74 Works

Data from: Parasites driving host diversity: incidence of disease correlated with Daphnia clonal turnover

Patrick Turko, Christoph Tellenbach, Esther Keller, Nadine Tardent, Barbara Keller, Piet Spaak & Justyna Wolinska
According to the Red Queen hypothesis, clonal diversity in asexual populations could be maintained by negative frequency-dependant selection by co-evolving parasites. If common clones are selected against and rare clones gain a concomitant advantage, we expect that clonal turnover should be faster during parasite epidemics than between them. We tested this hypothesis exploring field data of the Daphnia – Caullerya host-parasite system. The clonal make-up and turnover of the Daphnia host population was tracked with...

Data from: Climatic factors shape plastic trade-offs in the polyphenic black scavenger fly Sepsis thoracica (Diptera: Sepsidae)

Juan Pablo Busso & Wolf U. Blanckenhorn
Aim: Trade-offs allow individuals to optimize their fitness by tailoring the investment into different traits to variable environmental conditions, such as along geographic gradients. Trade-offs thus can help in adjusting to changing thermal and insolation profiles, especially in small ectotherms, whose body temperature typically follows environmental temperatures closely. Two traits usually involved in latitudinal adaptation are body size and melanism. Since both traits are costly, individuals need to optimize investment into each trait. Here we...

Data from: Socially informed dispersal in a territorial cooperative breeder

Gabriele Cozzi, Nino Maag, Luca Börger, Tim H. Clutton-Brock & Arpat Ozgul
1. Dispersal is a key process governing the dynamics of socially and spatially structured populations, and involves three distinct stages: emigration, transience, and settlement. At each stage, individuals have to make movement decisions, which are influenced by social, environmental, and individual factors. Yet, a comprehensive understanding of the drivers that influence such decisions is still lacking, particularly for the transient stage during which free-living individuals are inherently difficult to follow. 2. Social circumstances such as...

Data from: Predation risk drives the expression of mobbing across bird species

Filipe C.R. Cunha, Julio C.R. Fontenelle & Michael Griesser
Many species approach predators to harass and drive them away, even though mobbing a predator can be deadly. However, not all species display this behavior, and those that do can exhibit different behaviors while mobbing different predators. Here we experimentally assessed the role of social and ecological traits on the expression of mobbing behavior in a bird community in SE Brazil (n=157 species). We exposed birds to models of two morphologically similar diurnal owls that...

Data from: Sexual dimorphism in epicuticular compounds despite similar sexual selection in sex role-reversed seed beetles

Isobel Booksmythe, Howard D. Rundle, Göran Arnqvist, H. D. Rundle, I. Booksmythe & G. Arnqvist
Sexual selection imposed by mating preferences is often implicated in the evolution of both sexual dimorphism and divergence between species in signalling traits. Epicuticular compounds (ECs) are important signalling traits in insects and show extensive variability among and within taxa. Here, we investigate whether variation in the multivariate EC profiles of two sex role-reversed beetle species, Megabruchidius dorsalis and Megabruchidius tonkineus, predicts mate attractiveness and mating success in males and females. The two species had...

Data from: Ontogenetic trajectories of septal spacing in Early Jurassic belemnites from Germany and France, and their palaeobiological implications

Ryoji Wani, Amane Tajika, Kenji Ikuno & Tetsuro Iwasaki
Based on well-preserved belemnites, the ontogenetic trajectories of septal spacing between succeeding chambers were analysed. In the examined species (Passaloteuthis laevigata, Parapassaloteuthis zieteni and Pseudohasitites longiformis) that come from Buttenheim, Germany, and Lixhausen, France, the ontogenetic trajectories of septal spacing follow exponentially increasing trends with no decreasing phase of septal crowding during the earliest ontogenetic stage. The absence of a decreasing trend at the earliest ontogenetic stage is a unique character in contrast with those...

Data from: Increased prenatal maternal investment reduces inbreeding depression in offspring

Kate E. Ihle, Pascale Hutter & Barbara Tschirren
Inbreeding depression refers to the reduction of fitness that results from matings between relatives. Evidence for reduced fitness in inbred individuals is widespread, but the strength of inbreeding depression varies widely both within and among taxa. Environmental conditions can mediate this variation in the strength of inbreeding depression, with environmental stress exacerbating the negative consequences of inbreeding. Parents can modify the environment experienced by offspring, and have thus the potential to mitigate the negative consequences...

Data from: Landscape greening and local creation of wildflower strips and hedgerows promote multiple ecosystem services

Louis Sutter, Matthias Albrecht & Philippe Jeanneret
1. The explicit and implicit aims of creating ecological focus areas (EFAs) and implementing greening measures in European agro-ecosystems include the promotion of regulatory ecosystem services (ES) to sustain crop production in conventional cropping systems. However, the extent to which these goals are achieved with current policy measures remains poorly explored. 2. We measured insect-mediated pollination and natural pest control service provisioning in 18 winter oilseed rape fields as a function of the independent and...

Data from: A structural approach for understanding multispecies coexistence

Serguei Saavedra, Rudolf P. Rohr, Jordi Bascompte, Oscar Godoy, Nathan J.B. Kraft, Jonathan M. Levine & Nathan J. B. Kraft
Although observations of species-rich communities have long served as a primary motivation for research on the coexistence of competitors, the majority of our empirical and theoretical understanding comes from two-species systems. How much of the coexistence observed in species rich communities results from indirect effects among competitors that only emerge in diverse systems remains poorly understood. Resolving this issue requires simple, scalable, and intuitive metrics for quantifying the conditions for coexistence in multispecies systems, and...

Data from: The physical boundaries of public goods cooperation between surface-attached bacterial cells

Michael Weigert & Rolf Kuemmerli
Bacteria secrete a variety of compounds important for nutrient scavenging, competition mediation and infection establishment. While there is a general consensus that secreted compounds can be shared and therefore have social consequences for the bacterial collective, we know little about the physical limits of such bacterial social interactions. Here, we address this issue by studying the sharing of iron-scavenging siderophores between surface-attached microcolonies of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using single-cell fluorescence microscopy, we show that...

Data from: Cytoskeletal stability and metabolic alterations in primary human macrophages in long-term microgravity

Svantje Tauber, Beatrice A. Lauber, Katrin Paulsen, Liliana E. Layer, Martin Lehmann, Swantje Hauschild, Naomi R. Shepherd, Jennifer Polzer, Jurgen Segerer, Cora S. Thiel & Oliver Ullrich
The immune system is one of the most affected systems of the human body during space flight. The cells of the immune system are exceptionally sensitive to microgravity. Thus, serious concerns arise, whether space flight associated weakening of the immune system ultimately precludes the expansion of human presence beyond the Earth's orbit. For human space flight, it is an urgent need to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which altered gravity influences and changes...

Data from: Warming and top predator loss drive ecosystem multifunctionality

Pablo Augusto P. Antiqueira, Owen L. Petchey & Gustavo Quevedo Romero
Global change affects ecosystem functioning both directly by modifications in physicochemical processes, and indirectly, via changes in biotic metabolism and interactions. Unclear, however, is how multiple anthropogenic drivers affect different components of community structure and the performance of multiple ecosystem functions (ecosystem multifunctionality). We manipulated small natural freshwater ecosystems to investigate how warming and top predator loss affect seven ecosystem functions representing two major dimensions of ecosystem functioning, productivity and metabolism. We investigated their direct...

Data from: The path to re-evolve cooperation is constrained in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Elisa T. Granato & Rolf Kümmerli
Background. A common form of cooperation in bacteria is based on the secretion of beneficial metabolites, shareable as public good among cells within a group. Because cooperation can be exploited by "cheating" mutants, which contribute less or nothing to the public good, there has been great interest in understanding the conditions required for cooperation to remain evolutionarily stable. In contrast, much less is known about whether cheats, once fixed in the population, are able to...

Data from: Taxonomic delimitation of the rare, eastern North American endemic lichen Santessoniella crossophylla (Pannariaceae)

James C. Lendemer, Heather B. Stone & Erin A. Tripp
The taxonomic delimitation and generic placement of Santessoniella crossophylla (Old Gray Crosslobes), a cyanolichen endemic to eastern North America, are revisited based on newly generated nrITS and mtSSU sequences. A population from Nova Scotia whose identification as S. crossophylla has been questioned is confirmed as belonging to the species. The monospecific genus Rockefellera is introduced to accommodate lichens ascribable to S. crossophylla in light of molecular results herein presented. The new name honors the Rockefeller...

Data from: Ejaculate evolution in external fertilizers: influenced by sperm competition or sperm limitation?

Wen Bo Liao, Yan Huang, Yu Zeng, Mao Jun Zhong, Yi Luo & Stefan Lüpold
The evolution of sperm quality and quantity is shaped by various selective processes, with sperm competition generally considered the primary selective agent. Particularly in external fertilizers, however, sperm limitation through gamete dispersal can also influence gamete investments, but empirical data examining this effect are limited. Here, we studied the relative importance of sperm competition and the spawning conditions in explaining the macroevolutionary patterns of sperm size and number within two taxa with external fertilization but...

Data from: Evolution of density-dependent movement during experimental range expansions

Emanuel A. Fronhofer, Sereina Gut, Florian Altermatt, E. A. Fronhofer, S. Gut & F. Altermatt
Range expansions and biological invasions are prime examples of transient processes that are likely impacted by rapid evolutionary changes. As a spatial process, range expansions are driven by dispersal and movement behaviour. While it is widely accepted that dispersal and movement may be context-dependent, for instance density-dependent, and best represented by reaction norms, the evolution of density-dependent movement during range expansions has received little experimental attention. We therefore tested current theory predicting the evolution of...

Data from: Leaf litter diversity and structure of microbial decomposer communities modulate litter decomposition in aquatic systems

Fabienne Santschi, Isabelle Gounand, Eric Harvey & Florian Altermatt
1. Leaf litter decomposition is a major ecosystem process that can link aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems by flows of nutrients. Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning research hypothesizes that the global loss of species leads to impaired decomposition rates and thus to slower recycling of nutrients. Especially in aquatic systems an understanding of diversity effects on litter decomposition is still incomplete. 2. Here we conducted an experiment to test two main factors associated with global species loss...

Data from: Whole-genome patterns of linkage disequilibrium across flycatcher populations clarify the causes and consequences of fine-scale recombination rate variation in birds

Takeshi Kawakami, Carina F. Mugal, Alexander Suh, Alexander Nater, Reto Burri, Linnea Smeds & Hans Ellegren
Recombination rate is heterogeneous across the genome of various species, and so are genetic diversity and differentiation as a consequence of linked selection. However, we still lack a clear picture of the underlying mechanisms for regulating recombination. Here we estimated fine-scale population recombination rate based on the patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) across the genomes of multiple populations of two closely related flycatcher species (Ficedula albicollis and F. hypoleuca). This revealed an overall conservation of...

Data from: What affects the predictability of evolutionary constraints using a G-matrix? The relative effects of modular pleiotropy and mutational correlation

Jobran Chebib & Frédéric Guillaume
Phenotypic traits do not always respond to selection independently from each other and often show correlated responses to selection. The structure of a genotype-phenotype map (GP map) determines trait covariation, which involves variation in the degree and strength of the pleiotropic effects of the underlying genes. It is still unclear, and debated, how much of that structure can be deduced from variational properties of quantitative traits that are inferred from their genetic (co)variance matrix (G-matrix)....

Data from: Sperm competition suppresses gene drive among experimentally evolving populations of house mice

Andri Manser, Anna K. Lindholm, Leigh W. Simmons & Renée C. Firman
Drive genes are genetic elements that manipulate the 50% ratio of Mendelian inheritance in their own favour, allowing them to rapidly propagate through populations. The action of drive genes is often hidden, making detection and identification inherently difficult. Yet drive genes can have profound evolutionary consequences for the populations that harbour them: most known drivers are detrimental to organismal gamete development, reproduction and survival. In this study, we identified the presence of a well-known drive...

Data from: Reproductive trade-offs in a long-lived bird species: condition-dependent reproductive allocation maintains female survival and offspring quality

Michael Griesser, Gretchen F. Wagner, Szymon M. Drobniak, Jan Ekman, M. Griesser, G. F. Wagner, S. M. Drobniak & J. Ekman
Life-history theory is an essential framework to understand the evolution of reproductive allocation. It predicts that individuals of long-lived species favour their own survival over current reproduction, leading individuals to refrain from reproducing under harsh conditions. Here we test this prediction in a long-lived bird species, the Siberian jay Perisoreus infaustus. Long-term data revealed that females rarely refrain from breeding, but lay smaller clutches in unfavourable years. Neither offspring body size, female survival nor offspring...

Data from: Species but not genotype diversity strongly impacts the establishment of rare colonisers

Christian Schöb, Sara Hortal, Alison J. Karley, Luna Morcillo, Adrian C. Newton, Robin J. Pakeman, Jeff R. Powell, Ian C. Anderson & Rob W. Brooker
1. Understanding species coexistence and regulation of biodiversity are major research challenges, yet there is no consensus on the effects of diversity on diversity, including their mediation through plant–plant interactions. 2. We examined how the diversity of recipient communities impacted on the establishment of colonising species. We ran a greenhouse-based community experiment, creating artificial arable crop communities with varying levels of barley genotype and weed species diversity, analysed with structural equation modelling of responses across...

Data from: Combining human acceptance and habitat suitability in a unified socio-ecological suitability model: a case study of the wolf in Switzerland

Dominik M. Behr, Arpat Ozgul & Gabriele Cozzi
Habitat suitability models (HSMs) are commonly used in conservation practise to assess the potential of an area to be occupied and colonised. A major limitation of these models, however, is the omission of spatially explicit understanding of human acceptance towards the focal species. As wildlife is more and more subject to human-dominated landscapes, ignoring the sociological component will result in misrepresentation of the observed processes and inappropriate management. We distributed 10 000 questionnaires across Switzerland...

Data from: A new subfamily classification of the Leguminosae based on a taxonomically comprehensive phylogeny

, Anne Bruneau, Nasim Azani, Marielle Babineau, Edeline Gagnon, Carole Sinou, Royce Steeves, Erin Zimmerman, C. Donovan Bailey, Lynsey Kovar, Madhugiri Nageswara-Rao, Hannah Banks, RuthP. Clark, Manuel De La Estrella, Peter Gasson, GeoffreyC. Kite, BenteB. Klitgaard, GwilymP. Lewis, Danilo Neves, Gerhard Prenner, María De Lourdes Rico-Arce, ArianeR. Barbosa, Maria Cristina López-Roberts, Luciano Paganucci De Queiroz, PétalaG. Ribeiro … & Tingshuang Yi
The classification of the legume family proposed here addresses the long-known non-monophyly of the traditionally recognised subfamily Caesalpinioideae, by recognising six robustly supported monophyletic subfamilies. This new classification uses as its framework the most comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of legumes to date, based on plastid matK gene sequences, and including near-complete sampling of genera (698 of the currently recognised 765 genera) and ca. 20% (3696) of known species. The matK gene region has been the most...

Data from: Forecasting range shifts of a cold-adapted species under climate change: are genomic and ecological diversity within species crucial for future resilience?

Spyros Theodoridis, Theofania S. Patsiou, Christophe Randin & Elena Conti
Cold-adapted taxa are experiencing severe range shifts due to climate change and are expected to suffer a significant reduction of their climatically suitable habitats in the next few decades. However, it has been proposed that taxa with sufficient standing genetic and ecologic diversity will better withstand climate change. These taxa are typically more broadly distributed in geographic and ecological niche space, therefore they are likely to endure higher levels of populations loss than more restricted,...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    74

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    74

Affiliations

  • University of Zurich
    74
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
    5
  • University of Bern
    4
  • Uppsala University
    4
  • University of Neuchâtel
    3
  • University of Lausanne
    3
  • Australian National University
    3
  • University of Basel
    3
  • Agroscope
    3
  • Universidade Federal de Goiás
    2