37 Works

Data from: Herbivore release drives parallel patterns of evolutionary divergence in invasive plant phenotypes

Akane Uesugi & André Kessler
1. Herbivory can drive rapid evolution of plant chemical traits mediating defensive and competitive ability. At a geographic scale, plant populations that escape selection from their ancestral herbivores may evolve decreased defense and increased competitiveness. While contrasts between native and invasive populations of plants lend support to this hypothesis, such experiments cannot establish causal links between herbivory and evolved invasive phenotypes. 2. Here, we conducted geographic contrasts, and coupled these with long-term selection experiments that...

Data from: Evolution under dietary restriction increases male reproductive performance without survival cost

Felix Zajitschek, Susanne R. K. Zajitschek, Cindy Canton, Grigorios Georgolopoulos, Urban Friberg & Alexei A. Maklakov
Dietary restriction (DR), a reduction in nutrient intake without malnutrition, is the most reproducible way to extend lifespan in a wide range of organisms across the tree of life, yet the evolutionary underpinnings of the DR effect on lifespan are still widely debated. The leading theory suggests that this effect is adaptive and results from reallocation of resources from reproduction to somatic maintenance in order to survive periods of famine in nature. However, such response...

Data from: The influence of balanced and imbalanced resource supply on biodiversity-functioning relationship across ecosystems

Aleksandra M. Lewandowska, Antje Biermann, Elizabeth T. Borer, Miguel A. Cebrian-Piqueras, Steven A. J. Declerck, Luc De Meester, Ellen Van Donk, Lars Gamfeldt, Daniel S. Gruner, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Kevin P. Kirkman, Christopher A. Klausmeier, Michael Kleyer, Johannes M. H. Knops, Pieter Lemmens, Eric M. Lind, Elena Litchman, Jasmin Mantilla-Contreras, Koen Martens, Sandra Meier, Vanessa Minden, Joslin L. Moore, Harry Olde Venterink, Eric W. Seabloom … & Helmut Hillebrand
Numerous studies show that increasing species richness leads to higher ecosystem productivity. This effect is often attributed to more efficient portioning of multiple resources in communities with higher numbers of competing species, indicating the role of resource supply and stoichiometry for biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationships. Here, we merged theory on ecological stoichiometry with a framework of biodiversity–ecosystem functioning to understand how resource use transfers into primary production. We applied a structural equation model to define patterns...

Data from: How do different aspects of biodiversity change through time? A case study on an Australian bird community

Jian D. L. Yen, James R. Thomson, Jonathan M. Keith, David M. Paganin & Ralph Mac Nally
The study of ecological communities through time can reveal fundamental ecological processes and is key to understanding how natural and human pressures will affect biodiversity. Most studies of ecological communities through time consider only one or a few summary measures (e.g. species richness, total abundance), which might neglect important aspects of community structure or function. We studied temporal variation in several measures of species diversity, size diversity, and species composition in an intensively sampled bird...

Data from: The relationship between diet and body mass in terrestrial mammals

Silvia Pineda-Munoz, Alistair R. Evans & John Alroy
Diet and body mass are highly important factors in mammalian ecology, and they have also proven to be powerful paleoecological indicators. Our previous research has proposed a new classification scheme for mammals with more dietary divisions that emphasizes the primary resource in a given diet. We analyzed a database summarizing the dietary preferences of 139 species of marsupial and placental terrestrial mammals (including 14 orders) and their average body masses in order to explore whether...

Data from: Female genital cosmetic surgery: a cross-sectional survey exploring knowledge, attitude and practice of general practitioners

Magdalena Simonis, Ramesh Manocha & Jason J. Ong
Objective To explore general practitioner's (GP) knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding female genital cosmetic surgery (FGCS) in Australia. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Australia. Sample GPs who attended a women's health seminar and GPs who subscribed to a non-governmental, national health professional organisation database that provides education to primary care professionals. Method A national online survey of GPs was conducted for the 10-week period, starting 1 week prior and 2 months after a Women's Health seminar...

Data from: Stage-specific plasticity in ovary size is regulated by insulin/insulin-like growth factor and ecdysone signalling in Drosophila

Cláudia C. Mendes & Christen K. Mirth
Animals from flies to humans adjust their development in response to environmental conditions through a series of developmental checkpoints, which alter the sensitivity of organs to environmental perturbation. Despite their importance, we know little about the molecular mechanisms through which this change in sensitivity occurs. Here we identify two phases of sensitivity to larval nutrition that contribute to plasticity in ovariole number, an important determinant of fecundity, in Drosophila melanogaster. These two phases of sensitivity...

Data from: Convergent local adaptation to climate in distantly related conifers

Sam Yeaman, Kathryn A. Hodgins, Katie E. Lotterhos, Haktan Suren, Simon Nadeau, Kristin A. Nurkowski, Pia Smets, Tongli Wang, Laura K. Gray, Katharina J. Liepe, Andreas Hamann, Jason A. Holliday, Michael C. Whitlock, Loren H. Rieseberg & Sally N. Aitken
When confronted with an adaptive challenge, such as extreme temperature, closely related species frequently evolve similar phenotypes using the same genes. Although such repeated evolution is thought to be less likely in highly polygenic traits and distantly related species, this has not been tested at the genome scale. We performed a population genomic study of convergent local adaptation among two distantly related species, lodgepole pine and interior spruce. We identified a suite of 47 genes,...

Data from: Evolutionary potential of the extrinsic incubation period of dengue virus in Aedes aegypti

Yixin H. Ye, Stephen F. Chenoweth, Alison M. Carrasco, Scott Lee Allen, Francesca D. Frentiu, Andrew F. Van Den Hurk, Nigel W. Beebe & Elizabeth A. McGraw
Dengue fever is the most common arboviral disease worldwide. It is caused by dengue viruses (DENV) and the mosquito Aedes aegypti is its primary vector. One of the most powerful determinants of a mosquito's ability to transmit DENV is the length of the extrinsic incubation period (EIP), the time it takes for a virus to be transmitted by a mosquito after consuming an infected blood meal. Here, we repeatedly measured DENV load in the saliva...

Data from: Scope for genetic rescue of an endangered subspecies though re-establishing natural gene flow with another subspecies

Katherine A. Harrisson, Alexandra Pavlova, Anders Gonçalves Da Silva, Rebecca Rose, James K. Bull, Melanie L. Lancaster, Neil Murray, Bruce Quin, Peter Menkhorst, Michael J. Magrath, Paul Sunnucks & Michael J. L. Magrath
Genetic diversity is positively linked to the viability and evolutionary potential of species but is often compromised in threatened taxa. Genetic rescue by gene flow from a more diverse or differentiated source population of the same species can be an effective strategy for alleviating inbreeding depression and boosting evolutionary potential. The helmeted honeyeater Lichenostomus melanops cassidix is a critically endangered subspecies of the common yellow-tufted honeyeater. Cassidix has declined to a single wild population of...

Data from: Environment-dependent variation in selection on life history across small spatial scales

Rolanda Lange, Keyne Monro & Dustin J. Marshall
Variation in life-history traits is ubiquitous, even though genetic variation is thought to be depleted by selection. One potential mechanism for the maintenance of trait variation is spatially-variable selection. We explored spatial variation in selection in the field for a colonial marine invertebrate that shows phenotypic differences across a depth gradient of only three meters. Our analysis included life-history traits relating to module size, colony growth and phenology. Directional selection on colony growth varied in...

Data from: The role of inhibitory dynamics in the loss and re-emergence of macropodoid tooth traits

Aidan M. C. Couzens, Alistair Robert Evans, Matthew M. Skinner & Gavin J. Prideaux
The reversibility of phenotypic evolution is likely to be strongly influenced by the ability of underlying developmental systems to generate ancestral traits. However, few studies have quantitatively linked these developmental dynamics to traits which re-evolve. In this study we assess how changes in the inhibitory cascade, a developmental system that regulates relative tooth size in mammals, influenced the loss and reversals of the posthypocristid, a molar tooth crest, in the kangaroo superfamily Macropodoidea. We find...

Data from: Identifying environmental correlates of intraspecific genetic variation

Katherine A. Harrisson, Jian D. L. Yen, Alexandra Pavlova, Meaghan L. Rourke, Dean Gilligan, Brett A. Ingram, Jarod Lyon, Zeb Tonkin & Paul Sunnucks
Genetic variation is critical to the persistence of populations and their capacity to adapt to environmental change. The distribution of genetic variation across a species' range can reveal critical information that is not necessarily represented in species occurrence or abundance patterns. We identified environmental factors associated with the amount of intraspecific, individual-based genetic variation across the range of a widespread freshwater fish species, the Murray cod Maccullochella peelii. We used two different approaches to statistically...

Data from: Incest avoidance, extrapair paternity, and territory quality drive divorce in a year-round territorial bird.

Nataly Hidalgo Aranzamendi, Michelle L. Hall, Sjouke A. Kingma, Paul Sunnucks & Anne Peters
Divorce can be an important behavioral strategy to improve fitness. This is particularly relevant for species that are territorial year-round with continuous partnerships, where individuals face constraints on partner choice due to limited vacancies and dispersal opportunities. We tested several hypotheses for divorce in such a species, the cooperatively breeding bird Malurus coronatus. Based on 9 years of detailed information on dispersal and survival of 317 breeding pairs, we tested whether divorce is driven by...

Data from: Does the house sparrow Passer domesticus represent a global model species for egg rejection behavior?

Thomas Manna, Caren Cooper, Shane Baylis, Matthew D. Shawkey, Geoffrey I. N. Waterhouse, Tomas Grim & Mark E. Hauber
Conspecific brood parasitism (CP) is a facultative breeding tactic whereby females lay their eggs in the nests of conspecifics. In some species, potential host individuals have evolved the ability to identify and reject foreign eggs from their nest. Previous studies suggest that the ubiquitous House Sparrow Passer domesticus in Spain and South Africa employs both CP and parasitic egg rejection, while a population in China does not. Given the species’ invasive range expansions, the House...

Data from: Transgenerational plasticity following a dual pathogen and stress challenge in fruit flies

Magdalena Nystrand, Elizabeth J. Cassidy & Damian K. Dowling
Background: Phenotypic plasticity operates across generations, when the parental environment affects phenotypic expression in the offspring. Recent studies in invertebrates have reported transgenerational plasticity in phenotypic responses of offspring when the mothers had been previously exposed to either live or heat-killed pathogens. Understanding whether this plasticity is adaptive requires a factorial design in which both mothers and their offspring are subjected to either the pathogen challenge or a control, in experimentally matched and mismatched combinations....

Data from: Metabolic rate covaries with fitness and the pace of the life history in the field

Amanda K. Pettersen, Craig R. White, Dustin Marshall & Dustin J. Marshall
Metabolic rate reflects the ‘pace of life’ in every organism. Metabolic rate is related to an organism's capacity for essential maintenance, growth and reproduction—all of which interact to affect fitness. Although thousands of measurements of metabolic rate have been made, the microevolutionary forces that shape metabolic rate remain poorly resolved. The relationship between metabolic rate and components of fitness are often inconsistent, possibly because these fitness components incompletely map to actual fitness and often negatively...

Data from: Climate modifies response of non-native and native species richness to nutrient enrichment

Habacuc Flores-Moreno, Peter B. Reich, Eric M. Lind, Lauren L. Sullivan, Eric W. Seabloom, Laura Yahdjian, Andrew S. MacDougall, Lara G. Reichmann, Juan Alberti, Selene Báez, Jonathan D. Bakker, Marc W. Cadotte, Maria C. Caldeira, Enrique J. Chaneton, Carla M. D'Antonio, Philip A. Fay, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Oscar Iribarne, Kevin P. Kirkman, Johannes M. H. Knops, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Ramesh Laungani, Andrew D. B. Leakey … & Elizabeth T. Borer
Ecosystem eutrophication often increases domination by non-natives and causes displacement of native taxa. However, variation in environmental conditions may affect the outcome of interactions between native and non-native taxa in environments where nutrient supply is elevated. We examined the interactive effects of eutrophication, climate variability and climate average conditions on the success of native and non-native plant species using experimental nutrient manipulations replicated at 32 grassland sites on four continents. We hypothesized that effects of...

Data from: Habitat saturation promotes delayed dispersal in a social reptile

Ben Halliwell, Tobias Uller, David G. Chapple, Michael G. Gardner, Erik Wapstra & Geoffrey M. While
When and where offspring disperse has important implications for the evolutionary emergence and maintenance of group living. In non-cooperative breeders, direct benefits of delayed dispersal are relatively limited, suggesting that decisions regarding whether or not to remain in the parental territory are largely driven by the availability of suitable habitat in which to settle. While there is ample evidence of correlations between habitat saturation and delayed dispersal, experimental tests are rare, particularly for species with...

Data from: Modification of plant-induced responses by an insect ecosystem engineer influences the colonization behaviour of subsequent shelter-users

Akane Uesugi, Kimberly Morrell, Erik H. Poelman, Ciska E. Raaijmakers & André Kessler
Herbivores that modify plant morphology, such as gall forming insects, can disproportionately impact arthropod community on their host plants by providing novel habitats and shelters from biotic and abiotic stresses. These ecosystem engineers could also modify plant chemical properties, but how such changes in plant quality affect the behaviour of subsequent colonizers has rarely been investigated. We explored how an initial infestation of the tall goldenrod (Solidago altissima) by an ecosystem engineer, the rosette gall-midge...

Data from: Constructing an invasion machine: the rapid evolution of a dispersal-enhancing phenotype during the cane toad invasion of Australia

Cameron M. Hudson, Matthew R. McCurry, Petra Lundgren, Colin R. McHenry & Rick Shine
Biological invasions can induce rapid evolutionary change. As cane toads (Rhinella marina) have spread across tropical Australia over an 80-year period, their rate of invasion has increased from around 15 to 60 km per annum. Toads at the invasion front disperse much faster and further than conspecifics from range-core areas, and their offspring inherit that rapid dispersal rate. We investigated morphological changes that have accompanied this dramatic acceleration, by conducting three-dimensional morphometric analyses of toads...

Data from: Floral colours in a world without birds and bees: the plants of Macquarie Island

Mani Shrestha, Klaus Lunau, Alan Dorin, Brian Schulze, Mascha Bischoff, Martin Burd & Adrian G. Dyer
We studied biotically pollinated angiosperms on Macquarie Island, a remote site in the Southern Ocean with a predominately or exclusively dipteran pollinator fauna, in an effort to understand how flower colour affects community assembly. We compared a distinctive group of cream-green Macquarie Island flowers to the flora of likely source pools of immigrants and to a continental flora from a high latitude in the northern hemisphere. We used both dipteran and hymenopteran colour models and...

Data from: Relating Ediacaran fronds

Thomas Alexander Dececchi, Guy M. Narbonne, Carolyn Greentree & Marc Laflamme
Ediacaran fronds are key components of terminal-Proterozoic ecosystems. They represent one of the most widespread and common body forms ranging across all major Ediacaran fossil localities and time slices postdating the Gaskiers glaciation, but uncertainty over their phylogenetic affinities has led to uncertainty over issues of homology and functional morphology between and within organisms displaying this ecomorphology. Here we present the first large-scale, multigroup cladistic analysis of Ediacaran organisms, sampling 20 ingroup taxa with previously...

Data from: Reproductive activity triggers accelerated male mortality and decreases lifespan: genetic and gene expression determinants in Drosophila

Alan T. Branco, Luca Schilling, Katherine Silkaitis, Damian K. Dowling & Bernardo Lemos
Reproduction and aging evolved to be intimately associated. Experimental selection for early-life reproduction drives the evolution of decreased longevity in Drosophila whereas experimental selection for increased longevity leads to changes in reproduction. Although life history theory offers hypotheses to explain these relationships, the genetic architecture and molecular mechanisms underlying reproduction–longevity associations remain a matter of debate. Here we show that mating triggers accelerated mortality in males and identify hundreds of genes that are modulated upon...

Data from: The other 96%: can neglected sources of fitness variation offer new insights into adaptation to global change?

Evatt Chirgwin, Dustin J. Marshall, Carla M. Sgro & Keyne Monro
Mounting research considers whether populations may adapt to global change based on additive genetic variance in fitness. Yet selection acts on phenotypes, not additive genetic variance alone, meaning that persistence and evolutionary potential in the near-term, at least, may be influenced by other sources of fitness variation, including non-additive genetic and maternal environmental effects. The fitness consequences of these effects, and their environmental sensitivity, are largely unknown. Here, applying a quantitative genetic breeding design to...

Registration Year

  • 2016
    37

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    37

Affiliations

  • Monash University
    37
  • University of Melbourne
    4
  • University of Queensland
    3
  • University of Toronto
    3
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
    2
  • University of Minnesota
    2
  • Nederlands Instituut voor Ecologie
    2
  • Flinders University
    2
  • University of Tasmania
    2
  • University of Sydney
    2