be...

Data from: Palaeobiogeography and evolutionary patterns of the larger foraminifer Borelis de Montfort (Borelidae)

Davide Bassi, Juan Carlos Braga, Giovanni Di Domenico, Johannes Pignatti, Sigal Abramovich, Pamela Hallock, Janine Koenen, Zoltan Kovacs, Martin R. Langer, Giulio Pavia & Yasufumi Iryu
The palaeobiogeography of the alveolinoid Borelis species reveals the evolutionary patterns leading to the two extant representatives, which occur in shallow-water tropical carbonate, coral reef-related settings. Type material and new material of fossil Borelis species, along with Recent specimens were studied to assess their taxonomic status, species circumscriptions (based on proloculus size, occurrence of Y-shaped septula, and the index of elongation), palaeobiogeography and evolutionary dynamics. The species dealt with here are known from exclusively fossil...

Large carnivore expansion in Europe is associated with human population density and land cover changes

Marta Cimatti, Nathan Ranc, Ana Ana Benítez-López, Luigi Maiorano, Luigi Boitani, Francesca Cagnacci, Mirza Čengić, Paolo Ciucci, Mark Huijbregts, Miha Krofel, José López Bao, Nuria Selva, Henrik Andren, Carlos Bautista, Duško Cirovic, Heather Hemmingmoore, Ilka Reinhardt, Miha Marenče, Yorgos Mertzanis, Luca Pedrotti, Igor Trbojević, Andreas Zetterberg, Tomasz Zwijacz-Kozica & Luca Santini
Aim: The recent recovery of large carnivores in Europe has been explained as resulting from a decrease in human persecution driven by widespread rural land abandonment, paralleled by forest cover increase and the consequent increase in availability of shelter and prey. We investigated whether land cover and human population density changes are related to the relative probability of occurrence of three European large carnivores: the grey wolf (Canis lupus), the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) and...

Developmental instability and phenotypic evolution in a small and isolated bear population

Anna Loy, Paolo Ciucci, Giulia Guidarelli, Erika Roccotelli & Paolo Colangelo
We explored fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and morphological integration (MI) in the skull of the small, highly inbred and divergent Apennine bear (Ursus arctos marsicanus), to explore its uniqueness and investigate any potential effects of inbreeding depression. We used 3d geometric morphometrics contrasting 17 Apennine bears with other two large outbred bear populations (22 from Scandinavia and 9 from Kamchatka) as controls. Shape divergence and variability were explored by a PCA on aligned coordinates of 39...

Data from: Testing the occurrence of convergence in the cranio-mandibular shape evolution of living carnivorans

Davide Tamagnini, Carlo Meloro, Pasquale Raia & Luigi Maiorano
Convergence consists in the independent evolution of similar traits in distantly related species. The mammalian cranio-mandibular complex constitutes an ideal biological structure to investigate ecomorphological dynamics and the carnivorans, due to their phenotypic variability and ecological flexibility, offer an interesting case-study to explore the occurrence of convergent evolution. Here, we applied multiple pattern-based metrics to test the occurrence of convergence in the cranio-mandibular shape of extant carnivorans. To this aim, we tested for convergence in...

Data from: Assessing the umbrella value of a range-wide conservation network for jaguars (Panthera onca)

Daniel Thornton, Kathy Zeller, Carlo Rondinini, Luigi Boitani, Kevin Crooks, Christopher Burdett, Alan Rabinowitz & Howard Quigley
Umbrella species are employed as conservation short-cuts for the design of reserves or reserve networks. However, empirical data on the effectiveness of umbrellas is equivocal, which has prevented more widespread application of this conservation strategy. We perform a novel large-scale evaluation of umbrella species by assessing the potential umbrella value of a jaguar (Panthera onca) conservation network (consisting of viable populations and corridors) that extends from Mexico to Argentina. Using species richness, habitat quality, and...

Data from: Tuning Geometric Morphometrics: an R tool to reduce information loss caused by surface smoothing

Antonio Profico, Alessio Veneziano, Alessandro Lanteri, Paolo Piras, Gabriele Sansalone & Giorgio Manzi
The application of Geometric Morphometrics has remarkably increased since 3D imaging techniques have become widespread, such as high-resolution computerised tomography, laser scanning and photogrammetry. Acquisition, 3D rendering and simplification of virtual objects produce faceting and topological artefacts, which can be counteracted by applying decimation and smoothing algorithms. Nevertheless, smoothing algorithms can have detrimental effects. This work aims at developing a method to assess the amount of information loss or recovery after the application of 3D...

European Database of Seismogenic Faults (EDSF)

Roberto Basili, Vanja Kastelic, Mine Betül Demircioglu, David Garcia Moreno, Eliza S. Nemser, Patrizio Petricca, Sotiris P. Sboras, Glenda M. Besana-Ostman, João Cabral, Thierry Camelbeeck, Riccardo Caputo, Laurentiu Danciu, Hilal Domaç, João Filipe de Barros Duarte Fonseca, Julián García-Mayordomo, Domenico Giardini, Branislav Glavatovic, Levent Gulen, Yigit Ince, Spyros Pavlides, Karin Sesetyan, Gabriele Tarabusi, Mara Monica Tiberti, Murat Utkucu, Gianluca Valensise … & Jochen Wössner
The European Database of Seismogenic Faults (EDSF) was compiled in the framework of the EU Project SHARE, Work Package 3, Task 3.2. EDSF includes only faults that are deemed to be capable of generating earthquakes of magnitude equal to or larger than 5.5 and aims at ensuring a homogenous input for use in ground-shaking hazard assessment in the Euro-Mediterranean area. Several research institutions participated in this effort with the contribution of many scientists (see the...

Data from: Woody flora types to describe phytogeographic units: an insight along a west–east transect in central Italy

Marta Latini, Mauro Iberite & Giovanna Abbate
To improve the phytogeographic characterization of peninsular Italy, we analysed and compared the spatial distribution of woody flora at species and genus levels along an approximate 160 km west–east transect within the central peninsula. Sampling sites were selected using a subjective stratified sampling design. A total of 1710 occurrence data, 138 species, and 74 genera from 153 floristic relevés was used. The congruence in species and genera patterns, supported by Mantel and Procrustes tests, confirmed...

Data from: Geographic population structure of the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae suggests a role for the forest-savannah biome transition as a barrier to gene flow

Joao Pinto, Alexander Egyir-Yawson, José L. Vicente, Bruno Gomes, Federica Santalomazza, Marta Moreno, Jacques D. Charlwood, Frederic Simard, Nohal Elissa, David Weetman, Martin J. Donnelly, Adalgisa Caccone, Alessandra Della Torre, Caccone A, Simard F, Pinto J, Vicente JL, Gomes B, Elissa N, Weetman D & Donnelly MJ
The primary Afrotropical malaria mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto has a complex population structure. In western Africa, this species is split into two molecular forms and displays local and regional variation in chromosomal arrangements and behaviours. To investigate patterns of macro-geographic population substructure, 25 An. gambiae samples from 12 African countries were genotyped at 13 microsatellite loci. This analysis detected the presence of additional population structuring, with the M-form being subdivided into distinct west,...

Data from: Predictors of alcohol responsiveness in dystonia

Johanna Junker, Valerie Brandt, Brian D. Berman, Marie Vidailhet, Emmanuel Roze, Anne Weissbach, Cynthia Comella, Irene A. Malaty, Joseph Jankovic, Mark S. LeDoux, Alfredo Berardelli, Richard Barbano, Stephen G. Reich, Joel S. Perlmutter, Hyder A. Jinnah & Norbert Brüggemann
Objective: To determine predictors of alcohol responsiveness in a large cohort of dystonia patients. Methods: 2159 participants with dystonia were prospectively enrolled in the cross-sectional Dystonia Coalition multicenter study. Patients with secondary, combined or confirmed genetic dystonia (total n=164) or unknown alcohol responsiveness (n= 737) were excluded. Patients answered a standardized questionnaire and were clinically examined using a standardized video protocol and the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale. Alcohol responsiveness was determined by patients’ self-report. Results:...

Data from: Environmental variation is a major predictor of global trait turnover in mammals

Ben G. Holt, Gabriel C. Costa, Caterina Penone, Jean-Philippe Lessard, Thomas M. Brooks, Ana D. Davidson, S. Blair Hedges, Volker C. Radeloff, Carsten Rahbek, Carlo Rondinini & Catherine H. Graham
Aim: To evaluate how environment and evolutionary history interact to influence global patterns of mammal trait diversity (a combination of 14 morphological and life-history traits). Location: The global terrestrial environment. Taxon: Terrestrial mammals. Methods: We calculated patterns of spatial turnover for mammalian traits and phylogenetic lineages using the mean nearest taxon distance. We then used a variance partitioning approach to establish the relative contribution of trait conservatism, ecological adaptation and clade specific ecological preferences on...

Data from: Measuring β‐diversity by remote sensing: a challenge for biodiversity monitoring

Duccio Rocchini, Sandra Luque, Nathalie Pettorelli, Lucy Bastin, Daniel Doktor, Nicolò Faedi, Hannes Feilhauer, Jean-Baptiste Féret, Giles M. Foody, Yoni Gavish, Sergio Godinho, William E. Kunin, Angela Lausch, Pedro J. Leitao, Matteo Marcantonio, Markus Neteler, Carlo Ricotta, Sebastian Schmidtlein, Petteri Vihervaara, Martin Wegmann & Harini Nagendra
Biodiversity includes multiscalar and multitemporal structures and processes, with different levels of functional organization, from genetic to ecosystemic levels. One of the mostly used methods to infer bio- diversity is based on taxonomic approaches and community ecology theories. However, gathering extensive data in the field is difficult due to logistic problems, especially when aiming at modelling biodiversity changes in space and time, which assumes statistically sound sampling schemes. In this context, airborne or satellite remote...

Data from: Patterns and correlates of claims for brown bear damage on a continental scale

Carlos Bautista, Javier Naves, Eloy Revilla, Néstor Fernández, Jörg Albrecht, Anne K. Scharf, Robin Rigg, Alexandros A. Karamanlidis, Klemen Jerina, Djuro Huber, Santiago Palazón, Raido Kont, Paolo Ciucci, Claudio Groff, Aleksandar Dutsov, Juan Seijas, Pierre-Ives Quenette, Agnieszka Olszańska, Maryna Shkvyria, Michal Adamec, Janis Ozolins, Marko Jonozovič & Nuria Selva
Wildlife damage to human property threatens human–wildlife coexistence. Conflicts arising from wildlife damage in intensively managed landscapes often undermine conservation efforts, making damage mitigation and compensation of special concern for wildlife conservation. However, the mechanisms underlying the occurrence of damage and claims at large scales are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the patterns of damage caused by brown bears Ursus arctos and its ecological and socio-economic correlates at a continental scale. We compiled information...

Data from: Analysing biodiversity and conservation knowledge products to support regional environmental assessments

Thomas M. Brooks, H. Resit Akçakaya, Neil D. Burgess, Stuart H. M. Butchart, Craig Hilton-Taylor, Michael Hoffmann, Diego Juffe-Bignoli, Naomi Kingston, Brian MacSharry, Mike Parr, Laurence Perianin, Eugenie C. Regan, Ana S. L. Rodrigues, Carlo Rondinini, Yara Shennan-Farpon & Bruce E. Young
Two processes for regional environmental assessment are currently underway: the Global Environment Outlook (GEO) and Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). Both face constraints of data, time, capacity, and resources. To support these assessments, we disaggregate three global knowledge products according to their regions and subregions. These products are: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Key Biodiversity Areas (specifically Important Bird & Biodiversity Areas [IBAs], and Alliance for Zero Extinction [AZE] sites),...

Data from: Integrated network analysis identifies fight-club nodes as a class of hubs encompassing key putative switch genes that induce major transcriptome reprogramming during grapevine development

Maria Concetta Palumbo, Sara Zenoni, Marianna Fasoli, Mélanie Massonnet, Lorenzo Farina, Filippo Castiglione, Mario Pezzotti & Paola Paci
We developed an approach that integrates different network-based methods to analyze the correlation network arising from large-scale gene expression data. By studying grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene expression atlases and a grapevine berry transcriptomic data set during the transition from immature to mature growth, we identified a category named “fight-club hubs” characterized by a marked negative correlation with the expression profiles of neighboring genes in the network. A special subset named “switch...

Data from: Predicting the continuum between corridors and barriers to animal movements using Step Selection Functions and Randomized Shortest Paths

Manuela Panzacchi, Bram Van Moorter, Olav Strand, Marco Saerens, Ilkka Kivimäki, Colleen Cassady St. Clair, Ivar Herfindal & Luigi Boitani
1. The loss, fragmentation and degradation of habitat everywhere on Earth prompts increasing attention to identifying landscape features that support animal movement (corridors) or impedes it (barriers). Most algorithms used to predict corridors assume that animals move through preferred habitat either optimally (e.g. least cost path) or as random walkers (e.g. current models), but neither extreme is realistic. 2. We propose that corridors and barriers are two sides of the same coin and that animals...

Change in terrestrial human footprint drives continued loss of intact ecosystems

Brooke Williams, Oscar Venter, James Allan, Scott Atkinson, Jose Rehbein, Michelle Ward, Moreno Di Marco, Hedley Grantham, Jamison Ervin, Scott Goetz, Andrew Hansen, Patrick Jantz, Rajeev Pillay, Susana Rodríguez-Buriticá, Christina Supples, Anne Virnig & James Watson
Human pressure mapping is important for understanding humanity's role in shaping Earth’s patterns and processes. Our ability to map this influence has evolved, thanks to powerful computing, earth observing satellites, and new bottom-up census and crowd-sourced data. Here, we provide the latest temporally inter-comparable maps of the terrestrial human footprint, and assessment of change in human pressure at global, biome, and ecoregional scales. In 2013, 42% of terrestrial Earth could be considered relatively free of...

Data from: Exploring the biotic homogenisation and diversity resistance hypotheses: the understorey of non-native and native woodland canopies in three urban areas of Europe

Tommaso Sitzia, Simone Iacopino, Sabina Burrascano, Thomas Campagnaro, Laura Celesti-Grapow, Cecilia Bacchetti, Arne Cierjacks, Ingo Kowarik, Moritz Von Der Lippe & Giovanni Trentanovi
Exploring the biotic homogenisation and diversity resistance hypotheses by assessing the effect of non-native black locust canopy on understorey species turnover. Location: Berlin, the Venetian metropolitan area, and Rome. We modelled the zeta (ζ) expression of diversity to compare the understorey species turnover between the non-native black locust and native woodland canopies across multiple sites and through predictors of anthropogenic pressure (road and built-up density) and interior conditions (tree basal area and mean height). In...

Data from: Acute modulation of brain connectivity in Parkinson disease after Automatic Mechanical Peripheral Stimulation: a pilot study

Carlo Cosimo Quattrocchi, Maria Francesca De Pandis, Claudia Piervincenzi, Manuela Galli, Jean Marc Melgari, Gaetano Salomone, Patrizio Sale, Carlo Augusto Mallio, Filippo Carducci & Fabrizio Stocchi
Objective: The present study shows the results of a double-blind sham-controlled pilot trial to test whether measurable stimulus-specific functional connectivity changes exist after Automatic Mechanical Peripheral Stimulation (AMPS) in patients with idiopathic Parkinson Disease. Methods: Eleven patients (6 women and 5 men) with idiopathic Parkinson Disease underwent brain fMRI immediately before and after sham or effective AMPS. Resting state Functional Connectivity (RSFC) was assessed using the seed-ROI based analysis. Seed ROIs were positioned on basal...

Archived data for: Balancing selection, genetic drift, and human mediated-introgression interplay to shape MHC (functional) diversity in Mediterranean brown trout

Lorenzo Talarico, Silvio Marta, Anna Rita Rossi, Simone Crescenzo, Gerardo Petrosino, Marco Martinoli & Lorenzo Tancioni
The extraordinary polymorphism of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes is considered a paradigm of pathogen-mediated balancing selection, although empirical evidence is still scarce. Furthermore, the relative contribution of balancing selection to shape MHC population structure and diversity, compared to that of neutral forces, as well as its interaction with other evolutionary processes such as hybridization, remains largely unclear. To investigate these issues, we analysed adaptive (MHC-DAB gene) and neutral (11 microsatellite loci) variation in 156...

The minimum land area requiring conservation attention to safeguard biodiversity

James Allan, Hugh Possingham, Scott Atkinson, Anthony Waldron, Moreno Di Marco, Stuart Butchart, Vanessa Adams, Daniel Kissling, Thomas Worsdell, Chris Sandbrook, Gwili Gibbon, Kundan Kumar, Piyush Mehta, Martine Maron, Brooke Williams, Kendall Jones, Brendan Wintle, April Reside & James Watson
Ambitious conservation efforts are needed to stop the global biodiversity crisis. Here, we estimate the minimum land area to secure important biodiversity areas, ecologically intact areas, and optimal locations for representation of species ranges and ecoregions. We discover that at least 64 million km2 (44% of terrestrial area) would require conservation attention (ranging from protected areas to land-use policies) to meet this goal. Over 1.8 billion people live on these lands, so responses that promote...

Data from: Transcriptional response of Hoxb genes to retinoid signalling is regionally restricted along the neural tube rostrocaudal axis

Nicoletta Carucci, Emanuele Cacci, Paola S. Nisi, Valerio Licursi, Yu-Lee Paul, Stefano Biagioni, Rodolfo Negri, Peter J. Rugg-Gunn & Giuseppe Lupo
During vertebrate neural development, positional information is largely specified by extracellular morphogens. Their distribution, however, is very dynamic due to the multiple roles played by the same signals in the developing and adult neural tissue. This suggests that neural progenitors are able to modify their competence to respond to morphogen signalling and autonomously maintain positional identities after their initial specification. In this work, we take advantage of in vitro culture systems of mouse neural stem/progenitor...

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  • Sapienza University of Rome
  • University of Bologna
  • University of Milan
  • University of Leeds
  • Tuscia University
  • University of Padua
  • University of Oviedo
  • Temple University
  • University of Zagreb
  • Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)