531 Works

Adaptation to elevation but limited local adaptation in an amphibian

Judith C. Bachmann & Josh Van Buskirk
We performed a reciprocal transplant experiment to estimate “parallel” adaptation to elevation and “unique” adaptation to local sites at the same elevation, using the frog Rana temporaria in the Swiss Alps. It is important to distinguish these two processes because they have different implications for population structure and ecological specialization. Larvae were reared from hatching to metamorphosis within enclosures installed in their pond of origin, in three foreign ponds at the same elevation, and in...

Estimating uncertainty in divergence times among three-spined stickleback clades using the multispecies coalescent

Bohao Fang, Juha Merilä, Michael Matschiner & Paolo Momigliano
Incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) can lead to biased divergence time estimates. To explore if and how ILS has influenced the results of a recent study of worldwide phylogeny of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), we estimated divergence times among major clades by applying both a concatenation approach and the multispecies coalescent (MSC) model to single-nucleotide polymorphisms. To further test the influence of different calibration strategies, we applied different calibrations to the root and to younger nodes...

Wildflower strips enhance wild bee reproductive success

Dominik Ganser, Matthias Albrecht & Eva Knop
1. Intensification of agriculture has resulted in a simplification and fragmentation of agroecosystems. Yet, its impact on the reproductive success and population dynamics of wild bees, and how adverse effects can be mitigated, remains poorly understood. 2. We established populations of seven solitary bee species varying in body size in experimentally sown wild flower strips (WFS), existing semi-natural habitats (SNH; forest edges) and isolated sites lacking WFS and SNH in the local surrounding (350 m...

Intraspecific mating system evolution and its effect on complex male secondary sexual traits: does male-male competition increase selection on size or shape?

Julian Baur, Jeannine Roy, Martin A. Schäfer, Nalini Puniamoorthy, Wolf U. Blanckenhorn & Patrick T. Rohner
Sexual selection is generally held responsible for the exceptional diversity in secondary sexual traits in animals. Mating system evolution is therefore expected to profoundly affect the covariation between secondary sexual traits and mating success. While there is such evidence at the interspecific level, data within species remain scarce. We here investigate sexual selection acting on the exaggerated male fore femur and the male wing in the common and widespread dung flies Sepsis punctum and S....

Phylogeography, more than elevation, accounts for sex-chromosome differentiation in Swiss populations of the common frog (Rana temporaria)

Barret Phillips, Nicolas Rodrigues, Alexandra Jansen Van Rensburg & Nicolas Perrin
Sex chromosomes in vertebrates range from highly heteromorphic (as in most birds and mammals) to strictly homomorphic (as in many fishes, amphibians, and non-avian reptiles). Reasons for these contrasted evolutionary trajectories remain unclear, but species such as common frogs with polymorphism in the extent of sex-chromosome differentiation may potentially deliver important clues. By investigating 92 common-frog populations from a wide range of elevations throughout Switzerland, we show that sex-chromosome differentiation strongly correlates with alleles at...

Data for: Immigration counter-acts local micro-evolution of a major fitness component: migration-selection balance in free-living song sparrows

Jane Reid, Peter Arcese, Pirmin Nietlisbach, Matthew Wolak, Stefanie Muff, Lisa Dickel & Lukas Keller
Ongoing adaptive evolution, and resulting ‘evolutionary rescue’ of declining populations, requires additive genetic variation in fitness. Such variation can be increased by gene flow resulting from immigration, potentially facilitating evolution. But, gene flow could in fact constrain rather than facilitate local adaptive evolution if immigrants have low additive genetic values for local fitness. Local migration-selection balance and micro-evolutionary stasis could then result. However, key quantitative genetic effects of natural immigration, comprising the degrees to which...

Data from: Life-history dimensions indicate non-random assembly processes in tropical island tree communities

Julian Schrader, Dylan Craven, Cornelia Sattler, Rodrigo Cámara-Leret, Soetjipto Moeljono & Holger Kreft
Community assembly processes on islands are often non-random. The mechanisms behind non-random assembly, however, are generally difficult to disentangle. Functional diversity in combination with a null model approach that accounts for differences in species richness among islands can be used to test for non-random assembly processes, but has been applied rarely to island communities. By linking functional diversity of trees on islands with a null model approach, we bridge this gap and test for the...

Genomics of population differentiation in humpback dolphins, Sousa spp. in the Indo-Pacific Ocean

Ana Rita Amaral, Cátia Chanfana, Brian Smith, Rubaiyat Mansur, Tim Collins, Robert Baldwin, Gianna Minton, Guido Parra, Michael Krutzen, Thomas Jefferson, Leszek Karczmarski, Almeida Guissamulo, & Howard Rosenbaum
Speciation is a fundamental process in evolution and crucial to the formation of biodiversity. It is a continuous and complex process, which can involve multiple interacting barriers leading to heterogeneous genomic landscapes with various peaks of divergence among populations. In this study, we used a population genomics approach to gain insights on the speciation process and to understand the population structure within the genus Sousa across its distribution in the Indo-Pacifc region. We found 5...

Food discovery is associated with different reliance on social learning and lower cognitive flexibility across environments in a food caching bird

Virginia Heinen, Angela Pitera, Ben Sonnenberg, Lauren Benedict, Eli Bridge, Damien Farine & Vladimir Pravosudov
Social learning is a primary mechanism for information acquisition in social species. Despite many benefits, social learning may be disadvantageous when independent learning is more efficient. For example, searching independently may be more advantageous when food sources are ephemeral and unpredictable. Individual differences in cognitive abilities such as spatial memory, which affect an individual’s environmental predictability, can also be expected to influence social information use. We investigated how resident food-caching chickadees discovered multiple novel food...

How biases in sperm storage relate to sperm use during oviposition in female yellow dung flies

Marco Demont, Paul Ward, Wolf Blanckenhorn, Stefan Lüpold, Oliver Martin & Luc Bussière
Precise mechanisms underlying sperm storage and utilization are largely unknown, and data directly linking stored sperm to paternity remain scarce. We used competitive microsatellite PCR to study the effects of female morphology, copula duration and oviposition on the proportion of stored sperm provided by the second of two copulating males (S2) in Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae), the classic model for sperm competition studies. We genotyped all offspring from potentially mixed-paternity clutches to establish the relationship...

Date From: The myriad of complex demographic responses of terrestrial mammals to climate change and gaps of knowledge: A global analysis

Maria Paniw, Tamora James, C. Ruth Archer, Gesa Römer, Sam Levin, Aldo Compagnoni, Judy Che-Castaldo, Joanne Bennett, Andrew Mooney, Dylan Childs, Arpat Ozgul, Owen Jones, Jean Burns, Andrew Beckerman, Abir Patwari, Nora Sanchez-Gassen, Tiffany Knight & Roberto Salguero-Gómez
Approximately 25% of mammals are currently threatened with extinction, a risk that is amplified under climate change. Species persistence under climate change is determined by the combined effects of climatic factors on multiple demographic rates (survival, development, reproduction), and hence, population dynamics. Thus, to quantify which species and regions on Earth are most vulnerable to climate-driven extinction, a global understanding of how different demographic rates respond to climate is urgently needed. Here, we perform a...

Competition alters species' plastic and genetic response to environmental change

Lynn Govaert, Florian Altermatt & Luis Gilarranz
Species react to environmental change via plastic and evolutionary responses. While both of them determine species’ survival, most studies quantify these responses only individually. As species occur in communities, competing species may further influence their respective response to environmental change. Yet, how environmental change and competing species combined shape plastic and genetic responses to environmental change remains unclear. Quantifying how species interactions such as competition alter plastic and genetic responses of species to environmental change...

Bird communities in the Swiss Alps, 1999-2018, abundance data

Vicente García-Navas, Thomas Sattler, Hans Schmid & Arpat Ozgul
Aim: Mountains are biodiversity hotspots and are among the most sensitive eco- systems to ongoing global change being thus of conservation concern. Under this scenario, assessing how biological communities vary over time along elevational gra- dients and the relative effects of niche-based deterministic processes and stochastic events in structuring assemblages is essential. Here, we examined how the temporal trends of bird communities vary with elevation over a 20 year-period (1999–2018). We also tested for differences...

A global phylogenomic study of the Thelypteridaceae

Susan Fawcett, Alan Smith, Michael Sundue, Gordon Burleigh, Emily Sessa, Li-Yaung Kuo, Cheng-Wei Chen, Weston Testo, Michael Kessler & David Barrington
The generic classification of the Thelypteridaceae has been the subject of much controversy. Proposed taxonomic systems have varied from recognizing more than 1000 species in the family within the single genus Thelypteris, to systems favoring upwards of 30 genera. Insights on intrafamilial relationships have been gained from recent phylogenetic studies, especially for the Neotropics; however, in the most recent classification, 10 of 30 recognized genera are either non-monophyletic or untested. In the present study, we...

A tradeoff between robustness to environmental fluctuations and speed of evolution

Max Schmid, Maria Paniw, Maarten Postuma, Arpat Ozgul & Frédéric Guillaume
The ability of a species to cope with both long-term and short-term environmental fluctuations might vary with the species' life history. While some life-history characteristics promote large and stable population sizes despite interannual environmental fluctuations, other life-history strategies might allow to evolve quickly in response to long-term gradual changes. In a theoretical study, we show that there is a tradeoff between both properties. Life-history characteristics that promote fast rates of evolution come at the expense...

Reproductive strategies affect telomere dynamics across the life course

Barbara Tschirren, Ana Ángela Romero-Haro, Jennifer Morger & Mark F. Haussmann
Because parental care has a heritable basis, the benefits of receiving increased parental provisioning early in life are genetically linked to the costs of providing increased parental provisioning at adulthood. Reproductive strategies thus result in distinct cost-benefit syndromes across the life course that may shape individual health and ageing trajectories. Here we used an artificial selection approach in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) to test how reproductive strategies affect telomere length, a biomarker of somatic state,...

Online Appendix and Cetacean Datasets for: The Occurrence Birth-Death Process for combined-evidence analysis in macroevolution and epidemiology

Jérémy Andréoletti, Antoine Zwaans, Rachel Warnock, Gabriel Aguirre-Fernández, Joëlle Barido-Sottani, Ankit Gupta, Tanja Stadler & Marc Manceau
Phylodynamic models generally aim at jointly inferring phylogenetic relationships, model parameters, and more recently, the number of lineages through time, based on molecular sequence data. In the fields of epidemiology and macroevolution these models can be used to estimate, respectively, the past number of infected individuals (prevalence) or the past number of species (paleodiversity) through time. Recent years have seen the development of “total-evidence” analyses, which combine molecular and morphological data from extant and past...

Satellite data reveal differential responses of Swiss forests to unprecedented 2018 drought

Joan T. Sturm
The summer drought of 2018 caused major damages to forest ecosystems. In this dataset, various environmental variables (precipitation anomaly, temperature anomaly, climatic water balance anomaly, elevation, slope, aspect, exposition, potential direct incedent radiation, distance to the forest edge, tree type, and species heterogeneity) have been stratified into ten sections and the proportion of forest pixels with severe changes (equal or more than 10% either positive or negative) in the normalized difference water index (NDWI) of...

Fonio millet genome unlocks African orphan crop diversity for agriculture in a changing climate

Michael Abrouk, Hanin Ibrahim Ahmed, Philippe Cubry, Denisa Šimoníková, Stéphane Cauet, Yveline Pailles, Jan Bettgenhaeuser, Liubov Gapa, Nora Scarcelli, Marie Couderc, Leila Zekraoui, Nagarajan Kathiresan, Jana Čížková, Eva Hřibová, Jaroslav Doležel, Sandrine Arribat, Hélène Bergès, Jan Wieringa, Mathieu Gueye, Ndjido Kane, Christian Leclerc, Sandrine Causse, Sylvie Vancoppenolle, Claire Billot, Thomas Wicker … & Simon Krattinger
Sustainable food production in the context of climate change necessitates diversification of agriculture and a more efficient utilization of plant genetic resources. Fonio millet (Digitaria exilis) is an orphan African cereal crop with a great potential for dryland agriculture. Here, we established high-quality genomic resources to facilitate fonio improvement through molecular breeding. These include a chromosome-scale reference assembly and deep re-sequencing of 183 cultivated and wild Digitaria accessions, enabling insights into genetic diversity, population structure,...

Foraging behaviour of Parus major held in temporary captivity

R Thorogood, H Kokko & J Mappes
The data set describes foraging decisions by great tits (Parus major), held in temporary captivity. Data were collected from birds caught from forest at the University of Jyväskylä Research Station, Konnevesi (62°37.7'N 026°17'E), Finland, and were collected during the winter of 2013-2014. Birds were presented with (1) two different coloured plastic cups, or (2) two different artificial prey (almond pieces inside a paper packet and printed with a black and white symbol). One symbol was...

Data from: Caught in the web: spider web architecture affects prey specialization and spider–prey stoichiometric relationships

Lorraine Ludwig, Matthew A. Barbour, Jennifer Guevara, Leticia Avilés & Angélica L. González
1. Quantitative approaches to predator-prey interactions are central to understanding the structure of food webs and their dynamics. Different predatory strategies may influence the occurrence and strength of trophic interactions likely affecting the rates and magnitudes of energy and nutrient transfer between trophic levels, and the stoichiometry of predator-prey interactions. 2. Here, we used spider-prey interactions as a model system to investigate whether different spider web architectures—orb, tangle, and sheet-tangle—affect the composition and diet breadth...

Data from: Contrasting reproductive strategies of triploid hybrid males in vertebrate mating systems

Nicolas B. M. Pruvost, Peter Mikulíček, Lukáš Choleva & Heinz-Ulrich Reyer
The scarcity of parthenogenetic vertebrates is often attributed to their ‘inferior’ mode of clonal reproduction, which restricts them to self-reproduce their own genotype lineage and leaves little evolutionary potential with regard to speciation and evolution of sexual reproduction. Here, we show that for some taxa such uniformity does not hold. By using hybridogenetic water frogs (Pelophylax esculentus) as a model system, we demonstrate that triploid hybrid males from two geographic regions exhibit very different reproductive...

Data from: Complementarity in both plant and mycorrhizal fungal communities are not necessarily increased by diversity in the other

Cameron Wagg, Christoph Barendregt, Jan Jansa, Marcel G. A. Van Der Heijden & Marcel G.A. Van Der Heijden
1. Higher species diversity can improve community performance within a species guild when different species complement each other in their use of the available niche, such as through resource partitioning. However, species in one guild of organisms may act as resources for another such that the diversity in one guild alters the realized niche for species in another. Yet, it remains largely untested as to whether diversity in one guild of organisms influences species complementarity...

Data from: Divergent artificial selection for female reproductive investment has a sexually concordant effect on male reproductive success

Joel L. Pick, Pascale Hutter & Barbara Tschirren
Depending on the genetic architecture of male and female fitness, sex-specific selection can have negative, positive or neutral consequences for the opposite sex. Theory predicts that conflict between male and female function may drive the breakdown of intrasexual genetic correlations, allowing sexual dimorphism in sexually antagonistic traits. Reproductive traits are the epitome of this, showing highly differentiated proximate functions between the sexes. Here we use divergent artificial selection lines for female reproductive investment to test...

Data from: Experience buffers extrinsic mortality in a group-living bird species

Michael Griesser, Emeline Mourocq, Jonathan Barnaby, Katharine Bowegen, Sönke Eggers, Kevin Fletcher, Radoslav Kozma, Franziska Kurz, Anssi Laurila, Magdalena Nystrand, Enrico Sorato, Jan Ekman & Katharine M. Bowgen
Extrinsic mortality has a strong impact on the evolution of life-histories, prey morphology and behavioural adaptations, but for many animals the causes of mortality are poorly understood. Predation is an important driver of extrinsic mortality and mobile animals form groups in response to increased predation risk. Furthermore, in many species juveniles suffer higher mortality than older individuals, which may reflect a lower phenotypic quality, lower competitiveness, or a lack of antipredator or foraging skills. Here...

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