74 Works

Data from: Fossils matter: improved estimates of divergence times in Pinus reveal older diversification

Bianca Saladin, Andrew B. Leslie, Rafael O. Wueest, Glenn Litsios, Elena Conti, Nicolas Salamin & Niklaus E. Zimmermann
Background: The taxonomy of pines (genus Pinus) is widely accepted and a robust gene tree based on entire plastome sequences exists. However, there is a large discrepancy in estimated divergence times of major pine clades among existing studies, mainly due to differences in fossil placement and dating methods used. We currently lack a dated molecular phylogeny that makes use of the rich pine fossil record, and this study is the first to estimate the divergence...

Data from: Stallion semen quality depends on MHC matching to teaser mare

Elise Jeannerat, Eliane Marti, Catherine Berney, Fredi Janett, Heinrich Bollwein, Harald Sieme, Dominik Burger & Claus Wedekind
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has repeatedly been found to influence mate choice of vertebrates, with MHC-dissimilar mates typically being preferred over MHC-similar mates. We used horses (Equus caballus) to test whether MHC matching also affects male investment into ejaculates after short exposure to a female. Semen characteristics varied much among stallions. Controlling for this variance with a full-factorial within-subject experimental design, we found that a short exposure to an MHC-dissimilar mare enhanced male plasma...

Data from: Linking diversity, synchrony and stability in soil microbial communities

Cameron Wagg, Jan-Hendrik Dudenhöffer, Franco Widmer, Marcel G.A. Van Der Heijden & Marcel G. A. Van Der Heijden
1. It is becoming well established that plant diversity is instrumental in stabilizing the temporal functioning of ecosystems through population dynamics and the so-called insurance or portfolio effect. However, it is unclear whether diversity-stability relationships and the role of population dynamics in soil microbial communities parallel those in plant communities. 2. Our study took place in a long-term land management experiment with and without perturbation to the soil ecosystem by tilling. We assessed the impacts...

Data from: Revised time scales of RNA virus evolution based on spatial information

Moritz Saxenhofer, Vanessa Weber De Melo, Rainer G. Ulrich & Gerald Heckel
The time scales of pathogen evolution are of major concern in the context of public and veterinary health, epidemiology and evolutionary biology. Dating the emergence of a pathogen often relies on estimates of evolutionary rates derived from nucleotide sequence data. For many viruses, this has yielded estimates of evolutionary origins only a few hundred years in the past. Here we demonstrate through the incorporation of geographic information from virus sampling that evolutionary age estimates of...

Data from: The role of phenotypic plasticity on population differentiation

Max Schmid & Frédéric Guillaume
Several evolutionary processes shape the genetic and phenotypic differentiation of populations. Among them, the joint effects of gene flow, selection and phenotypic plasticity are poorly known, especially when trying to understand how maladaptive plasticity affects population divergence. We extended a quantitative genetic model of Hendry et al. (2001) to describe these joint effects on phenotypic and additive genetic divergence between two populations, and their phenotypic and genetic differentiation (PST and QST). With individual-based simulations, we...

Data from: Spatially heterogeneous selection in nature favors phenotypic plasticity in anuran larvae

Josh Van Buskirk
Theory holds that adaptive phenotypic plasticity evolves under spatial or temporal variation in natural selection. I tested this prediction in a classic system of predator-induced plasticity: frog tadpoles (Rana temporaria) reacting to predaceous aquatic insects. An outdoor mesocosm experiment manipulating exposure to Aeshna dragonfly larvae revealed plasticity in most characters: growth, development, behavior, and external morphology. I measured selection by placing 1927 tadpoles into enclosures within natural ponds; photographs permitted identification of the survivors 6–9...

Data from: Heterozygosity-fitness correlation at the major histocompatibility complex despite low variation in Alpine ibex (Capra ibex)

Alice Brambilla, Lukas Keller, Bruno Bassano & Christine Grossen
Crucial for the long-term survival of wild populations is their ability to fight diseases. Disease outbreaks can lead to severe population size reductions, which makes endangered and reintroduced species especially vulnerable. In vertebrates, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays an important role in determining the immune response. Species which went through severe bottlenecks, often show very low levels of genetic diversity at the MHC. Due to the known link between the MHC and immune response,...

Data from: Climatologies at high resolution for the earth's land surface areas

Dirk N. Karger, Olaf Conrad, Jürgen Böhner, Tobias Kawohl, Holger Kreft, Rodrigo W. Soria-Auza, Niklaus E. Zimmermann, H. Peter Linder & Michael Kessler
High-resolution information on climatic conditions is essential to many applications in environmental and ecological sciences. Here we present the CHELSA (Climatologies at high resolution for the earth’s land surface areas) data of downscaled model output temperature and precipitation estimates of the ERA-Interim climatic reanalysis to a high resolution of 30 arc sec. The temperature algorithm is based on statistical downscaling of atmospheric temperatures. The precipitation algorithm incorporates orographic predictors including wind fields, valley exposition, and...

Data from: Population density and structure drive differential investment in pre- and postmating sexual traits in frogs

Stefan Lüpold, Long Jin & Wen Bo Liao
Sexual selection theory predicts a trade-off between premating (ornaments and armaments) and postmating (testes and ejaculates) sexual traits, assuming that growing and maintaining these traits is costly and that total reproductive investments are limited. The number of males in competition, the reproductive gains from investing in premating sexual traits, and the level of sperm competition are all predicted to influence how males allocate their finite resources to these traits. Yet, empirical examination of these predictions...

Data from: The lichens and allied fungi of Mount Mitchell State Park, North Carolina: a first checklist with comprehensive keys and comparison to historical data

James C. Lendemer, Carly R. Anderson Stewart, Betty Besa, Jim Goldsmith, Haley Griffith, Jordan R. Hoffman, Betsy Kraus, Paula LaPoint, Lin Li, Zachary Muscavitch, Joel Schultz, Rebecca Schultz & Jessica L. Allen
A total of 171 species of lichens and allied fungi are reported from the spruce-fir forests of Mount Mitchell State Park, in the Black Mountains of North Carolina, based on both historical and modern records. Comparison of the modern baseline with the historical macrolichen baseline generated in the 1970s revealed potential losses of high-elevation southern Appalachian endemics (2 species), cyanolichens (5 species), species typical of exposed rock outcrops (1 species), and widespread species typical of...

Data from: Intraspecific variation in cephalopod conchs changes during ontogeny: perspectives from three-dimensional morphometry of Nautilus pompilius

Amane Tajika, Naoki Morimoto, Ryoji Wani & Christian Klug
Intraspecific variation of organisms is of great importance to correctly carry out taxonomic work, which is a prerequisite for important disciplines in paleontology such as community paleoecology, biostratigraphy, and biogeography. However, intraspecific variation is rarely studied in ectocochleate cephalopods (ammonoids and nautiloids), in which an excessive number of taxa were established during the past centuries. Since intraspecific variation of fossilized organisms suffers from various biases (time averaging and taphonomy), an extant example is needed for...

Data from: Interactive life-history traits predict sensitivity of plants and animals to temporal autocorrelation

Maria Paniw, Arpat Ozgul & Roberto Salguero-Gomez
Temporal autocorrelation in demographic processes is an important aspect of population dynamics, but a comprehensive examination of its effects on different life-history strategies is lacking. We use matrix populations models from 454 plant and animal populations to simulate stochastic population growth rates (log λs) under different temporal autocorrelations in demographic rates, using simulated and observed covariation among rates. We then test for differences in sensitivities, or changes, of log λs to changes in autocorrelation among...

Data from: Frequent and parallel habitat transitions as driver of unbounded radiations in the Cape flora

Yanis Bouchenak-Khelladi & H. Peter Linder
The enormous species richness in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of Southern Africa is the result of numerous radiations, but the temporal progression and possible mechanisms of these radiations are still poorly understood. Here, we explore the macroevolutionary dynamics of the Restionaceae, that include 340 species which are found in all vegetation types in the Cape flora and are ecologically dominant in fynbos. Using an almost complete (i.e. 98%) species-level time calibrated phylogeny and models...

Data from: Differentiation of movement behavior in an adaptively diverging salamander population

Ralf Hendrix, Benedikt R. Schmidt, Michael Schaub, E. Tobias Krause & Sebastian Steinfartz
Dispersal is considered to be a species-specific trait, but intraspecific variation can be high. However, when and how this complex trait starts to differentiate during the divergence of species/lineages is unknown. Here, we studied the differentiation of movement behavior in a large salamander (Salamandra salamandra) population, in which individual adaptations to different habitat conditions drive the genetic divergence of this population into two subpopulations. In this system, salamanders have adapted to the deposition and development...

Data from: The evolution of costly mate choice against segregation distorters

Andri Manser, Anna K. Lindholm, Franjo J. Weissing & Franz J. Weissing
The evolution of female preference for male genetic quality remains a controversial topic in sexual selection research. One well-known problem, known as the lek paradox, lies in understanding how variation in genetic quality is maintained in spite of natural selection and sexual selection against low-quality alleles. Here, we theoretically investigate a scenario where females pay a direct fitness cost to avoid males carrying an autosomal segregation distorter. We show that preference evolution is greatly facilitated...

Data from: Enhancing plant diversity in agricultural landscapes promotes both rare bees and dominant crop-pollinating bees through complementary increase in key floral resources

Louis Sutter, Philippe Jeanneret, Agustín M. Bartual, Gionata Bocci & Matthias Albrecht
1. Enhancing key floral resources is essential to effectively mitigate the loss of pollinator diversity and associated provisioning of pollination functions in agro-ecosystems. However, effective floral provisioning measures may diverge among different pollinator conservation targets, such as the conservation of rare species or the promotion of economically important crop pollinators. We examined to what extent such diverging conservation goals could be reconciled. 2. We analysed plant–bee visitation networks of 64 herbaceous semi-natural habitats representing a...

Data from: A reassessment of explanations for discordant introgressions of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes

Timothée Bonnet, Raphaël Leblois, Francois Rousset & Pierre-André Crochet
Hybridization is increasingly recognized as a significant evolutionary process, in particular because it can lead to introgression of genes from one species to another. A striking pattern of discordance in the amount of introgression between mitochondrial and nuclear markers exists such that substantial mitochondrial introgression is often found in combination with no or little nuclear introgression. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed to explain this discordance, including positive selection for introgressing mitochondrial variants, several types of...

Data from: Group cohesion in foraging meerkats: follow the moving ‘vocal hot spot’

Gabriella E.C. Gall, Marta B. Manser & Gabriella E. C. Gall
Group coordination, when ‘on the move’ or when visibility is low, is a challenge faced by many social living animals. While some animals manage to maintain cohesion solely through visual contact, the mechanism of group cohesion through other modes of communication, a necessity when visual contact is reduced, is not yet understood. Meerkats (Suricata suricatta), a small, social carnivore, forage as a cohesive group while moving continuously. While foraging, they frequently emit ‘close calls’, soft...

Data from: Socially informed dispersal in a territorial cooperative breeder

Gabriele Cozzi, Nino Maag, Luca Börger, Tim H. Clutton-Brock & Arpat Ozgul
1. Dispersal is a key process governing the dynamics of socially and spatially structured populations, and involves three distinct stages: emigration, transience, and settlement. At each stage, individuals have to make movement decisions, which are influenced by social, environmental, and individual factors. Yet, a comprehensive understanding of the drivers that influence such decisions is still lacking, particularly for the transient stage during which free-living individuals are inherently difficult to follow. 2. Social circumstances such as...

Data from: Climatic factors shape plastic trade-offs in the polyphenic black scavenger fly Sepsis thoracica (Diptera: Sepsidae)

Juan Pablo Busso & Wolf U. Blanckenhorn
Aim: Trade-offs allow individuals to optimize their fitness by tailoring the investment into different traits to variable environmental conditions, such as along geographic gradients. Trade-offs thus can help in adjusting to changing thermal and insolation profiles, especially in small ectotherms, whose body temperature typically follows environmental temperatures closely. Two traits usually involved in latitudinal adaptation are body size and melanism. Since both traits are costly, individuals need to optimize investment into each trait. Here we...

Data from: The path to re-evolve cooperation is constrained in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Elisa T. Granato & Rolf Kümmerli
Background. A common form of cooperation in bacteria is based on the secretion of beneficial metabolites, shareable as public good among cells within a group. Because cooperation can be exploited by "cheating" mutants, which contribute less or nothing to the public good, there has been great interest in understanding the conditions required for cooperation to remain evolutionarily stable. In contrast, much less is known about whether cheats, once fixed in the population, are able to...

Data from: Cytoskeletal stability and metabolic alterations in primary human macrophages in long-term microgravity

Svantje Tauber, Beatrice A. Lauber, Katrin Paulsen, Liliana E. Layer, Martin Lehmann, Swantje Hauschild, Naomi R. Shepherd, Jennifer Polzer, Jurgen Segerer, Cora S. Thiel & Oliver Ullrich
The immune system is one of the most affected systems of the human body during space flight. The cells of the immune system are exceptionally sensitive to microgravity. Thus, serious concerns arise, whether space flight associated weakening of the immune system ultimately precludes the expansion of human presence beyond the Earth's orbit. For human space flight, it is an urgent need to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which altered gravity influences and changes...

Data from: Parasites driving host diversity: incidence of disease correlated with Daphnia clonal turnover

Patrick Turko, Christoph Tellenbach, Esther Keller, Nadine Tardent, Barbara Keller, Piet Spaak & Justyna Wolinska
According to the Red Queen hypothesis, clonal diversity in asexual populations could be maintained by negative frequency-dependant selection by co-evolving parasites. If common clones are selected against and rare clones gain a concomitant advantage, we expect that clonal turnover should be faster during parasite epidemics than between them. We tested this hypothesis exploring field data of the Daphnia – Caullerya host-parasite system. The clonal make-up and turnover of the Daphnia host population was tracked with...

Data from: Taxonomic delimitation of the rare, eastern North American endemic lichen Santessoniella crossophylla (Pannariaceae)

James C. Lendemer, Heather B. Stone & Erin A. Tripp
The taxonomic delimitation and generic placement of Santessoniella crossophylla (Old Gray Crosslobes), a cyanolichen endemic to eastern North America, are revisited based on newly generated nrITS and mtSSU sequences. A population from Nova Scotia whose identification as S. crossophylla has been questioned is confirmed as belonging to the species. The monospecific genus Rockefellera is introduced to accommodate lichens ascribable to S. crossophylla in light of molecular results herein presented. The new name honors the Rockefeller...

Data from: Sexual dimorphism in epicuticular compounds despite similar sexual selection in sex role-reversed seed beetles

Isobel Booksmythe, Howard D. Rundle & Göran Arnqvist
Sexual selection imposed by mating preferences is often implicated in the evolution of both sexual dimorphism and divergence between species in signalling traits. Epicuticular compounds (ECs) are important signalling traits in insects and show extensive variability among and within taxa. Here, we investigate whether variation in the multivariate EC profiles of two sex role-reversed beetle species, Megabruchidius dorsalis and Megabruchidius tonkineus, predicts mate attractiveness and mating success in males and females. The two species had...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    74

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    74

Affiliations

  • University of Zurich
    74
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
    4
  • University of Bern
    4
  • Uppsala University
    4
  • University of Neuchâtel
    3
  • University of Lausanne
    3
  • Australian National University
    3
  • University of Basel
    3
  • Agroscope
    3
  • Universidade Federal de Goiás
    2