505 Works

Data from: HDAC1/2-dependent P0 expression maintains paranodal and nodal integrity independently of myelin stability through interactions with neurofascins

Valérie Brügger, Stefanie Engler, Jorge A. Pereira, Sophie Ruff, Michael Horn, Hans Welzl, Emmanuelle Münger, Adrien Vaquié, Páris N. M. Sidiropoulos, Boris Egger, Peter Yotovski, Luis Filgueira, Christian Somandin, Tessa C. Lühmann, Maurizio D’Antonio, Teppei Yamaguchi, Patrick Matthias, Ueli Suter & Claire Jacob
The pathogenesis of peripheral neuropathies in adults is linked to maintenance mechanisms that are not well understood. Here, we elucidate a novel critical maintenance mechanism for Schwann cell (SC)–axon interaction. Using mouse genetics, ablation of the transcriptional regulators histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (HDAC1/2) in adult SCs severely affected paranodal and nodal integrity and led to demyelination/remyelination. Expression levels of the HDAC1/2 target gene myelin protein zero (P0) were reduced by half, accompanied by altered...

Data from: Presence of a loner strain maintains cooperation and diversity in well-mixed bacterial communities

R. Fredrik Inglis, Jay M. Biernaskie, Andy Gardner & Rolf Kümmerli
Cooperation and diversity abound in nature despite cooperators risking exploitation from defectors and superior competitors displacing weaker ones. Understanding the persistence of cooperation and diversity is therefore a major problem for evolutionary ecology, especially in the context of well-mixed populations, where the potential for exploitation and displacement is greatest. Here, we demonstrate that a ‘loner effect’, described by economic game theorists, can maintain cooperation and diversity in real-world biological settings. We use mathematical models of...

Data from: Sexual selection on male size drives the evolution of male-biased sexual size dimorphism via the prolongation of male development

Patrick T. Rohner, Wolf U. Blanckenhorn & Nalini Puniamoorthy
Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) arises when the net effects of natural and sexual selection on body size differ between the sexes. Quantitative SSD variation between taxa is common, but directional intraspecific SSD reversals are rare. We combined micro- and macroevolutionary approaches to study geographic SSD variation in closely related black scavenger flies. Common garden experiments revealed stark intra and interspecific variation: Sepsis biflexuosa is monomorphic across the Holarctic, while S. cynipsea (only in Europe) consistently...

Data from: Subsidies mediate interactions between communities across space

Isabelle Gounand, Eric Harvey, Pravin Ganesanandamoorthy & Florian Altermatt
Most spatial ecology focuses on how species dispersal affects community dynamics and coexistence. Ecosystems, however, are also commonly connected by flows of resources. We experimentally tested how neighbouring communities indirectly influence each other in absence of dispersal, via resource exchanges. Using two-patch microcosm meta-ecosystems, we manipulated community composition and dynamics, by varying separately species key functional traits (autotroph versus heterotroph species and size of consumer species) and trophic structure of aquatic communities (species growing alone,...

Data from: Incipient habitat race formation in an amphibian

Josh Van Buskirk
Theory defines conditions under which sympatric speciation may occur, and several possible examples of the process in action have been identified. In most cases, organisms specialize onto habitats that fall into discrete categories, such as host species used by herbivores and parasites. Ecological specialization within a continuous habitat gradient is theoretically possible, but becomes less likely with increasing gene flow among clinal habitat types. Here, I show that habitat race formation is underway in a...

Data from: Population density and structure drive differential investment in pre- and postmating sexual traits in frogs

Stefan Lüpold, Long Jin & Wen Bo Liao
Sexual selection theory predicts a trade-off between premating (ornaments and armaments) and postmating (testes and ejaculates) sexual traits, assuming that growing and maintaining these traits is costly and that total reproductive investments are limited. The number of males in competition, the reproductive gains from investing in premating sexual traits, and the level of sperm competition are all predicted to influence how males allocate their finite resources to these traits. Yet, empirical examination of these predictions...

Data from: The lichens and allied fungi of Mount Mitchell State Park, North Carolina: a first checklist with comprehensive keys and comparison to historical data

James C. Lendemer, Carly R. Anderson Stewart, Betty Besa, Jim Goldsmith, Haley Griffith, Jordan R. Hoffman, Betsy Kraus, Paula LaPoint, Lin Li, Zachary Muscavitch, Joel Schultz, Rebecca Schultz & Jessica L. Allen
A total of 171 species of lichens and allied fungi are reported from the spruce-fir forests of Mount Mitchell State Park, in the Black Mountains of North Carolina, based on both historical and modern records. Comparison of the modern baseline with the historical macrolichen baseline generated in the 1970s revealed potential losses of high-elevation southern Appalachian endemics (2 species), cyanolichens (5 species), species typical of exposed rock outcrops (1 species), and widespread species typical of...

Data from: Numerical response of mammalian carnivores to rodents affects bird reproduction in temperate forests: a case of apparent competition?

Alexander Grendelmeier, Raphaël Arlettaz, Gilberto Pasinelli & Alex Grendelmeier
Resource pulses such as mast seeding in temperate forests may affect interspecific interactions over multiple trophic levels and link different seed and non-seed consumers directly via predation or indirectly via shared predators. However, the nature and strength of interactions among species remain unknown for most resource pulse driven ecosystems. We considered five hypotheses concerning the influence of resource pulses on the interactions between rodents, predators and bird reproduction with data from northern Switzerland collected between...

Data from: Predation can select for later and more synchronous arrival times in migrating species

Anna M. F. Harts, Nadiah P. Kristensen & Hanna Kokko
For migratory species, the timing of arrival at breeding grounds is an important determinant of fitness. Too early arrival at the breeding ground is associated with various costs, and we focus on one understudied cost: that migrants can experience a higher risk of predation if arriving earlier than the bulk of the breeding population. We show, using both a semi-analytic and simulation model, that predation can select for later arrival. This is because of safety...

Data from: Anisian (Middle Triassic) ammonoids from British Columbia (Canada): biochronological and palaeobiogeographic implications

Cheng Ji & Hugo Bucher
New Anisian (Middle Triassic) ammonoids are reported from British Columbia (BC), Canada. Eight species are reported, including one new genus and two new species: Eufrechites roopnarini gen. et sp. nov. and Parafrechites cordeyi sp. nov. New ammonoid subzones are recognized, leading to improved correlation between BC and Nevada: the Hollandites minor Zone is correlated with the interval intercalated between the Unionvillites hadleyi Subzone and the Pseudodanubites nicholsi Subzone; an Eogymnotoceras thompsoni - Anagymnotoceras spivaki Zone...

Data from: Intraspecific variation in cephalopod conchs changes during ontogeny: perspectives from three-dimensional morphometry of Nautilus pompilius

Amane Tajika, Naoki Morimoto, Ryoji Wani & Christian Klug
Intraspecific variation of organisms is of great importance to correctly carry out taxonomic work, which is a prerequisite for important disciplines in paleontology such as community paleoecology, biostratigraphy, and biogeography. However, intraspecific variation is rarely studied in ectocochleate cephalopods (ammonoids and nautiloids), in which an excessive number of taxa were established during the past centuries. Since intraspecific variation of fossilized organisms suffers from various biases (time averaging and taphonomy), an extant example is needed for...

Data from: Interactive life-history traits predict sensitivity of plants and animals to temporal autocorrelation

Maria Paniw, Arpat Ozgul & Roberto Salguero-Gomez
Temporal autocorrelation in demographic processes is an important aspect of population dynamics, but a comprehensive examination of its effects on different life-history strategies is lacking. We use matrix populations models from 454 plant and animal populations to simulate stochastic population growth rates (log λs) under different temporal autocorrelations in demographic rates, using simulated and observed covariation among rates. We then test for differences in sensitivities, or changes, of log λs to changes in autocorrelation among...

Data from: Quantifying climate sensitivity and climate-driven change in North American amphibian communities

David A. W. Miller, Evan H. Campbell Grant, Erin Muths, Staci M. Amburgey, Michael J. Adams, Maxwell B. Joseph, J. Hardin Waddle, Pieter T. J. Johnson, Maureen E. Ryan, Benedikt R. Schmidt, Daniel L. Calhoun, Courtney L. Davis, Robert N. Fisher, David M. Green, Blake R. Hossack, Tracy A. G. Rittenhouse, Susan C. Walls, Larissa L. Bailey, Sam S. Cruickshank, Gary M. Fellers, Thomas A. Gorman, Carola A. Haas, Ward Hughson, David S. Pilliod, Steven J. Price … & Brent H. Sigafus
Changing climate will impact species’ ranges only when environmental variability directly impacts the demography of local populations. However, measurement of demographic responses to climate change has largely been limited to single species and locations. Here we show that amphibian communities are responsive to climatic variability, using >500,000 time-series observations for 81 species across 86 North American study areas. The effect of climate on local colonization and persistence probabilities varies among eco-regions and depends on local...

Data from: Predation risk shaped by habitat and landscape complexity in urban environments

David Frey, Kevin Vega, Florian Zellweger, Jaboury Ghazoul, Dennis Hansen & Marco Moretti
1. Habitat loss and modification are hallmarks of anthropogenic ecosystems, but the consequences for ecosystem functions and services often remain unclear. Understanding these links in cities is complicated by strong but fine-scale differences in habitat structure among green space patches, and a high variance in habitat amount across urban landscapes. 2. We used airborne laser scanning (ALS) data to disentangle the effects of 3D woody habitat heterogeneity of urban home gardens, and woody habitat amount...

Data from: Meiotic drive changes sperm precedence patterns in house mice: potential for male alternative mating tactics

Andreas Sutter & Anna Kristina Lindholm
Background - With female multiple mating (polyandry), male-male competition extends to after copulation (sperm competition). Males respond to this selective pressure through physiological, morphological and behavioural adaptations. Sperm competitiveness is commonly decreased in heterozygote carriers of male meiotic drivers, selfish genetic elements that manipulate the production of gametes in males. This might give carriers an evolutionary incentive to reduce the risk of sperm competition. Here, we explore this possibility in house mice. Natural populations frequently...

Data from: Resolving the conundrum of inbreeding depression but no inbreeding avoidance: estimating sex-specific selection on inbreeding by song sparrows (Melospiza melodia)

Jane M. Reid, Peter Arcese, Greta Bocedi, Alexander Bradley Duthie, Matthew Ernest Wolak & Lukas F. Keller
Inbreeding avoidance among interacting females and males is not always observed despite inbreeding depression in offspring fitness, creating an apparent ‘inbreeding paradox’. This paradox could be resolved if selection against inbreeding was in fact weak, despite inbreeding depression. However, the net magnitude and direction of selection on the degree to which females and males inbreed by pairing with relatives has not been explicitly estimated. We used long-term pedigree data to estimate phenotypic selection gradients on...

Data from: Both morph- and species-dependent asymmetries affect reproductive barriers between heterostylous species

Barbara Keller, Jurriaan M. De Vos, Alexander N. Schmidt-Lebuhn, James D. Thomson & Elena Conti
The interaction between floral traits and reproductive isolation is crucial to explaining the extraordinary diversity of angiosperms. Heterostyly, a complex floral polymorphism that optimizes outcrossing, evolved repeatedly and has been shown to accelerate diversification in primroses, yet its potential influence on isolating mechanisms remains unexplored. Furthermore, the relative contribution of pre- versus postmating barriers to reproductive isolation is still debated. No experimental study has yet evaluated the possible effects of heterostyly on pre- and postmating...

Data from: Urban colonization through multiple genetic lenses: the city-fox phenomenon revisited

Alexandra L. DeCandia, Kristin E. Brzeski, Elizabeth Heppenheimer, Catherine V. Caro, Glauco Camenisch, Peter Wandeler, Carlos Driscoll & Bridgett M. VonHoldt
Urbanization is driving environmental change on a global scale, creating novel environments for wildlife to colonize. Through a combination of stochastic and selective processes, urbanization is also driving evolutionary change. For instance, difficulty traversing human-modified landscapes may isolate newly established populations from rural sources, while novel selective pressures, such as altered disease risk, toxicant exposure, and light pollution, may further diverge populations through local adaptation. Assessing the evolutionary consequences of urban colonization and the processes...

Data from: Repetitive flanking sequences challenge SSR marker development: a case study in the lepidopteran Melanargia galathea

Max Schmid, Daniela Csencsics & Felix Gugerli
Microsatellite DNA families (MDF) are stretches of DNA that share similar or identical sequences beside nuclear simple-sequence repeat (nSSR) motifs, potentially causing problems during nSSR marker development. Primers positioned within MDFs can bind several times within the genome and might result in multiple banding patterns. It is therefore common practice to exclude MDF loci in the course of marker development. Here, we propose an approach to deal with multiple primer binding sites by purposefully positioning...

Data from: Frequent and parallel habitat transitions as driver of unbounded radiations in the Cape flora

Yanis Bouchenak-Khelladi & H. Peter Linder
The enormous species richness in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of Southern Africa is the result of numerous radiations, but the temporal progression and possible mechanisms of these radiations are still poorly understood. Here, we explore the macroevolutionary dynamics of the Restionaceae, that include 340 species which are found in all vegetation types in the Cape flora and are ecologically dominant in fynbos. Using an almost complete (i.e. 98%) species-level time calibrated phylogeny and models...

Data from: Differentiation of movement behavior in an adaptively diverging salamander population

Ralf Hendrix, Benedikt R. Schmidt, Michael Schaub, E. Tobias Krause & Sebastian Steinfartz
Dispersal is considered to be a species-specific trait, but intraspecific variation can be high. However, when and how this complex trait starts to differentiate during the divergence of species/lineages is unknown. Here, we studied the differentiation of movement behavior in a large salamander (Salamandra salamandra) population, in which individual adaptations to different habitat conditions drive the genetic divergence of this population into two subpopulations. In this system, salamanders have adapted to the deposition and development...

Data from: Understanding policing as a mechanism of cheater control in cooperating bacteria

Tobias Wechsler, Rolf Kümmerli & Akos Dobay
Policing occurs in insect, animal and human societies, where it evolved as a mechanism maintaining cooperation. Recently, it has been suggested that policing might even be relevant in enforcing cooperation in much simpler organisms such as bacteria. Here, we used individual‐based modelling to develop an evolutionary concept for policing in bacteria, and identify the conditions under which it can be adaptive. We modelled interactions between cooperators, producing a beneficial public good, cheaters exploiting the public...

Data from: 5α-cyprinol sulfate, a bile salt from fish, induces diel vertical migration in Daphnia

Meike A. Hahn, Christoph Effertz, Laurent Bigler & Eric Von Elert
Prey are under selection to minimize predation losses. In aquatic environments many prey use chemical cues released by predators, which initiate predator-avoidance. A prominent example of behavioural predator-avoidance constitutes diel vertical migration (DVM) in the freshwater microcrustacean Daphnia spp., which is induced by chemical cues (kairomones) released by planktivorous fish. In a bioassay-guided approach using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry we isolated the kairomone from fish incubation water and identified it as 5α-cyprinol sulfate inducing...

Data from: Experimental signal dissection and method sensitivity analyses reaffirm the potential of fossils and morphology in the resolution of the relationship of angiosperms and Gnetales

Mario Coiro, Guillaume Chomicki & James A. Doyle
The placement of angiosperms and Gnetales in seed plant phylogeny remains one of the most enigmatic problems in plant evolution, with morphological analyses (which have usually included fossils) and molecular analyses pointing to very distinct topologies. Almost all morphology-based phylogenies group angiosperms with Gnetales and certain extinct seed plant lineages, while most molecular phylogenies link Gnetales with conifers. In this study, we investigate the phylogenetic signal present in published seed plant morphological datasets. We use...

Data from: Taxonomic, phylogenetic and ecological diversity of Niphargus (Amphipoda: Crustacea) in the Hölloch cave system (Switzerland)

Cene Fišer, Marjeta Konec, Roman Alther, Vid Švara & Florian Altermatt
Groundwater belongs to the spatially most extensive, but least explored freshwater systems. On a global scale, the species richness of several subterranean invertebrate taxa parallels species richness found in surface waters, while on a local scale species richness hardly exceeds 20 species. This results in a high contribution of groundwater ecosystems to regional β- and γ-diversity, and to a smaller degree to α-diversity, and deserves focused attention. In general, more species are to be found...

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