50 Works

Data from: Differential effects of maternal yolk androgens on male and female offspring: a role for sex-specific selection?

Barbara Tschirren
Maternal hormones are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects in animals. Although their effects on offspring phenotype are often sex-specific, the reason why sometimes sons are more sensitive to prenatal hormone exposure and sometimes daughters is not well understood. Here I combine an experimental manipulation of yolk testosterone concentration in the egg and quantification of selection acting on yolk androgen-sensitive traits in a natural population of great tits (Parus major) with a literature review to...

Data from: Parental effects alter the adaptive value of an adult behavioural trait

Rebecca M. Kilner, Giuseppe Boncoraglio, Jono M. Henshaw, Benjamin J. M. Jarrett, Ornela De Gasperin, Hanna Kokko, Benjamin JM Jarrett, Alfredo Attisano & Jonathan M Henshaw
The parents' phenotype, or the environment they create for their young, can have long-lasting effects on their offspring, with profound evolutionary consequences. Yet virtually no work has considered how such parental effects might change the adaptive value of behavioural traits expressed by offspring upon reaching adulthood. To address this problem, we combined experiments on burying beetles (Nicrophorus vespilloides) with theoretical modelling, and focussed on one adult behavioural trait in particular: the supply of parental care....

Data from: Molecular insights into the lichen genus Alectoria (Parmeliaceae) in North America

Richard Troy McMullin, James C. Lendemer, Heather E. Braid & Steven G. Newmaster
Alectoria is a genus of fruticose lichen characterised by the presence of usnic acid and conspicuous raised pseudocyphellae. This genus is particularly diverse and abundant in montane, boreal, and Arctic regions of North America. Because intermediate forms have been reported for several species of Alectoria on the continent, it has been suggested that these species were initially delimited based on the extremes of morphological gradients. Here, we use the results of molecular phylogenetic analyses of...

Data from: HDAC1/2-dependent P0 expression maintains paranodal and nodal integrity independently of myelin stability through interactions with neurofascins

Valérie Brügger, Stefanie Engler, Jorge A. Pereira, Sophie Ruff, Michael Horn, Hans Welzl, Emmanuelle Münger, Adrien Vaquié, Páris N. M. Sidiropoulos, Boris Egger, Peter Yotovski, Luis Filgueira, Christian Somandin, Tessa C. Lühmann, Maurizio D’Antonio, Teppei Yamaguchi, Patrick Matthias, Ueli Suter & Claire Jacob
The pathogenesis of peripheral neuropathies in adults is linked to maintenance mechanisms that are not well understood. Here, we elucidate a novel critical maintenance mechanism for Schwann cell (SC)–axon interaction. Using mouse genetics, ablation of the transcriptional regulators histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (HDAC1/2) in adult SCs severely affected paranodal and nodal integrity and led to demyelination/remyelination. Expression levels of the HDAC1/2 target gene myelin protein zero (P0) were reduced by half, accompanied by altered...

Data from: Resolving the conundrum of inbreeding depression but no inbreeding avoidance: estimating sex-specific selection on inbreeding by song sparrows (Melospiza melodia)

Jane M. Reid, Peter Arcese, Greta Bocedi, Alexander Bradley Duthie, Matthew Ernest Wolak & Lukas F. Keller
Inbreeding avoidance among interacting females and males is not always observed despite inbreeding depression in offspring fitness, creating an apparent ‘inbreeding paradox’. This paradox could be resolved if selection against inbreeding was in fact weak, despite inbreeding depression. However, the net magnitude and direction of selection on the degree to which females and males inbreed by pairing with relatives has not been explicitly estimated. We used long-term pedigree data to estimate phenotypic selection gradients on...

Data from: Current methods for automated filtering of multiple sequence alignments frequently worsen single-gene phylogenetic inference

Ge Tan, Matthieu Muffato, Christian Ledergerber, Javier Herrero, Nick Goldman, Manuel Gil & Christophe Dessimoz
Phylogenetic inference is generally performed on the basis of multiple sequence alignments (MSA). Because errors in an alignment can lead to errors in tree estimation, there is a strong interest in identifying and removing unreliable parts of the alignment. In recent years several automated filtering approaches have been proposed, but despite their popularity, a systematic and comprehensive comparison of different alignment filtering methods on real data has been lacking. Here, we extend and apply recently...

Data from: How well can body size represent effects of the environment on demographic rates? Disentangling correlated explanatory variables

Mollie E. Brooks, Marianne Mugabo, Gwendolen M. Rogers, Timothy G. Benton, Arpat Ozgul & Gwendolen M. Rodgers
Demographic rates are shaped by the interaction of past and current environments that individuals in a population experience. Past environments shape individual states via selection and plasticity, and fitness-related traits (e.g. individual size) are commonly used in demographic analyses to represent the effect of past environments on demographic rates. We quantified how well the size of individuals captures the effects of a population's past and current environments on demographic rates in a well-studied experimental system...

Data from: Irrational time allocation in decision-making

Bastiaan Oud, Ian M. Krajbich, Kevin Miller, Jin Cheong, Matthew Botvinick, Ernst Fehr, Jin Hyun Cheong & Ian Krajbich
Time is an extremely valuable resource but little is known about the efficiency of time allocation in decision making. Empirical evidence suggests that in many ecologically relevant situations, decision difficulty and the relative reward from making a correct choice, compared to an incorrect one, are inversely linked, implying that it is optimal to use relatively less time for difficult choice problems. This applies, in particular, to value-based choices, in which the relative reward from choosing...

Data from: Fine-scale kin recognition in the absence of social familiarity in the Siberian jay, a monogamous bird species

Michael Griesser, Peter Halvarsson, Szymon M. Drobniak & Carles Vilà
Kin recognition is a critical element to kin cooperation, and in vertebrates, it is primarily based on associative learning. Recognition of socially unfamiliar kin occurs rarely, and it is reported only in vertebrate species where promiscuity prevents recognition of first-order relatives. However, it is unknown whether the recognition of socially unfamiliar kin can evolve in monogamous species. Here, we investigate whether genetic relatedness modulates aggression among group members in Siberian jays (Perisoreus infaustus). This bird...

Data from: Discordant patterns of genetic and phenotypic differentiation in five grasshopper species co-distributed across a microreserve network

Joaquín Ortego, Vicente García-Navas, Víctor Noguerales & Pedro Javier Cordero
Conservation plans can be greatly improved when information on the evolutionary and demographic consequences of habitat fragmentation is available for several co-distributed species. Here, we study spatial patterns of phenotypic and genetic variation among five grasshopper species that are co-distributed across a network of microreserves but show remarkable differences in dispersal-related morphology (body size and wing length), degree of habitat specialization and extent of fragmentation of their respective habitats in the study region. In particular,...

Data from: Anxiety-like behavioural inhibition is normative under environmental threat-reward correlations

Dominik R. Bach
Behavioural inhibition is a key anxiety-like behaviour in rodents and humans, distinct from avoidance of danger, and reduced by anxiolytic drugs. In some situations, it is not clear how behavioural inhibition minimises harm or maximises benefit for the agent, and can even appear counterproductive. Extant explanations of this phenomenon make use of descriptive models but do not provide a formal assessment of its adaptive value. This hampers a better understanding of the neural computations underlying...

Data from: Small beetle, large-scale drivers: how regional and landscape factors affect outbreaks of the European spruce bark beetle

Rupert Seidl, Jörg Müller, Torsten Hothorn, Claus Bässler, Marco Heurich & Markus Kautz
Unprecedented bark beetle outbreaks have been observed for a variety of forest ecosystems recently, and damage is expected to further intensify as a consequence of climate change. In Central Europe, the response of ecosystem management to increasing infestation risk has hitherto focused largely on the stand level, while the contingency of outbreak dynamics on large-scale drivers remains poorly understood. To investigate how factors beyond the local scale contribute to the infestation risk from Ips typographus...

Data from: On the complexity of triggering evolutionary radiations

Yanis Bouchenak-Khelladi, Renske E. Onstein, Yaowu Xing, Orlando Schwery & H. Peter Linder
Recent developments in phylogenetic methods have made it possible to reconstruct evolutionary radiations from extant taxa, but identifying the triggers of radiations is still problematic. Here, we propose a conceptual framework to explore the role of variables that may impact radiations. We classify the variables into extrinsic conditions vs intrinsic traits, whether they provide background conditions, trigger the radiation, or modulate the radiation. We used three clades representing angiosperm phylogenetic and structural diversity (Ericaceae, Fagales...

Data from: Sperm number trumps sperm size in mammalian ejaculate evolution

Stefan Lüpold & John L. Fitzpatrick
Postcopulatory sexual selection is widely accepted to underlie the extraordinary diversification of sperm morphology. However, why does it favour longer sperm in some taxa but shorter in others? Two recent hypotheses addressing this discrepancy offered contradictory explanations. Under the sperm dilution hypothesis, selection via sperm density in the female reproductive tract favours more but smaller sperm in large, but the reverse in small, species. Conversely, the metabolic constraint hypothesis maintains that ejaculates respond positively to...

Data from: Phenotype-associated inbreeding biases estimates of inbreeding depression in a wild bird population

Philipp J. J. Becker, Johann Hegelbach, Lukas F. Keller & Erik Postma
Inbreeding depression is usually quantified by regressing individual phenotypic values on inbreeding coefficients, implicitly assuming there is no correlation between an individual's phenotype and the kinship coefficient to its mate. If such an association between parental phenotype and parental kinship exists, and if the trait of interest is heritable, estimates of inbreeding depression can be biased. Here we first derive the expected bias as a function of the covariance between mean parental breeding value and...

Data from: The role of fecundity and sexual selection in the evolution of size and sexual size dimorphism in New World and Old World voles (Rodentia: Arvicolinae)

Vicente García-Navas, Timothée Bonnet, Raúl Bonal & Erik Postma
Evolutionary ecologists dating back to Darwin (1871) have sought to understand why males are larger than females in some species, and why females are the larger sex in others. Although the former is widespread in mammals, rodents and other small mammals usually exhibit low levels of sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Here, we investigate patterns of sexual dimorphism in 34 vole species belonging to the subfamily Arvicolinae in a phylogenetic comparative framework. We address the potential...

Data from: Post-zygotic selection against parental genotypes during larval development maintains all-hybrid populations of the frog Pelophylax esculentus

Heinz-Ulrich Reyer, Christian Arioli-Jakob & Martina Arioli
Background: Hybridization between two species usually leads to inviable or infertile offspring, due to endogenous or exogenous selection pressures. Yet, hybrid taxa are found in several plant and animal genera, and some of these hybrid taxa are ecologically and evolutionarily very successful. One example of such a successful hybrid is the water frog, Pelophylax esculentus which originated from matings between the two species P. ridibundus (genotype RR) and P. lessonae (LL). At the northern border...

Data from: Anatomical atlas of the quail's ear (Coturnix coturnix)

Anna Bonsmann, Michael H. Stoffel, Markus Burkhart, Jean-Michel Hatt & J.-M. Hatt
This study aims to enhance the anatomical knowledge of the ear of the adult quail (Coturnix coturnix) through the creation of a scaled 3D model utilizing data from micro-CT images. In addition, 17 annotated histological sections of the quail's ear are aligned to their 3D position in the model. The resulting anatomical atlas provides an intuitive insight into the 3D anatomy and can be used for medical education. The model also allows measuring anatomical structures...

Data from: Using targeted enrichment of nuclear genes to increase phylogenetic resolution in the neotropical rain forest genus Inga (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae)

James A. Nicholls, R. Toby Pennington, Erik J. Koenen, Colin E. Hughes, Jack Hearn, Lynsey Bunnefeld, Kyle G. Dexter, Graham N. Stone, Catherine A. Kidner & Erik J. M. Koenen
Evolutionary radiations are prominent and pervasive across many plant lineages in diverse geographical and ecological settings; in neotropical rainforests there is growing evidence suggesting that a significant fraction of species richness is the result of recent radiations. Understanding the evolutionary trajectories and mechanisms underlying these radiations demands much greater phylogenetic resolution than is currently available for these groups. The neotropical tree genus Inga (Leguminosae) is a good example, with ~300 extant species and a crown...

Data from: Determinants of parasitoid communities of willow-galling sawflies: habitat overrides physiology, host plant, and space

Tommi Nyman, Sanna A. Leppänen, Gergely Várkonyi, Mark R. Shaw, Reijo Koivisto, Trond Elling Barstad, Veli Vikberg & Heikki Roininen
Studies on the determinants of plant–herbivore and herbivore–parasitoid associations provide important insights into the origin and maintenance of global and local species richness. If parasitoids are specialists on herbivore niches rather than on herbivore taxa, then alternating escape of herbivores into novel niches and delayed resource tracking by parasitoids could fuel diversification at both trophic levels. We used DNA barcoding to identify parasitoids that attack larvae of seven Pontania sawfly species that induce leaf galls...

Data from: Revision of the genus Anasibirites Mojsisovics (Ammonoidea): an iconic and cosmopolitan taxon of the late Smithian (Early Triassic) extinction

Romain Jattiot, Hugo Bucher, Arnaud Brayard, Claude Monnet, James F. Jenks & Michael Hautmann
The family Prionitidae Hyatt represents a major component of ammonoid faunas during the Smithian (Early Triassic), and the genus Anasibirites Mojsisovics is the most emblematic taxon of this family. Its stratigraphical range is restricted to the beginning of the late Smithian (Wasatchites distractus Zone). The genus is also characterized by an unusual cosmopolitan distribution, thus contrasting with most earlier Smithian ammonoid distributions that were typically restricted by latitude. Because the late Smithian witnessed an extinction...

Data from: Keeping cool: enhanced optical reflection and heat dissipation in silver ants

Norman Nan Shi, Cheng-Chia Tsai, Fernando Camino, Gary D. Bernard, Nanfang Yu & Rüdiger Wehner
Saharan silver ants, Cataglyphis bombycina, forage under extreme temperature conditions in the African desert. We show that the ants’ conspicuous silvery appearance is created by a dense array of triangular hairs with two thermoregulatory effects. They enhance not only the reflectivity of the ant’s body surface in the visible and near-infrared range of the spectrum, where solar radiation culminates, but also the emissivity of the ant in the mid-infrared. The latter effect enables the animals...

Data from: Complementarity in both plant and mycorrhizal fungal communities are not necessarily increased by diversity in the other

Cameron Wagg, Christoph Barendregt, Jan Jansa, Marcel G. A. Van Der Heijden & Marcel G.A. Van Der Heijden
1. Higher species diversity can improve community performance within a species guild when different species complement each other in their use of the available niche, such as through resource partitioning. However, species in one guild of organisms may act as resources for another such that the diversity in one guild alters the realized niche for species in another. Yet, it remains largely untested as to whether diversity in one guild of organisms influences species complementarity...

Data from: High genetic variation in resting stage production in a metapopulation: is there evidence for local adaptation?

Anne Carole Roulin, Mahendra Mariadassou, Matthew D. Hall, Jean-Claude Walser, Christoph Haag & Dieter Ebert
Local adaptation is a key process for the maintenance of genetic diversity and population diversification. A better understanding of the mechanisms that allow (or prevent) local adaptation constitutes a key in apprehending how and at what spatial scale it occurs. The production of resting stages is found in many taxa and reflects an adaptation to outlast adverse environmental conditions. Daphnia magna (Crustacea) can alternate between asexual and sexual reproduction, the latter being linked to dormancy,...

Data from: Food provisioning alters infection dynamics in populations of a wild rodent

Kristian M. Forbes, Heikki Henttonen, Varpu Hirvelä-Koski, Anja Kipar, Tapio Mappes, Peter Stuart & Otso Huitu
While pathogens are often assumed to limit the growth of wildlife populations, experimental evidence for their effects is rare. A lack of food resources has been suggested to enhance the negative effects of pathogen infection on host populations, but this theory has received little investigation. We conducted a replicated two-factor enclosure experiment, with introduction of the bacterium Bordetella bronchiseptica and food supplementation, to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of pathogen infection and food availability...

Registration Year

  • 2015
    50

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    50

Affiliations

  • University of Zurich
    50
  • Uppsala University
    5
  • Estación Biológica de Doñana
    3
  • University of Cambridge
    3
  • University of Fribourg
    3
  • University of Sheffield
    3
  • University of Washington
    2
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
    2
  • University of Gothenburg
    2
  • French National Institute for Agricultural Research
    2