49 Works

Data from: Enhancing plant diversity in a novel grassland using seed addition

Tara J. Zamin, Alex Jolly, Steve Sinclair, John W. Morgan & Joslin L. Moore
1.Restoration of novel ecosystems to a historical benchmark may not always be possible or advisable. Novel ecosystems may be managed by targeting specific components and accepting the novelty of other ecosystem attributes. The feasibility of this component-wise management of novel ecosystems has rarely been tested. 2.In a novel grassland, where C3 grasses have replaced C4 grasses, nutrients have been elevated, and diversity has been lost due to a history of agricultural land use, we aimed...

Data from: Experience buffers extrinsic mortality in a group-living bird species

Michael Griesser, Emeline Mourocq, Jonathan Barnaby, Katharine Bowegen, Sönke Eggers, Kevin Fletcher, Radoslav Kozma, Franziska Kurz, Anssi Laurila, Magdalena Nystrand, Enrico Sorato, Jan Ekman & Katharine M. Bowgen
Extrinsic mortality has a strong impact on the evolution of life-histories, prey morphology and behavioural adaptations, but for many animals the causes of mortality are poorly understood. Predation is an important driver of extrinsic mortality and mobile animals form groups in response to increased predation risk. Furthermore, in many species juveniles suffer higher mortality than older individuals, which may reflect a lower phenotypic quality, lower competitiveness, or a lack of antipredator or foraging skills. Here...

Data from: Assessing the sensitivity of biodiversity indices used to inform fire management

Katherine M. Giljohann, Luke T. Kelly, Jemima Connell, Michael F. Clarke, Rohan H. Clarke, Tracey J. Regan & Michael A. McCarthy
Biodiversity indices are widely used to summarise changes in the distribution and abundance of multiple species and measure progress towards management targets. However, the sensitivity of biodiversity indices to the data, landscape classification and conservation values underpinning them are rarely interrogated. There are limited studies to help scientists and land managers use biodiversity indices in the presence of fire and vegetation succession. The geometric mean of species’ relative abundance or occurrence (G) is a biodiversity...

Data from: Signatures of polygenic adaptation associated with climate across the range of a threatened fish species with high genetic connectivity

Katherine A. Harrisson, Stephen J. Amish, Alexandra Pavlova, Shawn R. Narum, Marina Telonis-Scott, Meaghan L. Rourke, Jarod Lyon, Zeb Tonkin, Dean M. Gilligan, Brett A. Ingram, Mark Lintermans, Han Ming Gan, Christopher M. Austin, Gordon Luikart & Paul Sunnucks
Adaptive differences across species’ ranges can have important implications for population persistence and conservation management decisions. Despite advances in genomic technologies, detecting adaptive variation in natural populations remains challenging. Key challenges in gene-environment association studies involve distinguishing the effects of drift from those of selection, and identifying subtle signatures of polygenic adaptation. We used paired-end restriction-site associated-DNA sequencing data (6605 biallelic single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNPs) to examine population structure and test for signatures of adaptation...

Data from: Climate-driven mitochondrial selection: a test in Australian songbirds

Annika M. Lamb, Han Ming Gan, Chris Greening, Leo Joseph, Yin P. Lee, Alejandra Morán-Ordóñez & Paul Sunnucks
Diversifying selection between populations that inhabit different environments can promote lineage divergence within species and ultimately drive speciation. The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) encodes essential proteins of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system and can be a strong target for climate-driven selection (i.e. associated with inhabiting different climates). We investigated whether Pleistocene climate changes drove mitochondrial selection and evolution within Australian birds. First, using phylogeographic analyses of the mitochondrial ND2 gene for 17 songbird species, we identified...

Data from: Detecting elusive aspects of wildlife ecology using drones: new insights on the mating dynamics and operational sex ratios of sea turtles

Gail Schofield, Kostas A. Katselidis, Martin K. S. Lilley, Richard D. Reina & Graeme C. Hays
Offspring and breeding (operational) sex ratios (OSR) are a key component of demographic studies. While offspring sex ratios are often relatively easy to measure, measuring OSRs is often far more problematic. Yet highly skewed OSRs, and a lack of male-female encounters, may be an important extinction driver. Using loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) as a case study, we showed the utility of drones, i.e. unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to distinguish adult males and females in...

Data from: Task-related effective connectivity reveals that the cortical rich club gates cortex-wide communication

Mario Senden, Niels Reuter, Martijn P. Van Den Heuvel, Rainer Goebel, Gustavo Deco & Matthieu Gilson
Higher cognition may require the globally coordinated integration of specialized brain regions into functional networks. A collection of structural cortical hubs—referred to as the rich club—has been hypothesized to support task-specific functional integration. In the present paper, we use a whole-cortex model to estimate directed interactions between 68 cortical regions from functional magnetic resonance imaging activity for four different tasks (reflecting different cognitive domains) and resting state. We analyze the state-dependent input and output effective...

Data from: How important is thermal history? Evidence for lasting effects of developmental temperature on upper thermal limits in Drosophila melanogaster

Vanessa Kellermann, Belinda Van Heerwaarden & Carla M. Sgrò
A common practice in thermal biology is to take individuals directly from the field and estimate a range of thermal traits. These estimates are then used in studies aiming to understand broad scale distributional patterns, understanding and predicting the evolution of phenotypic plasticity, and generating predictions for climate change risk. However, the use of field-caught individuals in such studies ignores the fact that many traits are phenotypically plastic and will be influenced by the thermal...

Data from: The quantitative genetic basis of clinal divergence in phenotypic plasticity

Belinda Van Heerwaarden & Carla M. Sgrò
Phenotypic plasticity is thought to be an important mechanism for adapting to environmental heterogeneity. Nonetheless, the genetic basis of plasticity is still not well understood. In Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans, body size and thermal stress resistance show clinal patterns along the east coast of Australia, and exhibit plastic responses to different developmental temperatures. The genetic basis of thermal plasticity, and whether the genetic effects underlying clinal variation in traits and their plasticity are similar,...

Data from: Does increased heat resistance result in higher susceptibility to predation? A test using (Drosophila melanogaster) selection and hardening

Sandra Hangartner, Ian Dworkin, Michael DeNieu & Ary A. Hoffmann
Heat resistance of ectotherms can be increased both by plasticity and evolution, but these effects may have trade-offs resulting from biotic interactions. Here we test for predation costs in Drosophila melanogaster populations with altered heat resistance produced by adult hardening and directional selection for increased heat resistance. In addition, we also tested for genetic trade-offs by testing heat resistance in lines that have evolved under increased predation risk. We show that while 35/37°C hardening increases...

Data from: Investigating movement in the laboratory: dispersal apparatus designs and the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

Pieter A. Arnold, Michelle A. Rafter, Rokhsareh Malekpour, Phillip Cassey, Gimme H. Walter & Craig R. White
The natural dispersal of Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) has been emulated in the laboratory for more than 50 years, using a simple dispersal apparatus. This has typically comprised of a starting container (initial resource or patch) connected by tubing, which contains thread for the animals to climb into a tube and hence to an end container. That is, beetles move to a new viable resource or patch from an inter-patch zone or non-viable habitat....

Data from: Does the cost of development scale allometrically with offspring size?

Amanda K. Pettersen, Craig R. White, Robert J. Bryson-Richardson & Dustin J. Marshall
1.Within many species, larger offspring have higher fitness. While the presence of an offspring size-fitness relationship is canonical in life-history theory, the mechanisms that determine why this relationship exists are unclear. 2.Linking metabolic theory to life-history theory could provide a general explanation for why larger offspring often perform better than smaller offspring. In many species, energy reserves at the completion of development drive differences in offspring fitness. Development is costly so any factor that decreases...

Data from: Predicting forest insect flight activity: a Bayesian network approach

Stephen M. Pawson, Owen G. Woodberry & Bruce G. Marcot
Daily flight activity patterns of forest insects are influenced by temporal and meteorological conditions. Temperature and time of day are frequently cited as key drivers of activity; however, complex interactions between multiple contributing factors have also been proposed. Here, we report individual Bayesian network models to assess the probability of flight activity of three exotic insects, Hylurgus ligniperda, Hylastes ater, and Arhopalus ferus in a managed plantation forest context. Models were built from 7,144 individual...

Data from: The contribution of the mitochondrial genome to sex-specific fitness variance

Shane R. T. Smith & Tim Connallon
Maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) facilitates the evolutionary accumulation of mutations with sex-biased fitness effects. Whereas maternal inheritance closely aligns mtDNA evolution with natural selection in females, it makes it indifferent to evolutionary changes that exclusively benefit males. The constrained response of mtDNA to selection in males can lead to asymmetries in the relative contributions of mitochondrial genes to female versus male fitness variation. Here, we examine the impact of genetic drift and the...

Data from: Field manipulations of resources mediate the transition from intraspecific competition to facilitation

Karin Svanfeldt, Keyne Monro & Dustin J. Marshall
1. Population density affects individual performance, though its effects are often mixed. For sessile species, increases in population density typically reduce performance. Still, cases of positive density dependence do occur in these systems and demand explanation. The stress gradient hypothesis (SGH) predicts that under stressful conditions, positive effects of facilitation may outweigh the negative effects of competition. 2. While some elements of the SGH are well studied, its potential to explain intraspecific facilitation has received...

Data from: Patterns and drivers of aquatic invertebrate diversity across an arid biome

Jenny Davis, Lien Sim, Ross M. Thompson, Adrian Pinder, Jayne Brim Box, Nick P. Murphy, Fran Sheldon, Alejandra Morán-Ordóñez, Paul Sunnucks & Nicholas P. Murphy
Managing and restoring faunal diversity across large areas requires an understanding of the roles of connectivity and dispersal in driving community patterns. We sought to determine the influence of connectivity, water regime, water source, geographical location, and dispersal traits on patterns of aquatic invertebrate diversity across a continent-wide arid biome. We compiled data on freshwater invertebrate assemblages from sites spanning the breadth of arid Australia. Univariate analyses (analysis of variance and rarefaction) revealed that alpha...

Data from: Sexual selection on spontaneous mutations strengthens the between-sex genetic correlation for fitness

Scott Lee Allen, Katrina McGuigan, Tim Connallon, Mark W. Blows & Stephen F. Chenoweth
A proposed benefit to sexual selection is that it promotes purging of deleterious mutations from populations. For this benefit to be realised, sexual selection, which is usually stronger on males, must purge mutations deleterious to both sexes. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that sexual selection on males purges deleterious mutations that affect both male and female fitness. We measured male and female fitness in two panels of spontaneous mutation-accumulation lines of the fly, Drosophila...

Data from: Artificial barriers prevent genetic recovery of small isolated populations of a low-mobility freshwater fish

Rhys A. Coleman, Bertrand Gauffre, Alexandra Pavlova, Luciano B. Beheregaray, Joanne Kearns, Jarod Lyon, Minami Sasaki, Raphael Leblois, Carla Sgro & Paul Sunnucks
Habitat loss and fragmentation often result in small, isolated populations vulnerable to environmental disturbance and loss of genetic diversity. Low genetic diversity can increase extinction risk of small populations by elevating inbreeding and inbreeding depression, and reducing adaptive potential. Due to their linear nature and extensive use by humans, freshwater ecosystems are especially vulnerable to habitat loss and fragmentation. Although the effects of fragmentation on genetic structure have been extensively studied in migratory fish, they...

Data from: Sex-specific shifts in morphology and colour pattern polymorphism during range expansion of an invasive lizard

Kimberly A. Miller, Andressa Duran, Jane Melville, Michael B. Thompson & David G. Chapple
Aim: Human-assisted range expansion of animals to new environments can lead to phenotypic shifts over ecological timescales.We investigated whether phenotypic changes are sex-specific using an invasive lizard (Lampropholis delicata). Location: Pacific region (Hawaiian Islands, Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, eastern Australia) Methods: Using our knowledge of theintroduction history of L. delicata, we examined museum specimens of individuals collected across the native and introduced range to determine whether shifts in morphologyor colour pattern polymorphism had occurred...

Data from: Integrating thermal physiology within a syndrome: locomotion, personality and habitat selection in an ectotherm

Marcus Michelangeli, Celine T. Goulet, Hee S. Kang, Bob B.M. Wong, David G. Chapple & Bob B. M. Wong
1. Physiology and temperature can both have a profound influence on behaviour and metabolism. Despite this, thermal physiology has rarely been considered within the animal personality framework, but could be an inherent mechanism maintaining consistent individual differences in behaviour, particularly in species that need to thermoregulate (i.e. ectotherms). 2. Here, we present evidence for a thermal-behavioural syndrome and detail how it is linked to variation in habitat selection in an Australian lizard, the delicate skink,...

Data from: A 20-year investigation of declining leatherback hatching success: implications of climate variation

Anthony R. Rafferty, Christopher P. Johnstone, Jeanne A. Garner & Richard D. Reina
Unprecedented increases in air temperature and erratic precipitation patterns are predicted throughout the 21st century as a result of climate change. A recent global analysis of leatherback turtle hatchling output predicts that the nesting site at Sandy Point National Wildlife Refuge (SPNWR) will experience the most significant regional climate alterations. We aimed to identify how local air temperatures and precipitation patterns influenced within nest mortality and overall hatchling output at this site between 1990 –...

Data from: The statistical mechanics of human weight change

John C. Lang, Hans De Sterck & Daniel M. Abrams
Over the past 35 years there has been a near doubling in the worldwide prevalence of obesity. Body Mass Index (BMI) distributions in high-income societies have increasingly shifted rightwards, corresponding to increases in average BMI that are due to well-studied changes in the socioeconomic environment. However, in addition to this shift, BMI distributions have also shown marked changes in their particular shape over time, exhibiting an ongoing right-skewed broadening that is not well understood. Here,...

Data from: Sex and genotype effects on nutrient-dependent fitness landscapes in Drosophila melanogaster

M. Florencia Camus, Kevin Fowler, Matthew W.D. Piper, Max Reuter & Matthew W. D. Piper
The sexes perform different reproductive roles and have evolved sometimes strikingly different phenotypes. One focal point of adaptive divergence occurs in the context of diet and metabolism, and males and females of a range of species have been shown to require different nutrients to maximize their fitness. Biochemical analyses in Drosophila melanogaster have confirmed that dimorphism in dietary requirements is associated with molecular sex differences in metabolite titres. In addition, they also showed significant within-sex...

Data from: Assessment of dynamic material properties of intact rocks using seismic wave attenuation: an experimental study

W.A.M. Wanniarachchi, P.G. Ranjith, M.S.A. Perera, Tharaka D. Rathnaweera, Qiao Lyu, Bankim Mahanta, M. S. A. Perera, P. G. Ranjith & W. A. M. Wanniarachchi
The mechanical properties of any substance are essential facts to understand its behaviour and make the maximum use of the particular substance. Rocks are indeed an important substance, as they are of significant use in the energy industry, specifically for fossil fuels and geothermal energy. Attenuation of seismic waves is a non-destructive technique to investigate mechanical properties of reservoir rocks under different conditions. The attenuation characteristics of five different rock types, siltstone, shale, Australian sandstone,...

Data from: Increasing the accuracy and precision of relative telomere length estimates by RT qPCR

Justin R. Eastwood, Ellis Mulder, Simon Verhulst & Anne Peters
Since attrition of telomeres, DNA caps that protect chromosome integrity, is accelerated by various forms of stress, telomere length (TL) has been proposed as an indicator of lifetime accumulated stress. In ecological studies it has been used to provide insights into aging, life-history trade-offs, the costs of reproduction and disease. qPCR is a high throughput and cost effective tool to measure relative TL (rTL) that can be applied to newly-collected and archived ecological samples. However,...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    49

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    49

Affiliations

  • Monash University
    49
  • University of Melbourne
    7
  • University of Queensland
    5
  • La Trobe University
    4
  • Deakin University
    3
  • University of Sydney
    3
  • University of Canberra
    3
  • Monash University Malaysia
    2
  • University of Groningen
    2
  • Flinders University
    2