532 Works

Data from: Regime shifts in an Early Triassic subtropical ecosystem

Elke Schneebeli
The Early Triassic was one of the most remarkable time intervals in Earth History. To begin with, life on Earth had to face one of the largest subaerial volcanic degassing, the Siberian Traps, followed by a plethora of accompanying environmental hazards with pronounced and repeated climatic changes. These changes not only led to repeated and, for several marine nektonic clades, intense extinction events but also to significant changes in terrestrial ecosystems. The Early Triassic terrestrial...

Data from: Collateral sensitivity interactions between antibiotics depend on local abiotic conditions

Richard Allen
Mutations conferring resistance to one antibiotic can increase (cross resistance) or decrease (collateral sensitivity) resistance to others. Antibiotic combinations displaying collateral sensitivity could be used in treatments that slow resistance evolution. However, lab-to-clinic translation requires understanding whether collateral effects are robust across different environmental conditions. Here, we isolated and characterized resistant mutants of Escherichia coli using five antibiotics, before measuring collateral effects on resistance to other paired antibiotics. During both isolation and phenotyping, we varied...

Decline and Fall: the causes of group failure in cooperatively breeding meerkats

Christopher Duncan, Marta Manser & Tim Clutton-Brock
In many social vertebrates, variation in group persistence exerts an important effect on individual fitness and population demography. However, few studies have been able to investigate the failure of groups or the causes of the variation in their longevity. We use data from a long-term study of cooperatively breeding meerkats, Suricata suricatta, to investigate the different causes of group failure and the factors that drive these processes. Many newly formed groups failed within a year...

Data from: Life-history responses of a freshwater rotifer to copper pollution

Federica R. Schanz, Stefan Sommer, Andrea Lami, Diego Fontaneto & Arpat Ozgul
In organisms with dormant stages, life-history responses to past pollution can be studied retrospectively. Here, we study such responses in a rotifer (Brachionus calyciflorus) from the once heavily copper-polluted Lake Orta (Italy). We extracted resting eggs from sediments, established clonal lineages from hatchlings, and exposed newborns of these lineages to one of three copper concentrations that each mimicked a specific period in the lake’s pollution history. For each rotifer, we daily collected life-table data. We...

Time-Optimal Planning for Quadrotor Waypoint Flight

Philipp Foehn, Angel Romero & Davide Scaramuzza
Quadrotors are amongst the most agile flying robots. However, planning time-optimal trajectories at the actuation limit through multiple waypoints remains an open problem. This is crucial for applications such as inspection, delivery, search and rescue, and drone racing. Early works used polynomial trajectory formulations, which do not exploit the full actuator potential due to their inherent smoothness. Recent works resorted to numerical optimization, but require waypoints to be allocated as costs or constraints at specific...

Data from: Evolution of dispersal, habit, and pollination in Africa pushed Apocynaceae diversification after the Eocene-Oligocene climate transition

Nicolai M. Nürk, Cássia Bitencourt, Alessandro Rapini, Mark Fishbein, André O. Simões, David J. Middleton, Ulrich Meve, Mary E. Endress & Sigrid Liede-Schumann
Apocynaceae (the dogbane and milkweed family) is one of the ten largest flowering plant families, with approximately 5,350 species and diverse morphology and ecology, ranging from large trees and lianas that are emblematic of tropical rainforests, to herbs in temperate grasslands, to succulents in dry, open landscapes, and to vines in a wide variety of habitats. Despite a specialized and conservative basic floral architecture, Apocynaceae are hyperdiverse in flower size, corolla shape, and especially derived...

Folding and unfolding of the tryptophan zipper in the presence of two thioamide substitutions

Jan Helbing, Jasmin Spekowius & Rolf Pfister
We studied the stability and folding and unfolding kinetics of the tryptophan zipper, containing dierent double thioamide subsitutions. Conformation change was triggered by photoisomerization of an integrated AMPP photoswitch in the turn region of the hairpin, and transient spectra were recorded in the deep UV and the mid-IR, covering the time window of the (un)folding transition from picoseconds to tens of microseconds. Thio-substitution of inward-pointing backbone carbonyls was found to strongly destabilize the β-hairpin structures,...

Data from: Putting vascular epiphytes on the traits map

Peter Hietz, Katrin Wagner, Flavio Nunes Ramos, Juliano Sarmento Cabral, Gerhard Zotz, Claudia Agudelo, Ana Maria Benavides, Manuel Cach Pérez, Catherine Cardelús, Nahelli Chilpa Galván, Lucas Costa, Rodolfo De Paula Oliveiras, Helena Einzmann, Rafael Farias, Valeria Guzmán Jacob, Michael Kessler, Catherine Kirby, Holger Kreft, Thorsten Krömer, Jamie Males, Samuel Monsalve Correa, Maria Moreno, Gunnar Petter, Casandra Reyes, Alfredo Saldaña … & Carrie Woods
Epiphyte trait data for the paper Hietz et al. 2021 Putting vascular epiphytes on the traits map. Journal of Ecology Plant functional traits impact the fitness and environmental niche of plants. Major plant functional types have been characterized by their trait spectrum, and the environmental and phylogenetic imprints on traits have advanced several ecological fields. Yet very few trait data on epiphytes, which represent almost 10% of vascular plants, are available. We collated >80,000 mostly...

Data from: European common frog (Rana temporaria) recolonised Switzerland from multiple glacial refugia in northern Italy via trans- and circum-Alpine routes

Alexandra Jansen Van Rensburg, Mathieu Robin, Barret Phillips & Josh Van Buskirk
The high mountain ranges of western Europe had a profound effect on the biotic recolonisation of Europe from glacial refugia. The Alps present a particularly interesting case because they form an absolute barrier to dispersal for most taxa, obstructing recolonisation from multiple refugia in northern Italy. Here we investigate the effect of the European Alps on the phylogeographic history of the European common frog Rana temporaria. Based on partial cytochrome b and COXI sequences from...

Data from: Genetic architecture constrains exploitation of siderophore cooperation in the bacterium Burkholderia cenocepacia.

Santosh Sathe, Anugraha Mathew, Kirsty Agnoli, Leo Eberl & Rolf Kümmerli
Abstract. Explaining how cooperation can persist in the presence of cheaters, exploiting the cooperative acts, is a challenge for evolutionary biology. Microbial systems have proved extremely useful to test evolutionary theory and identify mechanisms maintaining cooperation. One of the most widely studied system is the secretion and sharing of iron-scavenging siderophores by Pseudomonas bacteria, with many insights gained from this system now being considered as hallmarks of bacterial cooperation. Here, we introduce siderophore secretion by...

Data from: Global fern and lycophyte richness explained: how regional and local factors shape plot richness

Michael Kessler, Anna Weigand, Helge Bruelheide, Hanna Tuomisto, Holger Kreft & Patrick Weigelt
Aim To disentangle the influence of environmental factors at different spatial grains (regional and local) on fern and lycophyte species richness and ask how regional and plot-level richness are related to each other. Location Global. Time Period Present. Major Taxa studied Ferns and lycophytes. Methods We explored fern and lycophyte species richness at two spatial grains, regional (hexagonal grid cells of 7666 km2) and plot-level (300–500 m2), in relation to environmental data at regional and...

Data from: Diversity, dynamics and effects of long terminal repeat retrotransposons in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon

Anne C. Roulin, Christoph Stritt, Michele Wyler, Elena L. Gimmi & Martin Pippel
Transposable elements (TEs) are the main reason for the high plasticity of plant genomes, where they occur as communities of diverse evolutionary lineages. Because research has typically focused on single abundant families or summarized TEs at a coarse taxonomic level, our knowledge about how these lineages differ in their effects on genome evolution is still rudimentary. Here we investigate the community composition and dynamics of 32 long terminal repeat retrotransposon (LTR-RT) families in the 272...

Epidermal Growth Factor signaling promotes sleep through a combined series and parallel neural circuit

Jan Konietzka, Maximilian Fritz, Silvan Spiri, Rebecca McWhirter, Andreas Leha, Sierra Palumbos, Wagner Steuer Costa, Alexandra Oranth, Alexander Gottschalk, , Alex Hajnal & Henrik Bringmann
Sleep requires sleep-active neurons that depolarize to inhibit wake circuits. Sleep-active neurons are under the control of homeostatic mechanisms that determine sleep need. However, little is known about the molecular and circuit mechanisms that translate sleep need into the depolarization of sleep-active neurons. During many stages and conditions in C. elegans, sleep requires a sleep-active neuron called RIS. Here, we defined the transcriptome of RIS to discover that genes of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor...

Positive and negative interactions jointly determine the structure of Müllerian mimetic communities

Thomas G. Aubier & Marianne Elias
Negative and positive ecological interactions have opposite effects on the structure of ecological communities, in particular in terms of ecological similarity among interacting species. In nature, species belonging to the same guild often interact in both negative and positive ways, yet the interplay between interactions of different kinds in intraguild community dynamics remains poorly understood. Müllerian mimetic communities are particularly suited for investigating this interplay because positive (mutualistic mimicry) and negative (competition for trophic resource...

Warming and top predator loss drive direct and indirect effects on multiple trophic groups within and across ecosystems

Pablo Antiqueira, Owen Petchey, Felipe Rezende, Luiz Felipe Velho, Luzia Rodrigues & Gustavo Romero
1. The interspecific interactions within and between adjacent ecosystems strongly depend on the changes in their abiotic and biotic components. However, little is known about how climate change and biodiversity loss in a specific ecosystem can impact the multiple trophic interactions of different biological groups within and across ecosystems. 2. We used natural micro-ecosystems (tank-bromeliads) as a model system to investigate the main and interactive effects of aquatic warming and aquatic top predator loss (i.e.,...

Data from: Contrasting effects of elevation on above and belowground plant pathogens

Ziyuan Lin, Peng Zhang, Fletcher Halliday, Xingxing Wang, Fei Chen, Anya Shi, Juanjuan Shi, Yao Xiao & Xiang Liu
Plant fungal diseases have a great influence on both photosynthesis and ecosystem function. However, how the elevation gradient, which is one of the most biogeographic factors, affects diseases is scarce. Here, we combined a field survey and a meta-analysis to test how elevation affect foliar fungal diseases and soil fungal pathogens through different paths. We arranged 30 plots along 3200 m ~ 4000 m in a Qinghai-Tibetan alpine meadow and collected the data of foliar...

Dietary abundance distributions: Dominance and diversity in vertebrate diets

Matthew C. Hutchinson, Andrew P. Dobson & Robert M. Pringle
Diet composition is among the most important yet least understood dimensions of animal ecology. Inspired by the study of species-abundance distributions (SADs), we tested for generalities in the structure of vertebrate diets by characterizing them as dietary-abundance distributions (DADs). We compiled data on 1167 population-level diets, representing >500 species from 6 vertebrate classes, spanning all continents and oceans. DADs near-universally (92.5%) followed a hollow-curve shape, with scant support for other plausible rank-abundance-distribution shapes. This strong...

Data from: Dispersal decreases survival but increases reproductive opportunities for subordinates in a cooperative breeder

Nino Maag, Maria Paniw, Gabriele Cozzi, Marta Manser, Tim Clutton-Brock & Arpat Ozgul
In most socially structured populations, the formation of new groups depends on the survival and reproduction of dispersing individuals. Quantifying vital rates in dispersers, however, is difficult due to logistic challenges of following wide-ranging animals. Here, using data from free-ranging meerkats (Suricata suricatta), we estimated survival and reproduction of dispersing and established resident females. Meerkat groups consist of a dominant pair and several subordinate helpers. Female helpers are evicted from their resident groups by the...

Population genomics and haplotype analysis in spelt and bread wheat identifies a gene regulating glume color

Michael Abrouk, Naveenkumar Athiyannan, Thomas Müller & Simon Krattinger
The cloning of agriculturally important genes is often complicated by haplotype variation across crop cultivars. Access to pan-genome information greatly facilitates the assessment of structural variations and rapid candidate gene identification. Here, we identified the red glume 1 (Rg-B1) gene using association genetics and haplotype analyses in ten reference-grade wheat genomes. Glume color is an important trait to characterize wheat cultivars. Red glumes are frequent among Central European spelt, a dominant wheat subspecies in Europe...

Data from: Mridha S and Kümmerli R (2022) Enforced specialization fosters mutual cheating and not division of labour in the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Subham Mridha & Rolf Kümmerli
A common way for bacteria to cooperate is via the secretion of beneficial public goods (proteases, siderophores, biosurfactants) that can be shared among individuals in a group. Bacteria often simultaneously deploy multiple public goods with complementary functions. This raises the question whether natural selection could favour division of labour where subpopulations or species specialise in the production of a single public good, whilst sharing the complementary goods at the group level. Here we use an...

Data from: Distinct body-size responses to warming climate in three rodent species

Ke Li, Stefan Sommer, Zaixue Yang, Yongwang Guo, Yaxian Yue, Arpat Ozgul & Deng Wang
In mammals, body-size responses to warming climates are diverse, and the mechanisms underlying these differentresponses have been little investigated. Using temporal and spatial datasets of three rodent species distributed across different climatic zones in China, we investigated temporal and spatial trends of body size (length and mass), identified the critical drivers of these trends, and inferred the potential causes underlying the distinct body-size responses to the critical drivers. We found that body mass of all...

Short-term social dynamics following anthropogenic and natural disturbances in a free-living mammal

Gabriella Gall, Julian Evans, Matthew Silk, Chelsea Ortiz-Jimenez & Jennifer Smith
Anthropogenic disturbances are widely recognized for their far-reaching consequences on the survival and reproduction of wildlife, but we understand comparatively little about their effects on the social lives of group-living animals. Here we examined these short-term changes in affiliative behavior as part of a long-term study on a human-tolerant and socially flexible population of California ground squirrels (Otospermophilus beecheyi). We used social network analysis to examine short-term changes in affiliative behavior and individual consistency in...

Individual dietary specialization in a generalist bee varies across populations but has no effect on the richness of associated microbial communities

Marilia Palumbo Gaiarsa, Sandra Rehan, Matthew Barbour & Quinn McFrederick
Despite the increasingly documented occurrence of individual specialization, the relationship between individual consumer interactions and diet-related microbial communities in wild populations is still unclear. Using data from nests of the bee Ceratina australensis from three different wild populations, we combine metabarcoding and network approaches to explore the existence of individual variation in resource use within and across populations, and whether dietary specialization affects the richness of pollen-associated microbes. We reveal the existence of marked dietary...

Data from: Ecology and evolution of the diaspore 'burial syndrome'

Aelys Muriel Humphreys, Alexandre Antonelli, Michael D. Pirie & H. Peter Linder
Hygroscopically active awns or "bristles" have long intrigued scientists. Experimental evidence shows that they are important for diaspore burial in the correct orientation, thereby increasing successful seed germination and seedling survival. Despite these ecological advantages, 38 of the 280 species of grasses in Danthonioideae lack awns. We provide the first study of awns in a phylogenetic context and show that whilst the awnless state has arisen ca. 25 times independently, the ecological disadvantage of not...

Data from: Highly asymmetric fine-scale genetic structure between sexes of African striped mice and indication for condition dependent alternative male dispersal tactics

Nils Solmsen, Jes Johannesen & Carsten Schradin
Sex-biased dispersal is observed in many taxa, but few studies have compared sex-biased dispersal among and within populations. We addressed the magnitude and habitat dependency of sex-biased dispersal in social African striped mice by separating group-related from population-related genetic variance to understand the contribution of each sex to deme structure. As dispersal over unoccupied habitat is likely to be more costly than dispersal within a population, we predicted that individuals leaving the natal population have...

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