295 Works

Data from: Signatures of polygenic adaptation associated with climate across the range of a threatened fish species with high genetic connectivity

Katherine A. Harrisson, Stephen J. Amish, Alexandra Pavlova, Shawn R. Narum, Marina Telonis-Scott, Meaghan L. Rourke, Jarod Lyon, Zeb Tonkin, Dean M. Gilligan, Brett A. Ingram, Mark Lintermans, Han Ming Gan, Christopher M. Austin, Gordon Luikart & Paul Sunnucks
Adaptive differences across species’ ranges can have important implications for population persistence and conservation management decisions. Despite advances in genomic technologies, detecting adaptive variation in natural populations remains challenging. Key challenges in gene-environment association studies involve distinguishing the effects of drift from those of selection, and identifying subtle signatures of polygenic adaptation. We used paired-end restriction-site associated-DNA sequencing data (6605 biallelic single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNPs) to examine population structure and test for signatures of adaptation...

Data from: Conservation and divergence of gene expression plasticity following c. 140 million years of evolution in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and interior spruce (Picea glauca × Picea engelmannii)

Sam Yeaman, Kathryn A. Hodgins, Haktan Suren, Kristin A. Nurkowski, Jason A. Holliday, Loren H. Rieseberg & Sally N. Aitken
Species respond to environmental stress through a combination of genetic adaptation and phenotypic plasticity, both of which may be important for survival in the face of climatic change. By characterizing the molecular basis of plastic responses and comparing patterns among species, it is possible to identify how such traits evolve. Here, we use de novo transcriptome assembly and RNA-seq to explore how patterns of gene expression differ in response to temperature, moisture, and light regime...

Data from: Positive and purifying selection in mitochondrial genomes of a bird with mitonuclear discordance

Hernán E. Morales, Alexandra Pavlova, Leo Joseph & Paul Sunnucks
Diversifying selection on metabolic pathways can reduce intraspecific gene flow and promote population divergence. An opportunity to explore this arises from mitonuclear discordance observed in an Australian bird Eopsaltria australis. Across >1500 km, nuclear differentiation is low and latitudinally structured by isolation by distance, whereas two highly divergent, parapatric mitochondrial lineages (>6.6% in ND2) show a discordant longitudinal geographic pattern and experience different climates. Vicariance, incomplete lineage sorting and sex-biased dispersal were shown earlier to...

Data from: Reef fish functional traits evolve fastest at trophic extremes

Samuel R. Borstein, James A. Fordyce, Brian C. O'Meara, Peter C. Wainwright & Matthew D. McGee
Trophic ecology is thought to exert a profound influence on biodiversity, but the specifics of the process are rarely examined at large spatial and evolutionary scales. We investigate how trophic position and diet breadth influence functional trait evolution in one of the most species-rich and complex vertebrate assemblages, coral reef fishes, within a large-scale phylogenetic framework. We show that, in contrast with established theory, functional traits evolve fastest in trophic specialists with narrow diet breadths...

Data from: Climate-driven mitochondrial selection: a test in Australian songbirds

Annika M. Lamb, Han Ming Gan, Chris Greening, Leo Joseph, Yin P. Lee, Alejandra Morán-Ordóñez & Paul Sunnucks
Diversifying selection between populations that inhabit different environments can promote lineage divergence within species and ultimately drive speciation. The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) encodes essential proteins of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system and can be a strong target for climate-driven selection (i.e. associated with inhabiting different climates). We investigated whether Pleistocene climate changes drove mitochondrial selection and evolution within Australian birds. First, using phylogeographic analyses of the mitochondrial ND2 gene for 17 songbird species, we identified...

Data from: Is adaptation to climate change really constrained in niche specialists?

Carla M. Sgró & Belinda Van Heerwaarden
Species with restricted distributions make up the vast majority of biodiversity. Recent evidence suggests that Drosophila species with restricted tropical distributions lack genetic variation in the key trait of desiccation resistance. It has therefore been predicted that tropically restricted species will be limited in their evolutionary response to future climatic changes and will face higher risks of extinction. However, these assessments have been made using extreme levels of desiccation stress (less than 10% relative humidity...

Data from: Quantifying the relative contributions of the X chromosome, autosomes, and mitochondrial genome to local adaptation

Clementine Lasne, Belinda Van Heerwaarden, Carla M Sgro & Tim Connallon
During local adaptation with gene flow, some regions of the genome are inherently more responsive to selection than others. Recent theory predicts that X-linked genes should disproportionately contribute to local adaptation relative to other genomic regions, yet this prediction remains to be tested. We carried out a multi-generation crossing scheme, using two cline-end populations of Drosophila melanogaster, to estimate the relative contributions of the X chromosome, autosomes and mitochondrial genome to adaptive divergence in four...

Data from: A widespread thermodynamic effect, but maintenance of biological rates through space across life’s major domains

Jesper G. Sørensen, Craig R. White, Grant A. Duffy & Steven L. Chown
For over a century, the hypothesis of temperature compensation, the maintenance of similar biological rates in species from different thermal environments, has remained controversial. An alternative idea, that fitness is greater at higher temperatures (the thermodynamic effect), has gained increasing traction. This alternative hypothesis is also being used to understand large-scale biodiversity responses to environmental change. Yet evidence in favour of each of these contrasting hypotheses continues to emerge. In consequence, the fundamental nature of...

Data from: The quantitative genetic basis of clinal divergence in phenotypic plasticity

Belinda Van Heerwaarden & Carla M. Sgrò
Phenotypic plasticity is thought to be an important mechanism for adapting to environmental heterogeneity. Nonetheless, the genetic basis of plasticity is still not well understood. In Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans, body size and thermal stress resistance show clinal patterns along the east coast of Australia, and exhibit plastic responses to different developmental temperatures. The genetic basis of thermal plasticity, and whether the genetic effects underlying clinal variation in traits and their plasticity are similar,...

Developmental Cost Theory predicts thermal environment and vulnerability to global warming

Dustin Marshall, Amanda Pettersen, Michael Bode & Craig White
Metazoans must develop from zygotes to feeding organisms. In doing so, developing offspring consume up to 60% of the energy provided by their parent. The cost of development depends on two rates: metabolic rate, which determines the rate that energy is used; and developmental rate, which determines the length of the developmental period. Both development and metabolism are highly temperature-dependent such that developmental costs should be sensitive to the local thermal environment. Here we develop,...

The roles of acclimation and behavior in buffering climate change impacts along elevational gradients

Urtzi Enriquez-Urzelai, Reid Tingley, Michael Kearney, Martina Sacco, Antonio Palacio, Miguel Tejedo & Alfredo Nicieza
1. The vulnerability of species to climate change is jointly influenced by geographic phenotypic variation, acclimation, and behavioral thermoregulation. The importance of interactions between these factors, however, remains poorly understood. 2. We demonstrate how advances in mechanistic niche modelling can be used to integrate and assess the influence of these sources of uncertainty in forecasts of climate change impacts. 3. We explored geographic variation in thermal tolerance (i.e. maximum and minimum thermal limits) and its...

Effects of embryo energy, egg size and larval food supply on the development of asteroid echinoderms

Stacy Trackenberg, Emily Richardson & Jonathan Allen
Organisms have limited resources available to invest in reproduction, causing a tradeoff between the number and size of offspring. One consequence of this tradeoff is the evolution of disparate egg sizes and, by extension, developmental modes. In particular, echinoid echinoderms (sea urchins and sand dollars) have been widely used to experimentally manipulate how changes in egg size affect development. Here we test the generality of the echinoid results by 1) using laser ablations of blastomeres...

Data from: The global diversity and distribution of lizard clutch sizes

Shai Meiri, Luciano Avila, Aaron Bauer, David Chapple, Indraneil Das, Tiffany Doan, Paul Doughty, Ryan Ellis, Lee Grismer, Fred Kraus, Mariana Morando, Paul Oliver, Daniel Pincheira-Donoso, Marco-Antonio Ribeiro-Junior, Glenn Shea, Omar Torres-Carvajal, Alex Slavenko & Uri Roll
Aim. Clutch size is a key life-history trait. In lizards, it ranges over two orders of magnitude. The global drivers of spatial and phylogenetic variation in clutch have been extensively studied in birds, but such tests in other organisms are lacking. To test the generality of latitudinal gradients in clutch size, and their putative drivers, we present the first global-scale analysis of clutch sizes across of lizard taxa. Location, Global Time period. Recent Major taxa...

Impacts of caudal autotomy on personality

Marcus Michelangeli, Brooke Melki-Wegner, Kate Laskowski, Bob Wong & David Chapple
Caudal autotomy, the voluntary shedding of a tail, is a last-ditch strategy used by many lizard species to escape from predators. There are several costs associated with caudal autotomy that may cause lizards to make behavioral adjustments during tail regeneration. These behavioral changes may be dependent upon individual differences in response to autotomy (e.g. trait or state-dependent differences) and/or the degree of tail loss, as many lizards have the capacity to only partially shed their...

Multi-species models reveal that eDNA metabarcoding is more sensitive than backpack electrofishing for conducting fish surveys in freshwater streams

Emily McColl-Gausden, Andrew Weeks, Rhys Coleman, Katie Robinson, Sue Song, Tarmo Raadik & Reid Tingley
Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling can provide accurate, cost-effective, landscape-level data on species distributions. Previous studies have compared the sensitivity of eDNA sampling to traditional sampling methods for single species, but similar comparative studies on multi-species eDNA metabarcoding are rare. Using hierarchical species occupancy-detection models, we examined whether key choices associated with eDNA metabarcoding (primer selection, low-abundance read filtering, and the number of positive water samples used to classify a species as present at a site)...

Data from: Dyadic leader-follower dynamics change across situations in captive house sparrows

Beniamino Tuliozi, Ettore Camerlenghi & Matteo Griggio
Individuals can behave as either leaders or followers in many taxa of collectively-moving animals. Leaders initiate movements and may incur predation risks while followers are thought to be more risk-averse. As a group encounters different challenges and ecological situations, individuals in the group may change their social role. We investigated leader and follower roles using dyads of captive house sparrow (Passer domesticus) during both exploration of a novel environment and a simulation of predator attack....

Double-tagging scores of seabirds reveals that light-level geolocator accuracy is limited by species idiosyncrasies and equatorial solar profiles

Luke Halpin, Jeremy Ross, Raül Ramos, Rowan Mott, Nicholas Carlile, Nick Golding, José Manuel Reyes-González, Teresa Militão, Fernanda De Felipe, Zuzana Zajková, Marta Cruz Flores, Sarah Saldanha, Virginia Morera-Pujol, Leia Navarro-Herrero, Laura Zango, Jacob Gonzalez-Solis & Rohan Clarke
Light-level geolocators are popular bio-logging tools, with advantageous sizes, longevity, and affordability. Biologists tracking seabirds often presume geolocator spatial accuracies between 186-202 km from previously-innovative, yet taxonomically, spatially, and computationally limited, studies. Using recently developed methods, we investigated whether assumed uncertainty norms held across a larger-scale, multispecies study. We field-tested geolocator spatial accuracy by synchronously deploying these with GPS loggers on scores of seabirds across five species and 11 Mediterranean Sea, East Atlantic and South...

Natalizumab, fingolimod and dimethyl fumarate use and pregnancy-related relapse and disability in women with multiple sclerosis

Wei Yeh
Objective: To investigate pregnancy-related disease activity in a contemporary multiple sclerosis (MS) cohort. Methods: Using data from the MSBase Registry, we included pregnancies conceived after 31 Dec 2010 from women with relapsing-remitting MS or clinically isolated syndrome. Predictors of intrapartum relapse, and postpartum relapse and disability progression were determined by clustered logistic regression or Cox regression analyses. Results: We included 1998 pregnancies from 1619 women with MS. Preconception annualized relapse rate (ARR) was 0.29 (95%...

Data from: Environment-dependent variation in selection on life history across small spatial scales

Rolanda Lange, Keyne Monro & Dustin J. Marshall
Variation in life-history traits is ubiquitous, even though genetic variation is thought to be depleted by selection. One potential mechanism for the maintenance of trait variation is spatially-variable selection. We explored spatial variation in selection in the field for a colonial marine invertebrate that shows phenotypic differences across a depth gradient of only three meters. Our analysis included life-history traits relating to module size, colony growth and phenology. Directional selection on colony growth varied in...

Data from: A 34K SNP genotyping array for Populus trichocarpa: Design, application to the study of natural populations and transferability to other Populus species

Armando Geraldes, Steve P. DiFazio, Gancho T. Slavov, Priya Ranjan, Wellington Muchero, Jan Hannemann, Lee E. Gunter, Ann M. Wymore, Christopher J. Grassa, Nima Farzaneh, Ilga Porth, Athena D. Mckown, Oleksandr Skyba, Eryang Li, Miki Fujita, Jaroslav Klápště, Joel Martin, Wendy Schackwitz, Christa Pennacchio, Daniel Rokhsar, Michael C. Friedmann, Geoffrey O. Wasteneys, Robert D. Guy, Yousry A. El-Kassaby, Shawn D. Mansfield … & Gerald A. Tuskan
Genetic mapping of quantitative traits requires genotypic data for large numbers of markers in many individuals. For such studies, the use of large single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays still offers the most cost-effective solution. Herein we report on the design and performance of a SNP genotyping array for Populus trichocarpa (black cottonwood). This genotyping array was designed with SNPs pre-ascertained in 34 wild accessions covering most of the species latitudinal range. We adopted a...

Data from: Linking life-history theory and metabolic theory explains the offspring size-temperature relationship

Amanda K. Pettersen, Craig R. White, Robert J. Bryson-Richardson & Dustin J. Marshall
Temperature often affects maternal investment in offspring. Across and within species, mothers in colder environments generally produce larger offspring than mothers in warmer environments, but the underlying drivers of this relationship remain unresolved. We formally evaluated the ubiquity of the temperature-offspring size relationship and found strong support for a negative relationship across a wide variety of ectotherms. We then tested an explanation for this relationship that formally links life-history and metabolic theories. We estimated the...

Data from: Complexity of the genetic basis of aging in nature revealed by a clinal study of lifespan and methuselah, a gene for aging, in Drosophila from eastern Australia.

Carla M. Sgrò, Belinda Van Heerwaarden, Vanessa Kellermann, Choon Wei Wee, Ary A. Hoffmann & Siu Fai Lee
Clinal studies are a powerful tool for understanding the genetic basis of climatic adaptation. However, while clines in quantitative traits and genetic polymorphisms have been observed within and across continents, few studies have attempted to demonstrate direct links between them. The gene methuselah in Drosophila has been shown to have a major effect on stress response and longevity phenotypes based largely on laboratory studies of induced mutations in the mth gene. Clinal patterns in the...

Data from: High genetic variation in resting stage production in a metapopulation: is there evidence for local adaptation?

Anne Carole Roulin, Mahendra Mariadassou, Matthew D. Hall, Jean-Claude Walser, Christoph Haag & Dieter Ebert
Local adaptation is a key process for the maintenance of genetic diversity and population diversification. A better understanding of the mechanisms that allow (or prevent) local adaptation constitutes a key in apprehending how and at what spatial scale it occurs. The production of resting stages is found in many taxa and reflects an adaptation to outlast adverse environmental conditions. Daphnia magna (Crustacea) can alternate between asexual and sexual reproduction, the latter being linked to dormancy,...

Data from: Experience buffers extrinsic mortality in a group-living bird species

Michael Griesser, Emeline Mourocq, Jonathan Barnaby, Katharine Bowegen, Sönke Eggers, Kevin Fletcher, Radoslav Kozma, Franziska Kurz, Anssi Laurila, Magdalena Nystrand, Enrico Sorato, Jan Ekman & Katharine M. Bowgen
Extrinsic mortality has a strong impact on the evolution of life-histories, prey morphology and behavioural adaptations, but for many animals the causes of mortality are poorly understood. Predation is an important driver of extrinsic mortality and mobile animals form groups in response to increased predation risk. Furthermore, in many species juveniles suffer higher mortality than older individuals, which may reflect a lower phenotypic quality, lower competitiveness, or a lack of antipredator or foraging skills. Here...

Data from: Transgenerational interactions involving parental age and immune status affect female reproductive success in Drosophila melanogaster

Magdalena Nystrand & Damian K. Dowling
It is well established that the parental phenotype can influence offspring phenotypic expression, independent of the effects of the offspring's own genotype. Nonetheless, the evolutionary implications of such parental effects remain unclear, partly because previous studies have generally overlooked the potential for interactions between parental sources of non-genetic variance to influence patterns of offspring phenotypic expression. We tested for such interactions, subjecting male and female Drosophila melanogaster of two different age classes to an immune...

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  • Monash University
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  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
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  • University of Minnesota
  • La Trobe University