531 Works

Data for: Rise and fall of Pycnodontiformes: Diversity, competition and extinction of a successful fish clade

John Joseph Cawley, Giuseppe Marramà, Giorgio Carnevale, Jaime Villifaña, Faviel López-Romero & Jürgen Kriwet
Pycnodontiformes was a successful lineage of primarily marine fishes that broadly diversified during the Mesozoic. They possessed a wide variety of body shapes and were adapted to a broad range of food sources. Two other neopterygian clades possessing similar ecological adaptations in both body morphology (Dapediiformes) and dentition (Ginglymodi) also occurred in Mesozoic seas. Although these groups occupied the same marine ecosystems, the role that competitive exclusion and niche partitioning played in their ability to...

Data from: Family dynamics reveal that female house mice preferentially breed in their maternal community

Julian Evans, Anna Lindholm & Barbara König
Whether females breed in their natal group is an important factor in the evolution of extended families in animal sociality. Breeding in natal groups comes with costs and benefits, depending on group size and presence of older relatives, including mothers. Studying the consequences of breeding in the natal versus another group provides insight into the decisions and trade-offs governing the formation and structure of family groups. We investigated the family dynamics of a population of...

Siderophores drive invasion dynamics in bacterial communities through their dual role as public good versus public bad

Alexandre R. T. Figueiredo, Özhan Özkaya, Rolf Kuemmerli & Jos Kramer
Microbial invasions can compromise ecosystem services and spur dysbiosis and disease in hosts. Nevertheless, the mechanisms determining invasion outcomes often remain unclear. Here, we examine the role of iron-scavenging siderophores in driving invasions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa into resident communities of environmental pseudomonads. Siderophores can be “public goods” by delivering iron to individuals possessing matching receptors; but they can also be “public bads” by withholding iron from competitors lacking these receptors. Accordingly, siderophores should either promote...

Genomic signals of admixture and reinforcement between two closely related species of European sepsid flies

Martin Kapun, Athene Giesen, Wolf U Blanckenhorn, Martin A Schäfer, Kentaro K Shimizu, Rie Shimizu-Inatsugi, Bernhard Misof, Oliver Niehuis, Lars Podsiadlowski, Heidi E L Liescher & Simon Aeschbacher
Interspecific gene flow by hybridization may weaken species barriers and adaptive divergence, but can also initiate reinforcement of reproductive isolation through natural and sexual selection. However, the extent of interspecific gene flow and its consequences for the initiation and maintenance of species barriers in natural systems remain poorly understood. We first applied coalescence simulations and approximate Bayesian calculations based on microsatellite data to infer the yet unknown demographic history of the two closely related European...

Patch size distribution affects species invasion dynamics in dendritic networks

Holenstein Kathrin, Eric Harvey & Florian Altermatt
Biological invasions are globally affecting ecosystems, causing local species loss and altering ecosystem functioning. Understanding how such biological invasions occur and succeed is thus of high priority. Both local properties and the spatial network structure have been shown to be determinants of invasion success, and the identification of spatial invasion hubs directly promoting invasion dynamics is gaining attention. Spatial dynamics, however, could also indirectly alter invasion success by shaping pre- invasion local community structure: in...

Data from: Socially informed dispersal in a territorial cooperative breeder

Gabriele Cozzi, Nino Maag, Luca Börger, Tim H. Clutton-Brock & Arpat Ozgul
1. Dispersal is a key process governing the dynamics of socially and spatially structured populations, and involves three distinct stages: emigration, transience, and settlement. At each stage, individuals have to make movement decisions, which are influenced by social, environmental, and individual factors. Yet, a comprehensive understanding of the drivers that influence such decisions is still lacking, particularly for the transient stage during which free-living individuals are inherently difficult to follow. 2. Social circumstances such as...

Data from: Intransitive competition is common across five major taxonomic groups and is driven by productivity, competitive rank and functional traits.

Santiago Soliveres, Anika Lehmann, Steffen Boch, Florian Altermatt, Francesco Carrara, Thomas W. Crowther, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Anne Kempel, Daniel S. Maynard, Matthias C. Rillig, Brajesh K. Singh, Pankaj Trivedi & Eric Allan
1. Competition can be fully hierarchical or intransitive, and this degree of hierarchy is driven by multiple factors, including environmental conditions, the functional traits of the species involved or the topology of competition networks. Studies simultaneously analyzing these drivers of competition hierarchy are rare. Additionally, organisms compete either directly or via interference competition for resources or space, within a local neighbourhood or across the habitat. Therefore, the drivers of competition could change accordingly and depend...

Data from: Climatic factors shape plastic trade-offs in the polyphenic black scavenger fly Sepsis thoracica (Diptera: Sepsidae)

Juan Pablo Busso & Wolf U. Blanckenhorn
Aim: Trade-offs allow individuals to optimize their fitness by tailoring the investment into different traits to variable environmental conditions, such as along geographic gradients. Trade-offs thus can help in adjusting to changing thermal and insolation profiles, especially in small ectotherms, whose body temperature typically follows environmental temperatures closely. Two traits usually involved in latitudinal adaptation are body size and melanism. Since both traits are costly, individuals need to optimize investment into each trait. Here we...

Data from: Daphnia invest in sexual reproduction when its relative costs are reduced

Nina Gerber, Hanna Kokko, Dieter Ebert & Isobel Booksmythe
The timing of sex in facultatively sexual organisms is critical to fitness, due to the differing demographic consequences of sexual vs. asexual reproduction. In addition to the costs of sex itself, an association of sex with the production of dormant life stages also influences the optimal use of sex, especially in environments where resting eggs are essential to survive unfavourable conditions. Here we document population dynamics and the occurrence of sexual reproduction in natural populations...

Data from: The path to re-evolve cooperation is constrained in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Elisa T. Granato & Rolf Kümmerli
Background. A common form of cooperation in bacteria is based on the secretion of beneficial metabolites, shareable as public good among cells within a group. Because cooperation can be exploited by "cheating" mutants, which contribute less or nothing to the public good, there has been great interest in understanding the conditions required for cooperation to remain evolutionarily stable. In contrast, much less is known about whether cheats, once fixed in the population, are able to...

Data from: Resilience of seed production to a severe El Niño‐induced drought across functional groups and dispersal types

Michael J. O'Brien, Daniel Peréz-Aviles & Jennifer S. Powers
More frequent and severe El Niño Southern Oscillations (ENSO) are causing episodic periods of decreased rainfall. Although the effects of these ENSO-induced droughts on tree growth and mortality have been well studied, the impacts on other demographic rates such as reproduction are less well known. We use a four-year seed rain dataset encompassing the most severe ENSO-induced drought in more than 30 years to assess the resilience (i.e. resistance and recovery) of the seed composition...

Data from: Plant life history stage and nurse age change the development of ecological networks in an arid ecosystem

Gianalberto Losapio, Francisco I. Pugnaire, Michael J. O'Brien & Christian Schöb
Understanding how ecological networks are organised over the course of an organism’s lifetime is crucial for predicting the dynamics of interacting populations and communities across temporal scales. However, most studies so far considered only one life history stage at a time, such as adult, when studying networks of interacting species. Therefore, knowledge about how multiple life history stages affect the development and stability of plant–plant association networks is lacking. We measured the understory adult plant...

Data from: Cytoskeletal stability and metabolic alterations in primary human macrophages in long-term microgravity

Svantje Tauber, Beatrice A. Lauber, Katrin Paulsen, Liliana E. Layer, Martin Lehmann, Swantje Hauschild, Naomi R. Shepherd, Jennifer Polzer, Jurgen Segerer, Cora S. Thiel & Oliver Ullrich
The immune system is one of the most affected systems of the human body during space flight. The cells of the immune system are exceptionally sensitive to microgravity. Thus, serious concerns arise, whether space flight associated weakening of the immune system ultimately precludes the expansion of human presence beyond the Earth's orbit. For human space flight, it is an urgent need to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which altered gravity influences and changes...

Data from: Parasites driving host diversity: incidence of disease correlated with Daphnia clonal turnover

Patrick Turko, Christoph Tellenbach, Esther Keller, Nadine Tardent, Barbara Keller, Piet Spaak & Justyna Wolinska
According to the Red Queen hypothesis, clonal diversity in asexual populations could be maintained by negative frequency-dependant selection by co-evolving parasites. If common clones are selected against and rare clones gain a concomitant advantage, we expect that clonal turnover should be faster during parasite epidemics than between them. We tested this hypothesis exploring field data of the Daphnia – Caullerya host-parasite system. The clonal make-up and turnover of the Daphnia host population was tracked with...

Data from: The strength of the association between heterozygosity and probability of interannual local recruitment increases with environmental harshness in blue tits

Esperanza S. Ferrer, Vicente García-Navas, Juan José Sanz & Joaquín Ortego
The extent of inbreeding depression and the magnitude of heterozygosity–fitness correlations (HFC) have been suggested to depend on the environmental context in which they are assayed, but little evidence is available for wild populations. We combine extensive molecular and capture–mark–recapture data from a blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) population to (1) analyze the relationship between heterozygosity and probability of interannual adult local recruitment and (2) test whether environmental stress imposed by physiologically suboptimal temperatures and rainfall...

Data from: Paternal-specific S-allele transmission in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.): the potential for sexual selection

Afif Hedhly, Ana Wünsch, Önder Kartal, María Herrero & José Ignacio Hormaza
Homomorphic self-incompatibility is a well-studied example of a physiological process that is thought to increase population diversity and reduce the expression of inbreeding depression. Whereas theoretical models predict the presence of a large number of S-haplotypes with equal frequencies at equilibrium, unequal allele frequencies have been repeatedly reported and attributed to sampling effects, population structure, demographic perturbation, sheltered deleterious mutations or selection pressure on linked genes. However, it is unclear to what extent unequal segregations...

Data from: Reverse audience effects on helping in cooperatively breeding marmoset monkeys

Rahel K. Brügger, Theresa Kappeler-Schmalzriedt & Judith M. Burkart
Cooperatively breeding common marmosets show substantial variation in the amount of help they provide. Pay-to-stay and social prestige models of helping attribute this variation to audience effects, i.e. that individuals help more if group members can witness their interactions with immatures, whereas models of kin selection, group augmentation, or ones stressing the need to gain parenting experience do not predict any audience effects. We quantified the readiness of adult marmosets to share food in the...

Data from: Modelling plant species distribution in alpine grasslands using airborne imaging spectroscopy

Julien Pottier, Zbyněk Malenovský, Achilleas Psomas, Lucie Homolová, Michael E. Schaepman, Philippe Choler, Wilfried Thuiller, Antoine Guisan & Niklaus E. Zimmermann
Remote sensing using airborne imaging spectroscopy (AIS) is known to retrieve fundamental optical properties of ecosystems. However, the value of these properties for predicting plant species distribution remains unclear. Here, we assess whether such data can add value to topographic variables for predicting plant distributions in French and Swiss alpine grasslands. We fitted statistical models with high spectral and spatial resolution reflectance data and tested four optical indices sensitive to leaf chlorophyll content, leaf water...

Data from: Reconstructing the demographic history of orang-utans using approximate Bayesian computation

Alexander Nater, Maja P. Greminger, Natasha Arora, Carel P. Van Schaik, Benoit Goossens, Ian Singleton, Ernst J. Verschoor, Kristen S. Warren, Michael Krützen & Kristin S. Warren
Investigating how different evolutionary forces have shaped patterns of DNA variation within and among species requires detailed knowledge of their demographic history. Orang-utans, whose distribution is currently restricted to the Southeast Asian islands of Borneo (Pongo pygmaeus) and Sumatra (Pongo abelii), have likely experienced a complex demographic history, influenced by recurrent changes in climate and sea levels, volcanic activities and anthropogenic pressures. Using the most extensive sample set of wild orang-utans to date, we employed...

Data from: Manipulating virulence factor availability can have complex consequences for infections

Michael Weigert, Adin Ross-Gillespie, Anne Leinweber, Gabriella Pessi, Sam P. Brown & Rolf Kuemmerli
Given the rise of bacterial resistance against antibiotics, we urgently need alternative strategies to fight infections. Some propose we should disarm rather than kill bacteria, through targeted disruption of their virulence factors. It is assumed that this approach (i) induces weak selection for resistance because it should only minimally impact bacterial fitness, and (ii) is specific, only interfering with the virulence factor in question. Given that pathogenicity emerges from complex interactions between pathogens, hosts, and...

Data from: Mate guarding and frequent copulation in birds: a meta-analysis of their relationship to paternity and male phenotype

Anna M.F. Harts, Isobel Booksmythe, Michael D. Jennions & Anna M. F. Harts
In many birds males are presumed to protect their paternity by closely guarding their mate or copulating frequently with her. Both these costly behaviours are assumed to reduce the risk and/or intensity of sperm competition. However, despite many studies on avian extra-pair paternity, it remains unclear how strongly these behaviours are related to fitness and other key life-history traits. Here we conduct meta-analyses to address two questions. First, are mate guarding and/or frequent copulation positively...

Data from: Taxonomic delimitation of the rare, eastern North American endemic lichen Santessoniella crossophylla (Pannariaceae)

James C. Lendemer, Heather B. Stone & Erin A. Tripp
The taxonomic delimitation and generic placement of Santessoniella crossophylla (Old Gray Crosslobes), a cyanolichen endemic to eastern North America, are revisited based on newly generated nrITS and mtSSU sequences. A population from Nova Scotia whose identification as S. crossophylla has been questioned is confirmed as belonging to the species. The monospecific genus Rockefellera is introduced to accommodate lichens ascribable to S. crossophylla in light of molecular results herein presented. The new name honors the Rockefeller...

Data from: Miocene flooding events of western Amazonia

Carlos Jaramillo, Ingrid Romero, Carlos D'Apolito, German Bayona, Edward Duarte, Stephen Louwye, Jaime Escobar, Javier Luque, Jorge D. Carrillo-Briceño, Vladimir Zapata, Andrés Mora, Stefan Schouten, Michael Zavada, Guy Harrington, John Ortiz & Frank P. Wesselingh
There is a considerable controversy about whether western Amazonia was ever covered by marine waters during the Miocene [23 to 5 Ma (million years ago)]. We investigated the possible occurrence of Miocene marine incursions in the Llanos and Amazonas/Solimões basins, using sedimentological and palynological data from two sediment cores taken in eastern Colombia and northwestern Brazil together with seismic information. We observed two distinct marine intervals in the Llanos Basin, an early Miocene that lasted...

Data from: Sexual dimorphism in epicuticular compounds despite similar sexual selection in sex role-reversed seed beetles

Isobel Booksmythe, Howard D. Rundle & Göran Arnqvist
Sexual selection imposed by mating preferences is often implicated in the evolution of both sexual dimorphism and divergence between species in signalling traits. Epicuticular compounds (ECs) are important signalling traits in insects and show extensive variability among and within taxa. Here, we investigate whether variation in the multivariate EC profiles of two sex role-reversed beetle species, Megabruchidius dorsalis and Megabruchidius tonkineus, predicts mate attractiveness and mating success in males and females. The two species had...

Data from: Infection-induced behavioural changes reduce connectivity and the potential for disease spread in wild mice contact networks

Patricia C. Lopes, Per Block & Barbara König
Infection may modify the behaviour of the host and of its conspecifics in a group, potentially altering social connectivity. Because many infectious diseases are transmitted through social contact, social connectivity changes can impact transmission dynamics. Previous approaches to understanding disease transmission dynamics in wild populations were limited in their ability to disentangle different factors that determine the outcome of disease outbreaks. Here we ask how social connectivity is affected by infection and how this relationship...

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