547 Works

Data from: The evolution of male-biased sexual size dimorphism is associated with increased body size plasticity in males

Patrick T. Rohner, Tiit Teder, Toomas Esperk, Stefan Lüpold & Wolf U. Blanckenhorn
1.Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) can vary drastically across environments, demonstrating pronounced sex-specific plasticity. In insects, females are usually the larger and more plastic sex. However, the shortage of taxa with male-biased SSD hampers the assessment of whether the greater plasticity in females is driven by selection on size or represents an effect of the female reproductive role. Here we specifically address the role of sex-specific plasticity of body size in the evolution of SSD reversals...

Data from: No evidence of inbreeding depression in sperm performance traits in wild song sparrows

Sylvain Losdat, Ryan R. Germain, Pirmin Nietlisbach, Peter Arcese & Jane M. Reid
Inbreeding is widely hypothesized to shape mating systems and population persistence, but such effects will depend on which traits show inbreeding depression. Population and evolutionary consequences could be substantial if inbreeding decreases sperm performance and hence decreases male fertilisation success and female fertility. However, the magnitude of inbreeding depression in sperm performance traits has rarely been estimated in wild populations experiencing natural variation in inbreeding. Further, the hypothesis that inbreeding could increase within-ejaculate variation in...

Data from: Phenotypic responses to temperature in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila

Vanessa Weber De Melo, Robert Lowe, Paul J. Hurd & Owen L. Petchey
Understanding the effects of temperature on ecological and evolutionary processes is crucial for generating future climate adaptation scenarios. Using experimental evolution, we evolved the model ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila in an initially novel high temperature environment for more than 35 generations, closely monitoring population dynamics and morphological changes. We observed initially long lag phases in the high temperature environment that over about 26 generations reduced to no lag phase, a strong reduction in cell size and...

Positive and negative interactions jointly determine the structure of Müllerian mimetic communities

Thomas G. Aubier & Marianne Elias
Negative and positive ecological interactions have opposite effects on the structure of ecological communities, in particular in terms of ecological similarity among interacting species. In nature, species belonging to the same guild often interact in both negative and positive ways, yet the interplay between interactions of different kinds in intraguild community dynamics remains poorly understood. Müllerian mimetic communities are particularly suited for investigating this interplay because positive (mutualistic mimicry) and negative (competition for trophic resource...

Leaf size of woody dicots predicts ecosystem primary productivity

Yaoqi Li, Peter Reich, Bernhard Schmid, Nawal Shrestha, Xiao Feng, Tong Lyv, Brian Maitner, Xiaoting Xu, Yichao Li, Dongting Zou, Zheng-Hong Tan, Xiangyan Su, Zhiyao Tang, Qinghua Guo, Xiaojuan Feng, Brian Enquist & Zhiheng Wang
A key challenge in ecology is to understand the relationships between organismal traits and ecosystem processes. Here, with a novel dataset of leaf length and width for 10,480 woody dicots in China and 2,374 in North America, we show that the variation in community mean leaf size is highly correlated with the variation in climate and ecosystem primary productivity, independent of plant life form. These relationships likely reflect how natural selection modifies leaf size across...

Data from: Global fern and lycophyte richness explained: how regional and local factors shape plot richness

Michael Kessler, Anna Weigand, Helge Bruelheide, Hanna Tuomisto, Holger Kreft & Patrick Weigelt
Aim To disentangle the influence of environmental factors at different spatial grains (regional and local) on fern and lycophyte species richness and ask how regional and plot-level richness are related to each other. Location Global. Time Period Present. Major Taxa studied Ferns and lycophytes. Methods We explored fern and lycophyte species richness at two spatial grains, regional (hexagonal grid cells of 7666 km2) and plot-level (300–500 m2), in relation to environmental data at regional and...

Data from: Implementation of new standard operating procedures for geriatric trauma patients with multiple injuries: a single level I trauma centre study

Lorenz Peterer, Christian Ossendorf, Kai Oliver Jensen, Georg Osterhoff, Ladislav Mica, Burkhardt Seifert, Clément ML Werner, Hans-Peter Simmen, Hans-Christoph Pape & Kai Sprengel
Background The demographic changes towards ageing of the populations in developed countries impose a challenge to trauma centres, as geriatric trauma patients require specific diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. This study investigated whether the integration of new standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the resuscitation room (ER) has an impact on the clinical course in geriatric patients. The new SOPs were designed for severely injured adult trauma patients, based on the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) and...

Assessing seasonal demographic covariation to understand environmental-change impacts on a hibernating mammal

Maria Paniw, Dylan Childs, Kenneth Armitage, Daniel Blumstein, Julien Martin, Madan Oli & Arpat Ozgul
Natural populations are exposed to seasonal variation in environmental factors that simultaneously affect several demographic rates (survival, development, reproduction). The resulting covariation in these rates determines population dynamics, but accounting for its numerous biotic and abiotic drivers is a significant challenge. Here, we use a factor-analytic approach to capture partially unobserved drivers of seasonal population dynamics. We use 40 years of individual-based demography from yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventer) to fit and project population models that...

Data from: Genetic architecture constrains exploitation of siderophore cooperation in the bacterium Burkholderia cenocepacia.

Santosh Sathe, Anugraha Mathew, Kirsty Agnoli, Leo Eberl & Rolf Kümmerli
Abstract. Explaining how cooperation can persist in the presence of cheaters, exploiting the cooperative acts, is a challenge for evolutionary biology. Microbial systems have proved extremely useful to test evolutionary theory and identify mechanisms maintaining cooperation. One of the most widely studied system is the secretion and sharing of iron-scavenging siderophores by Pseudomonas bacteria, with many insights gained from this system now being considered as hallmarks of bacterial cooperation. Here, we introduce siderophore secretion by...

Data from: Diversity, dynamics and effects of long terminal repeat retrotransposons in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon

Anne C. Roulin, Christoph Stritt, Michele Wyler, Elena L. Gimmi & Martin Pippel
Transposable elements (TEs) are the main reason for the high plasticity of plant genomes, where they occur as communities of diverse evolutionary lineages. Because research has typically focused on single abundant families or summarized TEs at a coarse taxonomic level, our knowledge about how these lineages differ in their effects on genome evolution is still rudimentary. Here we investigate the community composition and dynamics of 32 long terminal repeat retrotransposon (LTR-RT) families in the 272...

Evolution under pH stress and high population densities leads to increased density-dependent fitness in the protist Tetrahymena thermophila

Felix Moerman, Angelina Arquint, Stefanie Merkli, Andreas Wagner, Florian Altermatt & Emanuel Fronhofer
Abiotic stress is a major force of selection that organisms are constantly facing. While the evolutionary effects of various stressors have been broadly studied, it is only more recently that the relevance of interactions between evolution and underlying ecological conditions, that is, eco-evolutionary feedbacks, have been highlighted. Here, we experimentally investigated how populations adapt to pH-stress under high population densities. Using the protist species Tetrahymena thermophila, we studied how four different genotypes evolved in response...

Epidermal Growth Factor signaling promotes sleep through a combined series and parallel neural circuit

Jan Konietzka, Maximilian Fritz, Silvan Spiri, Rebecca McWhirter, Andreas Leha, Sierra Palumbos, Wagner Steuer Costa, Alexandra Oranth, Alexander Gottschalk, , Alex Hajnal & Henrik Bringmann
Sleep requires sleep-active neurons that depolarize to inhibit wake circuits. Sleep-active neurons are under the control of homeostatic mechanisms that determine sleep need. However, little is known about the molecular and circuit mechanisms that translate sleep need into the depolarization of sleep-active neurons. During many stages and conditions in C. elegans, sleep requires a sleep-active neuron called RIS. Here, we defined the transcriptome of RIS to discover that genes of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor...

Data from: Cre-mediated, loxP independent sequential recombination of a tripartite transcriptional stop cassette allows for partial read-through transcription

Roland Wenger, Andreas M. Bapst, Sophie L. Dahl & Thomas Knöpfel
One of the widely used applications of the popular Cre-loxP method for targeted recombination is the permanent activation of marker genes, such as reporter genes or antibiotic resistance genes, by excision of a preceding transcriptional stop signal. The STOP cassette consists of three identical SV40-derived poly(A) signal repeats and is flanked by two loxP sites. We found that in addition to complete loxP-mediated recombination, limiting levels of the Cre recombinase also cause incomplete recombination of...

Data from: The ghost of disturbance past: long-term effects of pulse disturbances on community biomass and composition

Claire Jacquet
Current global change is associated with an increase in disturbance frequency and intensity, with the potential to trigger population collapses and to cause permanent transitions to new ecosystem states. However, our understanding of ecosystem responses to disturbances is still incomplete. Specifically, there is a mismatch between the diversity of disturbance regimes experienced by ecosystems and the one-dimensional description of disturbances used in most studies on ecological stability. To fill this gap, we conducted a full...

Data from: When to stay and when to leave? Proximate causes of dispersal in an endangered social carnivore

Dominik Behr, John McNutt, Arpat Ozgul & Gabriele Cozzi
1. Reliable estimates of birth, death, emigration, and immigration rates are fundamental to understanding and predicting the dynamics of wild populations and, consequently, inform appropriate management actions. However, when individuals disappear from a focal population, inference on their fate is often challenging. 2. Here we used 30 years of individual-based mark-recapture data from a population of free-ranging African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in Botswana and a suite of individual, social, and environmental predictors to investigate...

Data from: Internal cranial anatomy of Early Triassic species of †Saurichthys (Actinopterygii: †Saurichthyiformes): implications for the phylogenetic placement of †saurichthyiforms

Thodoris Argyriou, Sam Giles, Matt Friedman, Carlo Romano, Ilja Kogan & Marcelo R. Sanchez-Villagra
Background: †Saurichthyiformes was a successful group of latest Permian-Middle Jurassic predatory actinopterygian fishes and constituted important and widely-distributed components of Triassic marine and freshwater faunas. Their systematic affinities have long been debated, with †saurichthyiforms often being aligned with chondrosteans, a group today comprising sturgeons and paddlefishes. However, their character-rich endocranial anatomy has not been investigated in detail since the first half of the 20th century. Since that time, major advances have occurred in terms of...

Data from: Decision making for mitigating wildlife diseases: from theory to practice for an emerging fungal pathogen of amphibians

Stefano Canessa, Claudio Bozzuto, Evan H. Campbell Grant, Sam S. Cruickshank, Matthew C. Fisher, Jacob C. Koella, Stefan Lötters, An Martel, Frank Pasmans, Benjamin C. Scheele, Annemarieke Spitzen-Van Der Sluijs, Sebastian Steinfartz, Benedikt R. Schmidt & Ben C. Scheele
1.Conservation science can be most effective in its decision-support role when seeking answers to clearly formulated questions of direct management relevance. Emerging wildlife diseases, a driver of global biodiversity loss, illustrate the challenges of performing this role: in spite of considerable research, successful disease mitigation is uncommon. Decision analysis is increasingly advocated to guide mitigation planning, but its application remains rare. 2.Using an integral projection model, we explored potential mitigation actions for avoiding population declines...

Data from: Human visual exploration reduces uncertainty about the sensed world

M. Berk Mirza, Rick A. Adams, Christoph Mathys & Karl J. Friston
In previous papers, we introduced a normative scheme for scene construction and epistemic (visual) searches based upon active inference. This scheme provides a principled account of how people decide where to look, when categorising a visual scene based on its contents. In this paper, we use active inference to explain the visual searches of normal human subjects; enabling us to answer some key questions about visual foraging and salience attribution. First, we asked whether there...

Data from: High mutation rates limit evolutionary adaptation in Escherichia coli

Kathleen Sprouffske, José Aguilar-Rodríguez, Paul Sniegowski & Andreas Wagner
Mutation is fundamental to evolution, because it generates the genetic variation on which selection can act. In nature, genetic changes often increase the mutation rate in systems that range from viruses and bacteria to human tumors. Such an increase promotes the accumulation of frequent deleterious or neutral alleles, but it can also increase the chances that a population acquires rare beneficial alleles. Here, we study how up to 100-fold increases in Escherichia coli’s genomic mutation...

Data from: Experimentally simulating warmer and wetter climate additively improves rangeland quality on the Tibetan Plateau

Wei Xu, Mengyao Zhu, Zhenhua Zhang, Zhiyuan Ma, Huiying Liu, Litong Chen, Guangming Cao, Xinquan Zhao, Bernhard Schmid & Jin-Sheng He
1. The vast expanses of rangeland on the Tibetan Plateau, which support the livelihood of ~9.8 million local inhabitants, have experienced rapid climate warming over the past 50 years. At the same time, precipitation has increased in large parts of the Plateau but decreased in other parts, particularly in the northwest. These trends are predicted to continue into the future. However, their potential effects on rangeland quality remain unclear. 2. We conducted a two-factor field...

Data from: UV bullseye contrast of Hemerocallis flowers attracts hawkmoths but not swallowtail butterflies

Shun K. Hirota, Nozomu Miki, Akiko A. Yasumoto & Tetsukazu Yahara
The colour and patterns of animal-pollinated flowers are known to have effects on pollinator attraction. In this study, the relative importance of flower colour and colour contrast patterns on pollinator attraction was examined in two pollinator groups, swallowtail butterflies and hawkmoths using two Hemerocallis species; butterfly-pollinated H. fulva and hawkmoth-pollinated H. citrina, having reddish and yellowish flowers in human vision, respectively. Flowers of both species have UV bullseye patterns, composed of UV-absorbing centres and UV-reflecting...

Data from: Patterns of polymorphism and selection in the subgenomes of the allopolyploid Arabidopsis kamchatica

Timothy Paape, Roman V. Briskine, Gwyneth Halstead-Nussloch, Heidi E. L. Lischer, Rie Shimizu-Inatsugi, Masaomi Hatekayama, Kenta Tanaka, Tomoaki Nishiyama, Renat Sabirov, Jun Sese & Kentaro K. Shimizu
Genome duplication is widespread in wild and crop plants. However, little is known about genome-wide selection in polyploids due to the complexity of duplicated genomes. In polyploids, the patterns of purifying selection and adaptive substitutions may be affected by masking owing to duplicated genes or homeologs as well as effective population size. Here, we resequence 25 accessions of the allotetraploid Arabidopsis kamchatica, which is derived from the diploid species A. halleri and A. lyrata. We...

Data from: Mitochondrial complementation: a possible neglected factor behind early eukaryotic sex

Anaïs Tilquin, Joshua R. Christie & Hanna Kokko
Sex is ancestral in eukaryotes. Meiotic sex differs from bacterial ways of exchanging genetic material by involving the fusion of two cells. We examine the hypothesis that fusion evolved in early eukaryotes because it was directly beneficial, rather than a passive side-effect of meiotic sex. We assume that the uptake of (proto)mitochondria into eukaryotes preceded the evolution of cell fusion, and that Muller’s ratchet operating within symbiont lineages led to the accumulation of lineage-specific sets...

Data from: Predator size and prey size-gut capacity ratios determine kill frequency and carcass production in terrestrial carnivorous mammals

Annelies De Cuyper, Marcus Clauss, Chris Carbone, Daryl Codron, An Cools, Myriam Hesta & Geert P. J. Janssens
Carnivore kill frequency is a fundamental part of predator-prey interactions, which are important shapers of ecosystems. Current field kill frequency data are rare and existing models are insufficiently adapted to carnivore functional groups. We developed a kill frequency model accounting for carnivore mass, prey mass, pack size, partial consumption of prey and carnivore gut capacity. Two main carnivore functional groups, small prey-feeders vs large prey-feeders, were established based on the relationship between stomach capacity (C)...

Data from: Niches within a niche: ecological differentiation of subterranean amphipods across Europe’s interstitial waters

Cene Fiser, Teo Delić, Roman Luštrik, Maja Zagmajster & Florian Altermatt
Species that successfully colonized subterranean environments are subject to two opposing selection processes. Stringent abiotic factors select for convergent adaptations, such as loss of eyes and pigments, while interspecific competition drives between-species divergence. Subterranean species can resolve opposing selection by adaptation to physically different microhabitats. Yet, species frequently co-occur in physically homogeneous subterranean habitats, like interstitial. These co-occurrences in such a narrow ecological context can be explained either by equalizing mechanisms, in which neither of...

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