547 Works

Satellite data reveal differential responses of Swiss forests to unprecedented 2018 drought

Joan T. Sturm
The summer drought of 2018 caused major damages to forest ecosystems. In this dataset, various environmental variables (precipitation anomaly, temperature anomaly, climatic water balance anomaly, elevation, slope, aspect, exposition, potential direct incedent radiation, distance to the forest edge, tree type, and species heterogeneity) have been stratified into ten sections and the proportion of forest pixels with severe changes (equal or more than 10% either positive or negative) in the normalized difference water index (NDWI) of...

Biomes as evolutionary arenas: convergence and conservatism in the trans-continental Succulent Biome

Jens Ringelberg, Niklaus Zimmermann, Andrea Weeks, Matt Lavin & Colin Hughes
Aim: Biomes are globally-distributed, structurally and functionally similar vegetation units, but there is debate about whether these similarities are superficial, and about how biomes are defined and mapped. We propose that combined assessment of evolutionary convergence of plant functional traits and phylogenetic biome conservatism provides a useful approach for characterising biomes. We focus on the little-known succulent biome, a trans-continentally distributed assemblage of succulent-rich, drought-deciduous, fire-free forest, thicket and scrub vegetation as a useful exemplar...

Plant responses to diversity-driven selection and associated rhizosphere microbial communities

Cameron Wagg, Terhi Hahl, Sofia Van Moorsel, Marc Schmid, Debra Zuppinger-Dingley & Bernhard Schmid
1. Plant diversity loss can alter plant interactions and rhizosphere microbial communities. These altered interactions in turn exert diversity-driven selection pressures to which plants may respond with phenotypic changes. Diverse plant communities may favour the survival and fitness of individuals with traits that avoid competition. Conversely monocultures may accumulate species-specific pests favouring greater investment in defence traits. Yet it is unknown how altered plant rhizosphere interactions influence the plant diversity-driven selection for altered plant phenotypes....

Food discovery is associated with different reliance on social learning and lower cognitive flexibility across environments in a food caching bird

Virginia Heinen, Angela Pitera, Ben Sonnenberg, Lauren Benedict, Eli Bridge, Damien Farine & Vladimir Pravosudov
Social learning is a primary mechanism for information acquisition in social species. Despite many benefits, social learning may be disadvantageous when independent learning is more efficient. For example, searching independently may be more advantageous when food sources are ephemeral and unpredictable. Individual differences in cognitive abilities such as spatial memory, which affect an individual’s environmental predictability, can also be expected to influence social information use. We investigated how resident food-caching chickadees discovered multiple novel food...

How biases in sperm storage relate to sperm use during oviposition in female yellow dung flies

Marco Demont, Paul Ward, Wolf Blanckenhorn, Stefan Lüpold, Oliver Martin & Luc Bussière
Precise mechanisms underlying sperm storage and utilization are largely unknown, and data directly linking stored sperm to paternity remain scarce. We used competitive microsatellite PCR to study the effects of female morphology, copula duration and oviposition on the proportion of stored sperm provided by the second of two copulating males (S2) in Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae), the classic model for sperm competition studies. We genotyped all offspring from potentially mixed-paternity clutches to establish the relationship...

Date From: The myriad of complex demographic responses of terrestrial mammals to climate change and gaps of knowledge: A global analysis

Maria Paniw, Tamora James, C. Ruth Archer, Gesa Römer, Sam Levin, Aldo Compagnoni, Judy Che-Castaldo, Joanne Bennett, Andrew Mooney, Dylan Childs, Arpat Ozgul, Owen Jones, Jean Burns, Andrew Beckerman, Abir Patwari, Nora Sanchez-Gassen, Tiffany Knight & Roberto Salguero-Gómez
Approximately 25% of mammals are currently threatened with extinction, a risk that is amplified under climate change. Species persistence under climate change is determined by the combined effects of climatic factors on multiple demographic rates (survival, development, reproduction), and hence, population dynamics. Thus, to quantify which species and regions on Earth are most vulnerable to climate-driven extinction, a global understanding of how different demographic rates respond to climate is urgently needed. Here, we perform a...

High spatial resolution mapping identifies habitat characteristics of the invasive vine Antigonon leptopus on St. Eustatius (Lesser Antilles)

Elizabeth Haber, Maria Santos, Pedro Leitão, Marcel Schwieder, Pieter Ketner, Joris Ernst, Max Rietkerk, Martin Wassen & Maarten Eppinga
On the Caribbean island of St. Eustatius, Coralita (Antigonon leptopus) is an aggressive invasive vine posing major biodiversity conservation concerns. The generation of distribution maps can address these conservation concerns by helping to elucidate the drivers of invasion. We test the use of support vector machines to map the distribution of Coralita on St. Eustatius at high spatial resolution and use this map to identify potential landscape and geomorphological factors associated with Coralita presence. This...

Genomics of population differentiation in humpback dolphins, Sousa spp. in the Indo-Pacific Ocean

Ana Rita Amaral, Cátia Chanfana, Brian Smith, Rubaiyat Mansur, Tim Collins, Robert Baldwin, Gianna Minton, Guido Parra, Michael Krutzen, Thomas Jefferson, Leszek Karczmarski, Almeida Guissamulo, & Howard Rosenbaum
Speciation is a fundamental process in evolution and crucial to the formation of biodiversity. It is a continuous and complex process, which can involve multiple interacting barriers leading to heterogeneous genomic landscapes with various peaks of divergence among populations. In this study, we used a population genomics approach to gain insights on the speciation process and to understand the population structure within the genus Sousa across its distribution in the Indo-Pacifc region. We found 5...

Bird communities in the Swiss Alps, 1999-2018, abundance data

Vicente García-Navas, Thomas Sattler, Hans Schmid & Arpat Ozgul
Aim: Mountains are biodiversity hotspots and are among the most sensitive eco- systems to ongoing global change being thus of conservation concern. Under this scenario, assessing how biological communities vary over time along elevational gra- dients and the relative effects of niche-based deterministic processes and stochastic events in structuring assemblages is essential. Here, we examined how the temporal trends of bird communities vary with elevation over a 20 year-period (1999–2018). We also tested for differences...

Data for: Immigration counter-acts local micro-evolution of a major fitness component: migration-selection balance in free-living song sparrows

Jane Reid, Peter Arcese, Pirmin Nietlisbach, Matthew Wolak, Stefanie Muff, Lisa Dickel & Lukas Keller
Ongoing adaptive evolution, and resulting ‘evolutionary rescue’ of declining populations, requires additive genetic variation in fitness. Such variation can be increased by gene flow resulting from immigration, potentially facilitating evolution. But, gene flow could in fact constrain rather than facilitate local adaptive evolution if immigrants have low additive genetic values for local fitness. Local migration-selection balance and micro-evolutionary stasis could then result. However, key quantitative genetic effects of natural immigration, comprising the degrees to which...

Data from: Life-history dimensions indicate non-random assembly processes in tropical island tree communities

Julian Schrader, Dylan Craven, Cornelia Sattler, Rodrigo Cámara-Leret, Soetjipto Moeljono & Holger Kreft
Community assembly processes on islands are often non-random. The mechanisms behind non-random assembly, however, are generally difficult to disentangle. Functional diversity in combination with a null model approach that accounts for differences in species richness among islands can be used to test for non-random assembly processes, but has been applied rarely to island communities. By linking functional diversity of trees on islands with a null model approach, we bridge this gap and test for the...

Reproductive strategies affect telomere dynamics across the life course

Barbara Tschirren, Ana Ángela Romero-Haro, Jennifer Morger & Mark F. Haussmann
Because parental care has a heritable basis, the benefits of receiving increased parental provisioning early in life are genetically linked to the costs of providing increased parental provisioning at adulthood. Reproductive strategies thus result in distinct cost-benefit syndromes across the life course that may shape individual health and ageing trajectories. Here we used an artificial selection approach in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) to test how reproductive strategies affect telomere length, a biomarker of somatic state,...

Predicting intraspecific trait variation among California’s grasses

Brody Sandel, Claire Pavelka, Thomas Hayashi, Lachlan Charles, Jennifer Funk, Fletcher Halliday, Gaurav Kandlikar, Andrew Kleinhesslink, Nathan Kraft, Loralee Larios, Tesa Madsen-McQueen & Marko Spasojevic
1. Plant species can show considerable morphological and functional variation along environmental gradients. This intraspecific trait variation (ITV) can have important consequences for community assembly, biotic interactions, ecosystem functions and responses to global change. However, directly measuring ITV across many species and wide geographic areas is often infeasible. Thus, a method to predict spatial variation in a species’ functional traits could be valuable. 2. We measured specific leaf area (SLA), height and leaf area (LA)...

A tradeoff between robustness to environmental fluctuations and speed of evolution

Max Schmid, Maria Paniw, Maarten Postuma, Arpat Ozgul & Frédéric Guillaume
The ability of a species to cope with both long-term and short-term environmental fluctuations might vary with the species' life history. While some life-history characteristics promote large and stable population sizes despite interannual environmental fluctuations, other life-history strategies might allow to evolve quickly in response to long-term gradual changes. In a theoretical study, we show that there is a tradeoff between both properties. Life-history characteristics that promote fast rates of evolution come at the expense...

Competition alters species' plastic and genetic response to environmental change

Lynn Govaert, Florian Altermatt & Luis Gilarranz
Species react to environmental change via plastic and evolutionary responses. While both of them determine species’ survival, most studies quantify these responses only individually. As species occur in communities, competing species may further influence their respective response to environmental change. Yet, how environmental change and competing species combined shape plastic and genetic responses to environmental change remains unclear. Quantifying how species interactions such as competition alter plastic and genetic responses of species to environmental change...

Alpine ibex simulation files

Deborah Leigh, Heidi Lischer, Frederic Guillaume, Christine Grossen & Torsten Gunther
Identifying local adaptation in bottlenecked species is essential for conservation management. Selection detection methods have an important role in species management plans, assessments of adaptive capacity, and looking for responses to climate change. Yet, the allele frequency changes exploited in selection detection methods are similar to those caused by the strong neutral genetic drift expected during a bottleneck. Consequently, it is often unclear what accuracy selection detection methods have across bottlenecked populations. In this study,...

Adaptation to elevation but limited local adaptation in an amphibian

Judith C. Bachmann & Josh Van Buskirk
We performed a reciprocal transplant experiment to estimate “parallel” adaptation to elevation and “unique” adaptation to local sites at the same elevation, using the frog Rana temporaria in the Swiss Alps. It is important to distinguish these two processes because they have different implications for population structure and ecological specialization. Larvae were reared from hatching to metamorphosis within enclosures installed in their pond of origin, in three foreign ponds at the same elevation, and in...

Wildflower strips enhance wild bee reproductive success

Dominik Ganser, Matthias Albrecht & Eva Knop
1. Intensification of agriculture has resulted in a simplification and fragmentation of agroecosystems. Yet, its impact on the reproductive success and population dynamics of wild bees, and how adverse effects can be mitigated, remains poorly understood. 2. We established populations of seven solitary bee species varying in body size in experimentally sown wild flower strips (WFS), existing semi-natural habitats (SNH; forest edges) and isolated sites lacking WFS and SNH in the local surrounding (350 m...

A global phylogenomic study of the Thelypteridaceae

Susan Fawcett, Alan Smith, Michael Sundue, Gordon Burleigh, Emily Sessa, Li-Yaung Kuo, Cheng-Wei Chen, Weston Testo, Michael Kessler & David Barrington
The generic classification of the Thelypteridaceae has been the subject of much controversy. Proposed taxonomic systems have varied from recognizing more than 1000 species in the family within the single genus Thelypteris, to systems favoring upwards of 30 genera. Insights on intrafamilial relationships have been gained from recent phylogenetic studies, especially for the Neotropics; however, in the most recent classification, 10 of 30 recognized genera are either non-monophyletic or untested. In the present study, we...

Intraspecific mating system evolution and its effect on complex male secondary sexual traits: does male-male competition increase selection on size or shape?

Julian Baur, Jeannine Roy, Martin A. Schäfer, Nalini Puniamoorthy, Wolf U. Blanckenhorn & Patrick T. Rohner
Sexual selection is generally held responsible for the exceptional diversity in secondary sexual traits in animals. Mating system evolution is therefore expected to profoundly affect the covariation between secondary sexual traits and mating success. While there is such evidence at the interspecific level, data within species remain scarce. We here investigate sexual selection acting on the exaggerated male fore femur and the male wing in the common and widespread dung flies Sepsis punctum and S....

Data from: Male monkeys use punishment and coercion to de-escalate costly intergroup fights

T. Jean M. Arseneau-Robar, Eliane Müller, Anouk L. Taucher, Carel P. Van Schaik, Redouan Bshary & Erik P. Willems
In numerous social species, males direct aggression towards female group members during intergroup fights, and this behaviour is commonly thought to function as mate guarding, even though males often target non-receptive females. In studying intergroup fights in a wild population of vervet monkeys, we found that male intragroup aggression was primarily directed towards individuals who had either just finished exhibiting, or were currently attempting to instigate intergroup aggression. Targeted females were less likely to instigate...

Data from: A palaeoequatorial Ornithischian and new constraints on early dinosaur diversification

Paul M. Barrett, Richard J. Butler, Roland Mundil, Torsten M. Scheyer, Randall B. Irmis, Marcelo R. Sánchez-Villagra & M. R. Sanchez-Villagra
Current characterizations of early dinosaur evolution are incomplete: existing palaeobiological and phylogenetic scenarios are based on a fossil record dominated by saurischians and the implications of the early ornithischian record are often overlooked. Moreover, the timings of deep phylogenetic divergences within Dinosauria are poorly constrained owing to the absence of a rigorous chronostratigraphical framework for key Late Triassic–Early Jurassic localities. A new dinosaur from the earliest Jurassic of the Venezuelan Andes is the first basal...

Data from: Small beetle, large-scale drivers: how regional and landscape factors affect outbreaks of the European spruce bark beetle

Rupert Seidl, Jörg Müller, Torsten Hothorn, Claus Bässler, Marco Heurich & Markus Kautz
Unprecedented bark beetle outbreaks have been observed for a variety of forest ecosystems recently, and damage is expected to further intensify as a consequence of climate change. In Central Europe, the response of ecosystem management to increasing infestation risk has hitherto focused largely on the stand level, while the contingency of outbreak dynamics on large-scale drivers remains poorly understood. To investigate how factors beyond the local scale contribute to the infestation risk from Ips typographus...

Data from: Amino acid change in an orchid desaturase enables mimicry of the pollinator’s sex pheromone

Khalid E. M. Sedeek, Edward Whittle, Daniela Guthörl, Ueli Grossniklaus, John Shanklin & Philipp Schlüter
Mimicry illustrates the power of selection to produce phenotypic convergence in biology [ 1 ]. A striking example is the imitation of female insects by plants that are pollinated by sexual deception of males of the same insect species [ 2–4 ]. This involves mimicry of visual, tactile, and chemical signals of females [ 2–7 ], especially their sex pheromones [ 8–11 ]. The Mediterranean orchid Ophrys exaltata employs chemical mimicry of cuticular hydrocarbons, particularly...

Data from: Assessing canalisation of intraspecific variation on a macroevolutionary scale: the case of crinoid arms through the Phanerozoic

Catalina Pimiento, Kit Lam Tang, Samuel Zamora, Christian Klug & Marcelo Ricardo Sánchez-Villagra
Pictures of Crinoid Specimens 1Pictures of species with names that start with the letters A-Ccrinoids_1.zipPictures of Crinoid Specimens 2Pictures of species with names that start with the letters D-Ocrinoids_2.zipPictures of Crinoid Specimens 3Pictures of species with names that start with the letter Pcrinoids_3.zipPictures of Crinoid Specimens 4Pictures of species with names that start with the letters S-Zcrinoids_4.zip

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