494 Works

Data from: Plant trait response of tundra shrubs to permafrost and nutrient addition

Maitane Iturrate-Garcia & Gabriela Schaepman-Strub
Plants may alter their strategies, such as growth and resource acquisition, as a result of climate change, especially in areas like the Arctic. These changes might affect in turn ecosystem functions and vegetation-climate interactions. Plant traits reflect both strategies and plant trade-offs in response to environmental conditions. In combination with observational data, experiments mimicking future climate conditions and data involving multiple leaf and stem traits, can contribute to a better mechanistic understanding of feedbacks between...

The sodium/proton exchanger NHA2 regulates blood pressure through a WNK4-NCC dependent pathway in the kidney

Daniel Fuster, Manuel Anderegg, Giuseppe Albano, Daniela Hanke, Christine Deisl, Dominik E. Uehlinger, Simone Brandt, Rajesh Bhardwaj & Matthias A. Hediger
NHA2 is sodium/hydrogen exchanger that was associated with arterial hypertension in humans, but the role of NHA2 in kidney function and blood pressure homeostasis is currently unknown. Here we show that NHA2 localizes almost exclusively to distal convoluted tubules in the kidney. NHA2 knock-out mice displayed reduced blood pressure, normocalcemic hypocalciuria and an attenuated response to the thiazide diuretic hydrochlorothiazide. Phosphorylation of the thiazide-sensitive sodium/chloride cotransporter NCC and its upstream activating kinase Ste20/SPS1-related proline/alaninerich kinase...

Social learning by mate-choice copying increases dispersal and reduces local adaptation

Manuel Sapage, Susana A. M. Varela & Hanna Kokko
1. In heterogeneous environments, dispersal may be hampered not only by direct costs, but also because immigrants may be locally maladapted. While maladaptation affects both sexes, this cost may be modulated in females if they express mate preferences that are either adaptive or maladaptive in the new local population. 2. Dispersal costs under local adaptation may be mitigated if it is possible to switch to expressing traits of locally adapted residents. In a sexual selection...

Evolution in interacting species alters predator life history traits, behavior and morphology in experimental microbial communities

Johannes Cairns, Felix Moerman, Emanuel Fronhofer, Florian Altermatt & Teppo Hiltunen
Predator-prey interactions are key for the dynamics of many ecosystems. An increasing body of evidence suggests that rapid evolution and co-evolution can alter these interactions, with important ecological implications, by acting on traits determining fitness, including reproduction, anti-predatory defense and foraging efficiency. However, most studies to date have focused only on evolution in the prey species, and the predator traits in (co-)evolving systems remain poorly understood. Here we investigated changes in predator traits after ~600...

The performance of permutations and exponential random graph models when analysing animal networks (R code and data)

Matthew Silk, Julian Evans & David Fisher
Social network analysis is a suite of approaches for exploring relational data. Two approaches commonly used to analyse animal social network data are permutation-based tests of significance and exponential random graph models. However, the performance of these approaches when analysing different types of network data has not been simultaneously evaluated. Here we test both approaches to determine their performance when analysing a range of biologically realistic simulated animal social networks. We examined the false positive...

The geography of speciation in dasyurid marsupials

Vicente García-Navas
Aim: To determine the effects of competition and divergence time on morphological dissimilarity and geographical range overlap between dasyurid species at both regional and local scales. Our hypothesis is that speciation in this group has been largely allopatric at regional scale, but involved morphological divergence at local scale through sympatric character displacement. Location: Australia, New Guinea and surrounding islands. Taxon: Dasyurid (Dasyuridae) marsupials, 67 species. Methods: Geographical range overlap was quantified using polygons representing the...

Data from: The origin of the legumes is a complex paleopolyploid phylogenomic tangle closely associated with the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass extinction event

Erik Koenen, Dario Ojeda, Freek Bakker, Jan Wieringa, Catherine Kidner, Olivier Hardy, Toby Pennington, Patrick Herendeen, Anne Bruneau & Colin Hughes
The consequences of the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary (KPB) mass extinction for the evolution of plant diversity remain poorly understood, even though evolutionary turnover of plant lineages at the KPB is central to understanding assembly of the Cenozoic biota. The apparent concentration of whole genome duplication (WGD) events around the KPB may have played a role in survival and subsequent diversification of plant lineages. To gain new insights into the origins of Cenozoic biodiversity, we examine...

Distal and proximal hypoxia response elements cooperate to regulate organ-specific erythropoietin gene expression

Roland Wenger, Ilaria M.C. Orlando, Véronique N. Lafleur, Federica Storti, Patrick Spielmann, Lisa Crowther, Sara Santambrogio, Johannes Schödel, David Hoogewijs & David R. Mole
While it is well-established that distal hypoxia response elements (HREs) regulate hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) target genes such as erythropoietin (Epo), an interplay between multiple distal and proximal (promoter) HREs has not been described so far. Hepatic Epo expression is regulated by a HRE located downstream of the EPO gene, but this 3' HRE is dispensable for renal EPO gene expression. We previously identified a 5' HRE and could show that both HREs direct exogenous reporter...

Bound within boundaries: How well do protected areas match movement corridors of their most mobile protected species?

David D. Hofmann, Dominik M. Behr, John W. McNutt, Arpat Ozgul & Gabriele Cozzi
Conserving and managing large portions of land to connect wildlife reserves is an increasingly used strategy to maintain and restore connectivity among wildlife populations. Boundaries of such conservation areas are often determined based on expert opinion and socio-political constraints, yet the extent to which they match species’ movement corridors is rarely examined. This is mainly due to a lack of data, particularly on wide-ranging movement behavior such as dispersal. Nevertheless, empirically assessing the adequacy of...

Mammalian intestinal allometry, phylogeny, trophic level and climate

María Duque-Correa, Daryl Codron, Carlo Meloro, Amanda McGrosky, Christiann Schiffmann, Mark Edwards & Marcus Clauss
An often-stated ecomorphological assumption that has the status of ‘textbook knowledge’ is that the dimensions of the digestive tract correlate with diet, where herbivores – consuming diets of lower digestibility – have longer intestinal tracts than faunivores – consuming diets of higher digestibility. However, statistical approaches have so far failed to demonstrate this link. Here, we collated data on the length of intestinal sections and body mass of 519 mammal species, and test for various...

Image stack, PLY-files and a NEX-file accompanying: A new symmoriiform from the Late Devonian of Morocco: novel jaw function in ancient sharks

Linda Frey, Michael I. Coates, Kristen Tietjen, Martin Rücklin & Christian Klug
We describe the small chondrichthyan Ferromirum oukherbouchi n.gen. et sp. from the Famennian (Late Devonian) of the Maïder region in Morocco. This chondrichthyan is exceptionally well preserved and displays not only mineralized soft tissues but also undeformed cartilages of the head, gills, and shoulder girdle. A reconstruction of the head using 3D-prints revealed a previously unknown kind of jaw articulation. Here, we make the original cropped image stack and PLY-files of the single cartilaginous elements...

Natural history, phenotypic spectrum, and discriminative features of multisystemic RFC1-disease

Andreas Traschütz, Andrea Cortese, Selina Reich, Natalia Dominik, Jennifer Faber, Heike Jacobi, Annette Hartmann, Dan Rujescu, Solveig Montaut, Andoni Echaniz-Laguna, Sevda Erer, Valerie Cornelia Schütz, Alexander Tarnutzer, Marc Sturm, Tobias Haack, Nadège Vaucamps-Diedhiou, Helene Puccio, Ludger Schöls, Thomas Klockgether, Bart P. Van De Warrenburg, Martin Paucar, Dagmar Timmann, Ralf-Dieter Hilgers, Jose Gazulla, Michael Strupp … & Matthis Synofzik
Objective: To delineate the full phenotypic spectrum, discriminative features, piloting longitudinal progression data, and sample size calculations of RFC1-repeat expansions, recently identified as causing cerebellar ataxia, neuropathy, vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS). Methods: Multimodal RFC1 repeat screening (PCR, southern blot, whole-exome/genome (WES/WGS)-based approaches) combined with cross-sectional and longitudinal deep-phenotyping in (i) cross-European cohort A (70 families) with ≥2 features of CANVAS and/or ataxia-with-chronic-cough (ACC); and (ii) Turkish cohort B (105 families) with unselected late-onset ataxia. Results:...

Recent activity in expanding populations and purifying selection have shaped transposable element landscapes across natural accessions of the Mediterranean grass Brachypodium distachyon

Christoph Stritt, Sean P Gordon, Thomas Wicker, John P Vogel & Anne C Roulin
Transposable element (TE) activity has emerged as a major cause of variation in genome size and structure among species. To what extent TEs contribute to genetic variation and divergence within species, however, is much less clear, mainly because population genomic data have so far only been available for the classical model organisms. In this study, we use the annual Mediterranean grass Brachypodium distachyon to investigate TE dynamics in natural populations. Using whole-genome sequencing data for...

Cooperation-based concept formation in male bottlenose dolphins

Stephanie King, Richard Connor, Michael Krützen & Simon Allen
In Shark Bay, Western Australia, male bottlenose dolphins form a complex nested alliance hierarchy. At the first level, pairs or trios of unrelated males cooperate to herd single females. Multiple first-order alliances cooperate in teams (second-order alliances) in the pursuit and defense of females, and multiple teams also work together (third-order alliances). Yet it remains unknown how dolphins classify these nested alliance relationships. We used 30 years of behavioural data combined with 40 contemporary sound...

Accompanied versus unaccompanied walking for continuous oxygen saturation measurement during 6-min walk test in COPD: A randomised cross-over study

Thomas F. Riegler, Anja Frei, Sarah R. Haile & Thomas Radtke
Is there is a difference in the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) distance when the assessor accompanies the patient to continuously measure oxygen saturation (SpO2) compared to the patient walking unaccompanied? We conducted a randomised cross-over study to evaluate the impact of the assessor walking with the patient during 6MWT (6MWTwith) versus patient walking alone (6MWTwithout). At the end of a pulmonary rehabilitation programme, each patient performed two 6MWTs in random order and separated by 30...

Ecology drives the evolution of diverse social strategies in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Alexandre Figueiredo, Andreas Wagner & Rolf Kümmerli
Bacteria often cooperate by secreting molecules that can be shared as public goods between cells. Because the production of public goods is subject to cheating by mutants that exploit the good without contributing to it, there has been great interest in elucidating the evolutionary forces that maintain cooperation. However, little is known on how bacterial cooperation evolves under conditions where cheating is unlikely of importance. Here we use experimental evolution to follow changes in the...

A liposome assay showing the absence of scrambling in TTYH proteins and a lipidomics analysis of TTYH2

Anastasiia Sukalskaia & Raimund Dutzler
The Tweety homologues (TTYHs) are members of a conserved family of eukaryotic membrane proteins that are abundant in the brain. The three human paralogs were assigned to function as anion channels that are either activated by Ca2+ or cell swelling. To uncover their unknown architecture and its relationship to function, we have determined the structures of human TTYH1–3 by cryo-electron microscopy. All structures display equivalent features of a dimeric membrane protein that contains five transmembrane...

Alternative reproductive tactic in male Drosophila prolongata

Jhoniel Perdigón Ferreira & Stefan Lüpold
Species with intense male-male competition for access to females often show alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) where males of lower competitive ability adopt a sneaky behavior to gain access to mates. These ARTs are usually associated with intrasexual dimorphisms, in that males with distinct morphologies show different tactics. In some cases, however, males adopt different tactics without being dimorphic. Male Drosophila prolongata exhibit continuous variation in body size and shape, with enlarged forelegs that they use...

Data from: Study of morphological variation of northern Neotropical Ariidae reveals conservatism despite macrohabitat transitions

Madlen Stange, Gabriel Aguirre-Fernández, Walter Salzburger & Marcelo R. Sánchez-Villagra
Background: Morphological convergence triggered by trophic adaptations is a common pattern in adaptive radiations. The study of shape variation in an evolutionary context is usually restricted to well-studied fish models. We take advantage of the recently revised systematics of New World Ariidae and investigate skull shape evolution in six genera of northern Neotropical Ariidae. They constitute a lineage that diversified in the marine habitat but repeatedly adapted to freshwater habitats. 3D geometric morphometrics was applied...

Data from: The role of phenotypic plasticity on population differentiation

Max Schmid & Frédéric Guillaume
Several evolutionary processes shape the genetic and phenotypic differentiation of populations. Among them, the joint effects of gene flow, selection and phenotypic plasticity are poorly known, especially when trying to understand how maladaptive plasticity affects population divergence. We extended a quantitative genetic model of Hendry et al. (2001) to describe these joint effects on phenotypic and additive genetic divergence between two populations, and their phenotypic and genetic differentiation (PST and QST). With individual-based simulations, we...

Data from: Net assimilation rate determines the growth rates of 14 species of subtropical forest trees

Xuefei Li, Bernhard Schmid, Fei Wang & C. E. Timothy Paine
Growth rates are of fundamental importance for plants, as individual size affects myriad ecological processes. We determined the factors that generate variation in RGR among 14 species of trees and shrubs that are abundant in subtropical Chinese forests. We grew seedlings for two years at four light levels in a shade-house experiment. We monitored the growth of every juvenile plant every two weeks. After one and two years, we destructively harvested individuals and measured their...

Data from: Parental effects alter the adaptive value of an adult behavioural trait

Rebecca M. Kilner, Giuseppe Boncoraglio, Jono M. Henshaw, Benjamin J. M. Jarrett, Ornela De Gasperin, Hanna Kokko, Benjamin JM Jarrett, Alfredo Attisano & Jonathan M Henshaw
The parents' phenotype, or the environment they create for their young, can have long-lasting effects on their offspring, with profound evolutionary consequences. Yet virtually no work has considered how such parental effects might change the adaptive value of behavioural traits expressed by offspring upon reaching adulthood. To address this problem, we combined experiments on burying beetles (Nicrophorus vespilloides) with theoretical modelling, and focussed on one adult behavioural trait in particular: the supply of parental care....

Data from: Replicated latitudinal clines in reproductive traits of European and North American yellow dung flies

Stephanie S. Bauerfeind, Martin A. Schäfer, David Berger, Wolf U. Blanckenhorn & Charles W. Fox
Geographic variation in phenotypic traits is commonly correlated with spatial variation in the environment, e.g., seasonality and mean temperature, providing evidence that natural selection generates such patterns. In particular, both body size and egg size of ectothermic animals are commonly larger in northern climates, and temperature induces plastic responses in both traits. Size-independent egg quality can also vary with latitude, though this is rarely investigated. For the widespread yellow dung fly (Scathophaga stercoraria; Diptera: Scathophagidae),...

Data from: Revised time scales of RNA virus evolution based on spatial information

Moritz Saxenhofer, Vanessa Weber De Melo, Rainer G. Ulrich & Gerald Heckel
The time scales of pathogen evolution are of major concern in the context of public and veterinary health, epidemiology and evolutionary biology. Dating the emergence of a pathogen often relies on estimates of evolutionary rates derived from nucleotide sequence data. For many viruses, this has yielded estimates of evolutionary origins only a few hundred years in the past. Here we demonstrate through the incorporation of geographic information from virus sampling that evolutionary age estimates of...

Data from: Interaction effects of cell diffusion, cell density and public goods properties on the evolution of cooperation in digital microbes

Akos Dobay, Homayoun C. Bagheri, Antonio Messina, Rolf Kümmerli & Daniel J. Rankin
Microbial cooperation typically consists in the sharing of secreted metabolites (referred to as public goods) within the community. Although public goods generally promote population growth, they are also vulnerable to exploitation by cheating mutants, which no longer contribute, but still benefit from the public goods produced by others. Although previous studies have identified a number of key factors that prevent the spreading of cheaters, little is known about how these factors interact and jointly shape...

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