50 Works

Data from: Inferring species interactions in ecological communities: a comparison of methods at different levels of complexity

Francesco Carrara, Andrea Giometto, Mathew Seymour, Andrea Rinaldo & Florian Altermatt
1. Natural communities commonly contain many different species and functional groups, and multiple types of species interactions act simultaneously, such as competition, predation, commensalism or mutualism. However, experimental and theoretical investigations have generally been limited by focusing on one type of interaction at a time or by a lack of a common methodological and conceptual approach to measure species interactions. 2. We compared four methods to measure and express species interactions. These approaches are, with...

Data from: Out-of-sample predictions from plant–insect food webs: robustness to missing and erroneous trophic interaction records

Ian S. Pearse & Florian Altermatt
With increasing biotic introductions, there is a great need for predictive tools to anticipate which new trophic interactions will develop and which will not. Phylogenetic constraint of interactions in both native and novel food webs can make some novel interactions predictable. However, many food webs are sparsely sampled, or may include inaccurate interactions. In such cases, it is unclear whether modeling methods are still useful to anticipate novel interactions. We ran bootstrap simulations of host-use...

Data from: Dopamine promotes motor cortex plasticity and motor skill learning via PLC activation

Mengia-Seraina Rioult-Pedotti, Ana Pekanivic, Clement Osei Atiemo, John Marshall, Andreas Rüdiger Luft & Ana Pekanovic
Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, the major midbrain nucleus projecting to the motor cortex, play a key role in motor skill learning and motor cortex synaptic plasticity. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists exert parallel effects in the motor system: they impair motor skill learning and reduce long-term potentiation. Traditionally, D1 and D2 receptor modulate adenylyl cyclase activity and cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation in opposite directions via different G-proteins and bidirectionally modulate protein...

Data from: A microsatellite-based linkage map for song sparrows (Melospiza melodia)

Pirmin Nietlisbach, Glauco Camenisch, Thomas Bucher, Jon Slate, Lukas F. Keller & Erik Postma
Although linkage maps are important tools in evolutionary biology, their availability for wild populations is limited. The population of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) on Mandarte Island, Canada, is among the more intensively studied wild animal populations. Its long-term pedigree data, together with extensive genetic sampling, have allowed the study of a range of questions in evolutionary biology and ecology. However, the availability of genetic markers has been limited. We here describe 191 new microsatellite loci,...

Data from: Resprouter fraction in Cape Restionaceae assemblages varies with climate and soil type

Rafael O. Wüest, Glenn Litsios, Félix Forest, Christian Lexer, H. Peter Linder, Nicolas Salamin, Niklaus E. Zimmermann & Peter B. Pearman
While fire-induced changes in biodiversity are well documented, less is known about how fire impacts life-history variation and diversity of functional traits that represent distinct strategies for persistence in fire-driven ecosystems. One example is the dichotomy in which ‘resprouter’ species usually survive fires to produce new growth, while ‘reseeder’ species perish and re-establish from seed. Variable relative numbers of reseeder and resprouter species in local assemblages of Restionaceae (Poales) of the Cape Floristic Region (CFR),...

Data from: Investigating yellow dung fly body size evolution in the field: response to climate change?

Wolf U. Blanckenhorn
Uncovering genetic responses to selection in wild populations typically requires tracking individuals over generations and use of animal models. Our group monitored the body size of one Swiss Yellow Dung Fly (Scathophaga stercoraria; Diptera: Scathophagidae) field population over 15 years, including intermittent common garden rearing in the laboratory to assess body size with minimized environmental and maximized genetic variation. Contrary to expectations based on repeated heritability and phenotypic selection assessments over the years (reported elsewhere),...

Data from: Genetic diversity and distribution patterns of diploid and polyploid hybrid water frog populations (Pelophylax esculentus complex) across Europe

Alexandra Hoffmann, Jörg Plötner, Nicolas B. M. Pruvost, Ditte G. Christiansen, Sandra Röthlisberger, Peter Mikulíček, Lukáš Choleva, Dan Cogălniceanu, István Sas-Kovács, Dmitry Shabanov, Svyatoslav Morozov-Leonov & Heinz-Ulrich Reyer
Polyploidization is a rare yet sometimes successful way for animals to rapidly create geno- and phenotypes that may colonize new habitats and quickly adapt to environmental changes. In this study, we use water frogs of the Pelophylax esculentus complex, comprising two species (Pelophylax lessonae, genotype LL; Pelophylax ridibundus, RR) and various diploid (LR) and triploid (LLR, LRR) hybrid forms, summarized as P. esculentus, as a model for studying recent hybridization and polyploidization in the context...

Data from: Individual-level trait diversity concepts and indices to comprehensively describe community change in multidimensional trait space

Simone Fontana, Owen L. Petchey & Francesco Pomati
Global environmental change can influence ecosystem processes directly or through changes in the trait composition of natural communities. Traits are individual-level features of organisms, and theory predicts that diversity in traits should relate to ecosystem processes. Validated indices that account for both intra- and interspecific trait variation in multidimensional trait space are lacking. In this article, we highlight how an individual-level perspective requires new concepts for trait diversity (TD) and we validate a set of...

Data from: Beyond climate: convergence in fast evolving sclerophylls in Cape and Australian Rhamnaceae predates the mediterranean climate

Renske E. Onstein & H. Peter Linder
Morphological convergence in mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTEs) has long been interpreted as adaptation to climatic similarities among the five MTEs of the world. Here, we challenge this model using the globally distributed Rhamnaceae. We collected functional trait data (specific leaf area, leaf area, spinescence, leaf phenology, growth form and leaf margin type) and biome data to test for trait convergence in MTEs, for models of trait evolution and ancestral state reconstruction and for the effect of...

Data from: Low but contrasting neutral genetic differentiation shaped by winter temperature in European great tits

Mélissa Lemoine, Kay Lucek, Charles Perrier, Verena Saladin, Frank Adriaensen, Emilio Barba, Eduardo J. Belda, Anne Charmantier, Mariusz Cichon, Eeva Tapio, Arnaud Gregoire, Camilla A. Hinde, Arild Johnsen, Jan Komdeur, Raivo Mand, Erik Matthysen, Ana Claudia Norte, Natalia Pitala, Ben C. Sheldon, Tore Slagsvold, Joost M. Tinbergen, Janos Torok, Richard Ubels, Kees Van Oers, Marcel E. Visser … & Tapio Eeva
Gene flow is usually thought to reduce genetic divergence and impede local adaptation by homogenising gene pools between populations. However, evidence for local adaptation and phenotypic differentiation in highly mobile species, experiencing high levels of gene flow, is emerging. Assessing population genetic structure at different spatial scales is thus a crucial step towards understanding mechanisms underlying intraspecific differentiation and diversification. Here, we studied the population genetic structure of a highly mobile species – the great...

Data from: Effects of trophy hunting leftovers on the ranging behaviour of large carnivores: a case study on spotted hyenas

Gabriele Cozzi, Luca Börger, Pascale Hutter, Daniela Abegg, Celine Beran, John Weldon McNutt & Arpat Ozgul
Human-related food resources such as garbage dumps and feeding sites have been shown to significantly influence space use, breeding success and population dynamics in a variety of animal species. In contrast, relatively little is known on the effects of unpredictable sources of food, such as carcasses discarded by hunters, on carnivore species. We evaluated the effect of elephant carcasses, mainly deriving from trophy hunting, on the ranging and feeding behavior of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta)...

Data from: Experimental evidence for phonemic contrasts in a nonhuman vocal system

Sabrina Engesser, Jodie M. S. Crane, James L. Savage, Andrew F. Russell & Simon W. Townsend
The ability to generate new meaning by rearranging combinations of meaningless sounds is a fundamental component of language. Although animal vocalizations often comprise combinations of meaningless acoustic elements, evidence that rearranging such combinations generates functionally distinct meaning is lacking. Here, we provide evidence for this basic ability in calls of the chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps), a highly cooperative bird of the Australian arid zone. Using acoustic analyses, natural observations, and a series of controlled playback...

Data from: Colour polymorphism torn apart by opposing positive frequency-dependent selection, yet maintained in space

Swanne P. Gordon, Hanna Kokko, Bibiana Rojas, Ossi Nokelainen & Johanna Mappes
1. Polymorphic warning signals in aposematic species are enigmatic because predator learning and discrimination should select for the most common coloration, resulting in positive frequency-dependent survival selection. 2. Here, we investigated whether differential mating success could create sufficiently strong negative frequency-dependent selection for rare morphs to explain polymorphic (white and yellow) warning coloration in male wood tiger moths (Parasemia plantaginis). 3. We conducted an experiment in semi-natural conditions where we estimated mating success for both...

Data from: Embryo oxygenation in pipefish brood pouches: novel insights

Ines Braga Goncalves, Ingrid Ahnesjö & Charlotta Kvarnemo
The pipefish brood pouch presents a unique mode of parental care that enables males to protect, osmoregulate, nourish and oxygenate the developing young. Using a very fine O2 probe, we assessed the extent to which males of the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle) oxygenate the developing embryos and are able to maintain pouch fluid O2 levels when brooding in normoxia (100% O2 saturation) and hypoxia (40% O2 saturation) for 24 days. In both treatments, pouch fluid...

Data from: The evolutionary puzzle of egg size, oxygenation and parental care in aquatic environments

Ines Braga Goncalves, Ingrid Ahnesjö & Charlotta Kvarnemo
Offspring fitness generally improves with increasing egg size. Yet, eggs of most aquatic organisms are small. A common but largely untested assumption is that larger embryos require more oxygen than they can acquire through diffusion via the egg surface, constraining egg size evolution. However, we found no detrimental effects of large egg size on embryo growth and survival under hypoxic conditions. We tested this in the broad-nosed pipefish, Syngnathus typhle, whose males provide extensive care...

Data from: Competition in slow motion: the unusual case of benthic marine communities in the wake of the end-Permian mass extinction

Michael Hautmann, Borhan Bagherpour, Morgane Brosse, Asa Frisk, Richard Hofmann, Aymon Baud, Alexander Nützel, Nicolas Goudemand & Hugo Bucher
Changes of community structure in response to competition usually take place on timescales that are much too short to be visible in the geological record. Here we report the notable exception of a benthic marine community in the wake of the end-Permian mass extinction, which is associated with the microbial limestone facies of the earliest Triassic of South China. The newly reported fauna is well preserved and extraordinarily rich (30 benthic macroinvertebrate species, including the...

Data from: Persistence of distinctive morphotypes in the native range of the CITES-listed Aldabra giant tortoise

Lindsay A. Turnbull, Arpat Ozgul, Wilna Accouche, Richard Baxter, Lindsay ChongSeng, Jock C. Currie, Naomi Doak, Dennis Hansen, Pierre M. Pistorius, Heather Richards, Janske Van De Crommenacker, Rainer Von Brandis, Frauke Fleischer-Dogley, Nancy Bunbury, Rich Baxter & Dennis M. Hansen
Understanding the extent of morphological variation in the wild population of Aldabra giant tortoises is important for conservation, as morphological variation in captive populations has been interpreted as evidence for lingering genes from extinct tortoise lineages. If true, this could impact reintroduction programmes in the region. The population of giant tortoises on Aldabra Atoll is subdivided and distributed around several islands. Although pronounced morphological variation was recorded in the late 1960s, it was thought to...

Data from: Current methods for automated filtering of multiple sequence alignments frequently worsen single-gene phylogenetic inference

Ge Tan, Matthieu Muffato, Christian Ledergerber, Javier Herrero, Nick Goldman, Manuel Gil & Christophe Dessimoz
Phylogenetic inference is generally performed on the basis of multiple sequence alignments (MSA). Because errors in an alignment can lead to errors in tree estimation, there is a strong interest in identifying and removing unreliable parts of the alignment. In recent years several automated filtering approaches have been proposed, but despite their popularity, a systematic and comprehensive comparison of different alignment filtering methods on real data has been lacking. Here, we extend and apply recently...

Data from: How well can body size represent effects of the environment on demographic rates? Disentangling correlated explanatory variables

Mollie E. Brooks, Marianne Mugabo, Gwendolen M. Rogers, Timothy G. Benton, Arpat Ozgul & Gwendolen M. Rodgers
Demographic rates are shaped by the interaction of past and current environments that individuals in a population experience. Past environments shape individual states via selection and plasticity, and fitness-related traits (e.g. individual size) are commonly used in demographic analyses to represent the effect of past environments on demographic rates. We quantified how well the size of individuals captures the effects of a population's past and current environments on demographic rates in a well-studied experimental system...

Data from: Molecular insights into the lichen genus Alectoria (Parmeliaceae) in North America

Richard Troy McMullin, James C. Lendemer, Heather E. Braid & Steven G. Newmaster
Alectoria is a genus of fruticose lichen characterised by the presence of usnic acid and conspicuous raised pseudocyphellae. This genus is particularly diverse and abundant in montane, boreal, and Arctic regions of North America. Because intermediate forms have been reported for several species of Alectoria on the continent, it has been suggested that these species were initially delimited based on the extremes of morphological gradients. Here, we use the results of molecular phylogenetic analyses of...

Data from: Irrational time allocation in decision-making

Bastiaan Oud, Ian M. Krajbich, Kevin Miller, Jin Cheong, Matthew Botvinick, Ernst Fehr, Jin Hyun Cheong & Ian Krajbich
Time is an extremely valuable resource but little is known about the efficiency of time allocation in decision making. Empirical evidence suggests that in many ecologically relevant situations, decision difficulty and the relative reward from making a correct choice, compared to an incorrect one, are inversely linked, implying that it is optimal to use relatively less time for difficult choice problems. This applies, in particular, to value-based choices, in which the relative reward from choosing...

Data from: Parental effects alter the adaptive value of an adult behavioural trait

Rebecca M. Kilner, Giuseppe Boncoraglio, Jono M. Henshaw, Benjamin J. M. Jarrett, Ornela De Gasperin, Hanna Kokko, Benjamin JM Jarrett, Alfredo Attisano & Jonathan M Henshaw
The parents' phenotype, or the environment they create for their young, can have long-lasting effects on their offspring, with profound evolutionary consequences. Yet virtually no work has considered how such parental effects might change the adaptive value of behavioural traits expressed by offspring upon reaching adulthood. To address this problem, we combined experiments on burying beetles (Nicrophorus vespilloides) with theoretical modelling, and focussed on one adult behavioural trait in particular: the supply of parental care....

Data from: Resolving the conundrum of inbreeding depression but no inbreeding avoidance: estimating sex-specific selection on inbreeding by song sparrows (Melospiza melodia)

Jane M. Reid, Peter Arcese, Greta Bocedi, Alexander Bradley Duthie, Matthew Ernest Wolak & Lukas F. Keller
Inbreeding avoidance among interacting females and males is not always observed despite inbreeding depression in offspring fitness, creating an apparent ‘inbreeding paradox’. This paradox could be resolved if selection against inbreeding was in fact weak, despite inbreeding depression. However, the net magnitude and direction of selection on the degree to which females and males inbreed by pairing with relatives has not been explicitly estimated. We used long-term pedigree data to estimate phenotypic selection gradients on...

Data from: HDAC1/2-dependent P0 expression maintains paranodal and nodal integrity independently of myelin stability through interactions with neurofascins

Valérie Brügger, Stefanie Engler, Jorge A. Pereira, Sophie Ruff, Michael Horn, Hans Welzl, Emmanuelle Münger, Adrien Vaquié, Páris N. M. Sidiropoulos, Boris Egger, Peter Yotovski, Luis Filgueira, Christian Somandin, Tessa C. Lühmann, Maurizio D’Antonio, Teppei Yamaguchi, Patrick Matthias, Ueli Suter & Claire Jacob
The pathogenesis of peripheral neuropathies in adults is linked to maintenance mechanisms that are not well understood. Here, we elucidate a novel critical maintenance mechanism for Schwann cell (SC)–axon interaction. Using mouse genetics, ablation of the transcriptional regulators histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (HDAC1/2) in adult SCs severely affected paranodal and nodal integrity and led to demyelination/remyelination. Expression levels of the HDAC1/2 target gene myelin protein zero (P0) were reduced by half, accompanied by altered...

Data from: Differential effects of maternal yolk androgens on male and female offspring: a role for sex-specific selection?

Barbara Tschirren
Maternal hormones are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects in animals. Although their effects on offspring phenotype are often sex-specific, the reason why sometimes sons are more sensitive to prenatal hormone exposure and sometimes daughters is not well understood. Here I combine an experimental manipulation of yolk testosterone concentration in the egg and quantification of selection acting on yolk androgen-sensitive traits in a natural population of great tits (Parus major) with a literature review to...

Registration Year

  • 2015
    50

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    50

Affiliations

  • University of Zurich
    50
  • Uppsala University
    5
  • Estación Biológica de Doñana
    3
  • University of Cambridge
    3
  • University of Fribourg
    3
  • University of Sheffield
    3
  • University of Washington
    2
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
    2
  • University of Gothenburg
    2
  • French National Institute for Agricultural Research
    2