31 Works

Clinician-researcher’s perspectives on clinical research during the COVID-19 pandemic

Sarah Silverberg, Lisa Puchalski-Ritchie, Nina Gobat, Alistair Nichol & Srinavas Murthy
Objectives: The outcome of well-performed clinical research is essential for evidence-based patient management during pandemics. However, conducting clinical research amidst a pandemic requires researchers to balance clinical and research demands. We seek to understand the values, experiences, and beliefs of physicians working at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in order to inform clinical research planning. We aim to understand whether pandemic settings affect physician comfort with research practices, and how physician experiences shape their...

Delayed adaptive radiation among New Zealand stream fishes: joint estimation of divergence time and trait evolution in a newly delineated island species flock

Christine Thacker, James Shelley, William McCraney, Peter Unmack & Matthew McGee
Adaptive radiations are generally thought to occur soon after a lineage invades a region offering high levels of ecological opportunity. However, few adaptive radiations beyond a handful of exceptional examples are known, so a comprehensive understanding of their dynamics is still lacking. Here, we present a novel case of an island species flock of freshwater fishes with a radically different tempo of adaptive history than that found in many popular evolutionary model systems. Using a...

Chronic insomnia and bed partner actigraphy data

Maia Angelova, Shitanshu Kusmakar, Chandan Karmakar, Ye Zhu, Sergiy Shelyag, Sean Drummond & Jason Ellis
The files contain seven nights of continuous actigraphy measurements of 40 subjects with chronic insomnia and their 40 bed partners. Wrist actigraphy was used, collected for one week using Respironics Actiwatch Spectrum Pro and Actiware software (Respironics, Bend, OR, USA), with movement counts were sampled in 60-second epochs. All recruited subjects wore the devices at all times during day and night. All subjects were free to move and were not prohibited from doing any activities...

Parasitism and host dispersal plasticity in an aquatic model system

Giacomo Zilio, Louise Nørgaard, Giovanni Petrucci, Nathalie Zeballos, Claire Gougat-Barbera, Emanuel Fronhofer & Oliver Kaltz
Dispersal is a central determinant of spatial dynamics in communities and ecosystems, and various ecological factors can shape the evolution of constitutive and plastic dispersal behaviours. One important driver of dispersal plasticity is the biotic environment. Parasites, for example, influence the internal condition of infected hosts and define external patch quality. Thus state-dependent dispersal may be determined by infection status and context-dependent dispersal by the abundance of infected hosts in the population. A prerequisite for...

Effectiveness of community-based health education and home support program to reduce blood pressure among patients with uncontrolled hypertension in Nepal: A cluster-randomized trial

Mahesh Kumar Khanal, Pratiksha Bhandari, Raja Ram Dhungana, Pratik Bhandari, Lal Rawal, Yadav Gurung, K. N. Paudel, Amit Singh, Surya Devkota & Barbora De Courten
Background: Hypertension is a major global public health problem. Elevated blood pressure can cause cardiovascular and kidney diseases. We assessed the effectiveness of health education sessions and home support programs in reducing blood pressure among patients with uncontrolled hypertension in a suburban community of Nepal. Methods: We conducted a community-based, open-level, parallel-group, cluster randomized controlled trial in Birendranagar municipality of Surkhet, Nepal. We randomly assigned four clusters (wards) into intervention and control arms. We provided...

A non-coding indel polymorphism in the fruitless gene of Drosophila melanogaster exhibits antagonistically pleiotropic fitness effects

Michael Jardine, Filip Ruzicka, Charlotte Diffley, Kevin Fowler & Max Reuter
The amount of genetic variation for fitness within populations tends to exceed that expected under mutation-selection-drift balance. Several mechanisms have been proposed to actively maintain polymorphism and account for this discrepancy, including antagonistic pleiotropy (AP), where allelic variants have opposing effects on different components of fitness. Here we identify a non-coding indel polymorphism in the fruitless gene of Drosophila melanogaster and measure survival and reproductive components of fitness in males and females of replicate lines...

Bird community recovery following invasive tree removal

Roslyn Gleadow, Benjamin O'Leary, Martin Burd & Susanna Venn
Invasive plants can lead to significant changes in the abundance and diversity of the existing flora. Restoration programs, therefore, largely focus on the recovery of the vegetation. Faunal responses have received less attention. Here we examined whether or not bird communities recovered following removal of a native, invasive tree in South Eastern Australia with a view to evaluating whether this could be used as a tool for assessing the effectiveness of the remediation programs. Pittosporum...

Field-realistic antidepressant exposure disrupts group foraging dynamics in mosquitofish

Jake Martin, Minna Saaristo, Hung Tan, Michael Bertram, Venkatesh Nagarajan-Radha, Damian Dowling & Bob Wong
Psychoactive pollutants, such as antidepressants, are increasingly detected in the environment. Mounting evidence suggests that such pollutants can disrupt the behaviour of non-target species. Despite this, few studies have considered how the response of exposed organisms might be mediated by social context. To redress this, we investigated the impacts of two environmentally realistic concentrations of a pervasive antidepressant pollutant, fluoxetine, on foraging behaviour in fish (Gambusia holbrooki), tested individually or in a group. Fluoxetine did...

Analysis of ancestry heterozygosity suggests that hybrid incompatibilities in threespine stickleback are environment-dependent

Ken Thompson, Catherine Peichel, Diana Rennison, Matthew McGee, Arianne Albert, Timothy Vines, Anna Greenwood, Abigail Wark, Yaniv Brandvain, Molly Schumer & Dolph Schluter
Hybrid incompatibilities occur when interactions between opposite-ancestry alleles at different loci reduce the fitness of hybrids. Most work on incompatibilities has focused on those that are 'intrinsic', meaning they affect viability and sterility in the laboratory. Theory predicts that ecological selection can also underlie hybrid incompatibilities, but tests of this hypothesis using sequence data are scarce. In this article, we compiled genetic data for F2 hybrid crosses between divergent populations of threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus...

Data from: Opsins in Onychophora (velvet worms) suggest a single origin and subsequent diversification of visual pigments in arthropods

Lars Hering, Miriam J. Henze, Martin Kohler, Almut Kelber, Christoph Bleidorn, Maren Leschke, Birgit Nickel, Matthias Meyer, Martin Kircher, Paul Sunnucks & Georg Mayer
Multiple visual pigments, prerequisites for color vision, are found in arthropods, but the evolutionary origin of their diversity remains obscure. In this study, we explore the opsin genes in five distantly related species of Onychophora, using deep transcriptome sequencing and screening approaches. Surprisingly, our data reveal the presence of only one opsin gene (onychopsin) in each onychophoran species, and our behavioral experiments indicate a maximum sensitivity of onychopsin to blue–green light. In our phylogenetic analyses,...

Data from: Plastic but not adaptive: habitat-driven differences in metabolic rate despite no differences in selection between habitats

Lukas Schuster, Craig White & Dustin Marshall
Metabolic plasticity in response to different environmental conditions is widespread across taxa. It is reasonable to expect that such plasticity should be adaptive, but only few studies have determined the adaptive significance of metabolic plasticity by formally estimating selection on metabolic rate under different environmental conditions. We used a model marine colonial invertebrate, Bugula neritina to examine selection on metabolic rate in a harsh and a benign environment in the field, then tested whether these...

Condition-dependent sexual reproduction is driven by benefits, not costs of sex

Isobel Booksmythe, Jessica Lever, Sally Drapes & Matthew Hall
Facultative sexual organisms must allocate resources to both asexual and sexual reproduction. Optimal patterns of investment in sex depend on the relative costs and benefits of each reproductive mode, and may consequently be context- and condition-dependent. Two proposed explanations for the observed variation in investment in sex among facultative sexual lineages invoke alternative condition-dependent scenarios. Under the ‘fitness-associated sex’ hypothesis, sex is predicted when individuals are in poor condition or experience stressful environments. Under the...

Opposing community assembly patterns for dominant and non-dominant plant species in herbaceous ecosystems globally

Carlos Alberto Arnillas, Elizabeth Borer, Eric Seabloom, Juan Alberti, Selene Baez, Jonathon Bakker, Elizabeth Boughton, Yvonne Buckley, Miguel Bugalho, Ian Donohue, John Dwyer, Jennifer Firn, Riley Gridzak, Nicole Hagenah, Yann Hautier, Aveliina Helm, Anke Jentsch, , Kimberly Komatsu, Lauri Laanisto, Ramesh Laungani, Rebecca McCulley, Joslin Moore, John Morgan, Pablo Peri … & Marc Cadotte
Biotic and abiotic factors interact with dominant plants —the locally most frequent or with the largest coverage— and non-dominant plants differently, partially because dominant plants modify the environment where non-dominant plants grow. For instance, if dominant plants compete strongly, they will deplete most resources, forcing non-dominant plants into a narrower niche space. Conversely, if dominant plants are constrained by the environment, they might not exhaust available resources but instead may ameliorate environmental stressors that usually...

Arthropod predation of vertebrates structures trophic dynamics in island ecosystems

Luke Halpin, Daniel Terrington, Holly Jones, Rowan Mott, Wei Wen Wong, David Dow, Nicholas Carlile & Rohan Clarke
Arthropod predation of vertebrates structures trophic dynamics in island ecosystems On isolated islands, large arthropods can play an important functional role in ecosystem dynamics. On the Norfolk Islands group, South Pacific, we monitored the diet and foraging activity of an endemic chilopod, the Phillip Island centipede (Cormocephalus coynei), and used a stable isotope mixing model to estimate dietary proportions. Phillip Island centipede diet is represented by vertebrate animals (48%) and invertebrates (52%), with 30.5% consisting...

Effects of high and low-efficacy therapy in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis

Izanne Roos, Emmanuelle Leray, Romain Casey, Dana Horakova, Eva Havrdova, Guillermo Izquierdo, Sara Eichau, Francesco Patti, Gilles Edan, Marc Debouverie, Jean Pelletier, Serkan Ozakbas, Maria Pia Amato, Pierre Clavelou, Pierre Grammond, Cavit Boz, Katherine Buzzard, Olga Skibina, Jonathan Ciron, Oliver Gerlach, Francois Grand'Maison, Jeannette Lechner-Scott, Charles Malpas, Helmut Butzkueven, Sandra Vukusic … & Tomas Kalincik
Objective: To compare the clinical effectiveness of high- and low-efficacy treatments in patients with recently active and inactive secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) after accounting for therapeutic lag. Methods: Patients treated with high- (natalizumab, alemtuzumab, mitoxantrone, ocrelizumab, rituximab, cladribine, fingolimod) or low-efficacy (interferon β, glatiramer acetate, teriflunomide) therapies after SPMS onset were selected from MSBase and OFSEP, two large observational cohorts. Therapeutic lag was estimated for each patient based on their demographic and clinical characteristics....

Data from: Accelerated diversification explains the exceptional species richness of tropical characoid fishes

Bruno Melo, Brian Sidlauskas, Thomas Near, Fabio Roxo, Ava Ghezelayagh, Luz Ochoa, Melanie Stiassny, Jairo Arroyave, Jonathan Chang, Brant Faircloth, Daniel MacGuigan, Richard Harrington, Ricardo Benine, Michael Burns, Kendra Hoekzema, Natalia Sanches, Javier Maldonado-Ocampo, Ricardo Castro, Fausto Foresti, Michael Alfaro & Claudio Oliveira
The Neotropics harbor the most species-rich freshwater fish fauna on the planet, but the timing of that exceptional diversification remains unclear. Did the Neotropics accumulate species steadily throughout their long history, or attain their remarkable diversity recently? Biologists have long debated the relative support for these museum and cradle hypotheses, but few phylogenies of megadiverse tropical clades have included sufficient taxa to distinguish between them. We used 1288 ultraconserved element loci spanning 293 species, 211...

Pervasive admixture and the spread of a large-lipped form in a cichlid fish radiation

Will Sowersby, José Cerca, Bob Wong, Topi Lehtonen, David Chapple, Mariana Leal-Cardin, Marta Barluenga & Mark Ravinet
Adaptive radiations have proven important for understanding the mechanisms and processes underlying biological diversity. The convergence of form and function, as well as admixture and adaptive introgression, are common in adaptive radiations. However, distinguishing between these two scenarios remains a challenge for evolutionary research. The Midas cichlid species complex (Amphilophus spp.) is a prime example of adaptive radiation, with phenotypic diversification occurring at various stages of genetic differentiation. One species, A. labiatus, has large fleshy...

Temperature-mediated variation in selection on offspring size: a multi-cohort field study

Dustin Marshall
Offspring size is a key life history trait that often covaries negatively with temperature. Most studies focus on how temperature alters selection on offspring size during early life history stages such as embryos or larvae. The degree to which temperature alters the relationship between offspring size and post-metamorphic performance remains unclear as field studies across multiple temperature regimes are rare. I deployed over 6000 individuals of known offspring size, into the field across 28 cohorts...

Why signal if you are not attractive? Courtship synchrony in a fiddler crab

Lauren Harrison, Gabriela Melo, Daniela Perez & Patricia Backwell
Synchronised male courtship signals are puzzling because males generally compete with each other for females. Male Austruca mjoebergi fiddler crabs wave in synchrony to attract females, but, all else being equal, females have a strong preference for ‘leader’ males that can produce waves before other males (‘followers’). So why do followers participate in synchrony? Here, we experimentally investigate three explanations for why followers might wave in synchrony: 1) followers obtain a small proportion of matings,...

Barriers to restoration: Pollution alters nurse effects for an ecosystem engineer

Hayley Cameron, Michael Amor & Alecia Bellgrove
Nurse plants modify the environment to facilitate the recruitment of propagules, and are potentially valuable tools for ecological restoration. Yet empirical tests, particularly in polluted environments, remain rare. The few studies that have examined nurse-effects in polluted environments report exclusively positive effects, but most tests have focused on pollution-tolerant species in metal contaminated environments. Biotic interactions are highly context-dependent, however, such that extrapolations to other suites of species and pollutant types appear premature. We examined...

Data from: Metabolism drives demography in an experimental field test

Lukas Schuster, Hayley Cameron, Craig White & Dustin Marshall
Metabolism should drive demography by determining the rates of both biological work and resource demand. Long-standing ‘rules’ for how metabolism should covary with demography permeate biology, from predicting the impacts of climate change to managing fisheries. Evidence for these rules is almost exclusively indirect and in the form of among-species comparisons, while direct evidence is exceptionally rare. In a manipulative field experiment on a sessile marine invertebrate, we created experimental populations that varied systematically in...

Variability, heritability and condition-dependence of the multidimensional male colour phenotype in a passerine bird

Marie Fan, Michelle Hall, Michael Roast, Anne Peters & Kaspar Delhey
Elaborate ornamental traits are commonly assumed to be honest signals of individual quality, owing to the presumed costs involved in their production and/or maintenance. Such traits are often highly variable, possibly because of condition-dependence and/or high underlying genetic variation, and it has been suggested that their expression should be more sensitive to condition and/or more heritable than non-ornamental traits. Many bird species display colourful plumage with multiple distinct patches of different developmental origins, forming complex...

Data from: Male reproductive adjustments to an introduced nest predator

Isaac Gravolin, Topi Lehtonen, Nicholas Deal, Ulrika Candolin & Bob Wong
Nest predation has a large impact on reproductive success in many taxa. Defending offspring from would-be predators can also be energetically and physiologically costly for parents. Thus, to maximize their reproductive payoffs, individuals should adjust their reproductive behaviors in relation to the presence of nest predators. However, effects of nest predator presence on parental behaviors across multiple reproductive contexts remain poorly understood, particularly in non-avian taxa. We ran a series of experiments to test how...

Behavioural responses of Lampropholis delicata across four groups sizes

Celine Goulet, Daniel Littlewood & David Chapple
Behaviour is a highly labile trait that can be rapidly modified to mitigate the effects of changing environmental conditions. Among the biotic and abiotic factors acting to prompt plastic responses, the social environment has been proposed as being one of the primary modulating forces on behaviour. Being part of a group has particular influence on the expression of risky behaviour in that added eyes and ears serve to decrease a group member’s vulnerability to predation...

Data and statistical code from: Population differences in the effect of context on personality in an invasive lizard

Jack A. Brand, Annalise C. Naimo, Marcus Michelangeli, Jake M. Martin, Andrew Sih, Bob B.M. Wong & David G. Chapple
Within populations, individuals often differ consistently in their average level of behavior (i.e. animal personality), as well as their response to environmental change (i.e. behavioral plasticity). Thus, changes in environmental conditions might be expected to mediate the structure of animal personality traits. However, it is currently not well understood how personality traits change in response to environmental conditions, and whether this effect is consistent across multiple populations within the same species. Accordingly, we investigated variation...

Registration Year

  • 2021
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Affiliations

  • Monash University
    31
  • University of Melbourne
    5
  • Deakin University
    4
  • Department of Planning and Environment
    2
  • University of Minnesota
    2
  • University of British Columbia
    2
  • Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research
    1
  • Sao Paulo State University
    1
  • University of Washington
    1
  • Dokuz Eylül University
    1