74 Works

Data from: Ontogenetic trajectories of septal spacing in Early Jurassic belemnites from Germany and France, and their palaeobiological implications

Ryoji Wani, Amane Tajika, Kenji Ikuno & Tetsuro Iwasaki
Based on well-preserved belemnites, the ontogenetic trajectories of septal spacing between succeeding chambers were analysed. In the examined species (Passaloteuthis laevigata, Parapassaloteuthis zieteni and Pseudohasitites longiformis) that come from Buttenheim, Germany, and Lixhausen, France, the ontogenetic trajectories of septal spacing follow exponentially increasing trends with no decreasing phase of septal crowding during the earliest ontogenetic stage. The absence of a decreasing trend at the earliest ontogenetic stage is a unique character in contrast with those...

Data from: Climatic factors shape plastic trade-offs in the polyphenic black scavenger fly Sepsis thoracica (Diptera: Sepsidae)

Juan Pablo Busso & Wolf U. Blanckenhorn
Aim: Trade-offs allow individuals to optimize their fitness by tailoring the investment into different traits to variable environmental conditions, such as along geographic gradients. Trade-offs thus can help in adjusting to changing thermal and insolation profiles, especially in small ectotherms, whose body temperature typically follows environmental temperatures closely. Two traits usually involved in latitudinal adaptation are body size and melanism. Since both traits are costly, individuals need to optimize investment into each trait. Here we...

Data from: Meerkat close calling patterns are linked to sex, social category, season and wind, but not fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations

Jelena Mausbach, Ines Braga Goncalves, Michael Heistermann, André Ganswindt & Marta B. Manser
It is well established that animal vocalizations can encode information regarding a sender’s identity, sex, age, body size, social rank and group membership. However, the association between physiological parameters, particularly stress hormone levels, and vocal behavior is still not well understood. The cooperatively breeding African meerkats (Suricata suricatta) live in family groups with despotic social hierarchies. During foraging, individuals emit close calls that help maintain group cohesion. These contact calls are acoustically distinctive and variable...

Data from: Experience buffers extrinsic mortality in a group-living bird species

Michael Griesser, Emeline Mourocq, Jonathan Barnaby, Katharine Bowegen, Sönke Eggers, Kevin Fletcher, Radoslav Kozma, Franziska Kurz, Anssi Laurila, Magdalena Nystrand, Enrico Sorato, Jan Ekman & Katharine M. Bowgen
Extrinsic mortality has a strong impact on the evolution of life-histories, prey morphology and behavioural adaptations, but for many animals the causes of mortality are poorly understood. Predation is an important driver of extrinsic mortality and mobile animals form groups in response to increased predation risk. Furthermore, in many species juveniles suffer higher mortality than older individuals, which may reflect a lower phenotypic quality, lower competitiveness, or a lack of antipredator or foraging skills. Here...

Data from: Demographic collapse and low genetic diversity of the Irrawaddy dolphin population inhabiting the Mekong River

Michael Krützen, Isabel Beasley, Corinne Y. Ackermann, Dietmar Lieckfeldt, Arne Ludwig, Gerard E. Ryan, Lars Bejder, Guido J. Parra, Rebekka Wolfensberger & Peter B. S. Spencer
In threatened wildlife populations, it is important to determine whether observed low genetic diversity may be due to recent anthropogenic pressure or the consequence of historic events. Historical size of the Irrawaddy dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris) population inhabiting the Mekong River is unknown and there is significant concern for long-term survival of the remaining population as a result of low abundance, slow reproduction rate, high neonatal mortality, and continuing anthropogenic threats. We investigated population structure and...

Data from: Consistent cooperation in a cichlid fish is caused by maternal and developmental effects rather than heritable genetic variation

Claudia Kasper, Mathias Koelliker, Erik Postma & Barbara Taborsky
Studies on the evolution of cooperative behaviour are typically confined to understanding its adaptive value. It is equally essential, however, to understand its potential to evolve, requiring knowledge about the phenotypic consistency and genetic basis of cooperative behaviour. While previous observational studies reported considerably high heritabilities of helping behaviour in cooperatively breeding vertebrates, experimental studies disentangling the relevant genetic and non-genetic components of cooperative behaviour are lacking. In a half-sibling breeding experiment, we investigated the...

Data from: Environmental stability increases relative individual specialisation across populations of an aquatic top predator

Philip Dermond, Stephen M. Thomas & Jakob Brodersen
The concept of the niche has long been a central pillar in ecological theory, with a traditional focus on quantifying niches at the species or population level. However, the importance of individual-level niche variation is increasingly being recognised, with a strong focus on individual specialisation. While examples illustrating the contribution of the individual niche to whole population niche structure are accumulating rapidly, surprisingly little is known about the conditions that shape the differences between these...

Data from: Pedigree-based inbreeding coefficient explains more variation in fitness than heterozygosity at 160 microsatellites in a wild bird population

Pirmin Nietlisbach, Lukas F. Keller, Glauco Camenisch, Frédéric Guillaume, Peter Arcese, Jane M. Reid & Erik Postma
Although the pedigree-based inbreeding coefficient F predicts the expected proportion of an individual's genome that is identical-by-descent (IBD), heterozygosity at genetic markers captures Mendelian sampling variation and thereby provides an estimate of realized IBD. Realized IBD should hence explain more variation in fitness than their pedigree-based expectations, but how many markers are required to achieve this in practice remains poorly understood. We use extensive pedigree and life-history data from an island population of song sparrows...

Data from: Are the radiations of temperate lineages in tropical alpine ecosystems pre-adapted?

Nicolai M. Nürk, Florian Michling & Hans Peter Linder
Aim: Tropical mountains around the world harbour an extraordinarily rich pool of plant species and are hotspots of biodiversity. Climatically, they can be zoned into montane climates at mid-altitudes and tropical alpine climates above the tree line. Around half of the tropical alpine species belong to plant lineages with a temperate ancestry, although these regions are often geographically distant. We test the hypothesis that these temperate lineages are pre-adapted to the tropical alpine climate. Location:...

Foraging behaviour of Parus major held in temporary captivity

R Thorogood, H Kokko & J Mappes
The data set describes foraging decisions by great tits (Parus major), held in temporary captivity. Data were collected from birds caught from forest at the University of Jyväskylä Research Station, Konnevesi (62°37.7'N 026°17'E), Finland, and were collected during the winter of 2013-2014. Birds were presented with (1) two different coloured plastic cups, or (2) two different artificial prey (almond pieces inside a paper packet and printed with a black and white symbol). One symbol was...

Data from: Divergent evolution and niche differentiation within the common peatmoss Sphagnum magellanicum

Narjes Yousefi, Kristian Hassel, Kjell Ivar Flatberg, Petri Kemppainen, Emiliano Trucchi, Arthur Jonathan Shaw, Magni Olsen Kyrkjeeide, Péter Szövényi & Hans Kristen Stenøien
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Populations with phenotypic polymorphism in discrete characters may be good models for investigating genome evolution and speciation. Sphagnum magellanicum Brid. is found throughout the northern hemisphere, and despite considerable variation in morphological characters, it is considered one of the least taxonomically controversial peatmoss species. We have observed two main morphs of the species associated with different microhabitats. Here we investigated the genomic and environmental basis of this intraspecific morphological variation. METHODS:...

Data from: A review of the lichen genus Phlyctis in North America (Phlyctidaceae) including the description of a new widespread saxicolous species from eastern North America

Zachary M. Muscavitch, James C. Lendemer & Richard C. Harris
A review of the crustose lichen genus Phlyctis in North America is presented derived from large-scale studies of chemical, morphological, and molecular data (ITS and mtSSU). Five species are recognized based on a combination of morphological and chemical characters, namely P. agelaea, P. argena, P. boliviensis, P. speirea and the newly described P. petraea. Analyses of molecular data supported the recognition of P. boliviensis and P. petraea but recovered P. agelaea, P. argena or P....

Data from: Divergent artificial selection for female reproductive investment has a sexually concordant effect on male reproductive success

Joel L. Pick, Pascale Hutter & Barbara Tschirren
Depending on the genetic architecture of male and female fitness, sex-specific selection can have negative, positive or neutral consequences for the opposite sex. Theory predicts that conflict between male and female function may drive the breakdown of intrasexual genetic correlations, allowing sexual dimorphism in sexually antagonistic traits. Reproductive traits are the epitome of this, showing highly differentiated proximate functions between the sexes. Here we use divergent artificial selection lines for female reproductive investment to test...

Data from: Linking intra-specific trait variation to community abundance dynamics improves ecological predictability by revealing a growth-defence trade-off

Jason I. Griffiths, Owen L. Petchey, Frank Pennekamp & Dylan Z. Childs
1.Intraspecific trait change, including altered behaviour or morphology, can drive temporal variation in inter-specific interactions and population dynamics. In turn, variation in species’ interactions and densities can alter the strength and direction of trait change. The resulting feedback between species′ traits and abundance permits a wide range of community dynamics that would not be expected from ecological theories purely based on species abundances. Despite the theoretical importance of these interrelated processes, unambiguous experimental evidence of...

Data from: A non-invasive method for sampling the body odour of mammals

Brigitte M. Weiß, Andrea Marcillo, Marta Manser, Ruben Holland, Claudia Birkemeyer & Anja Widdig
1. Olfaction is a central aspect of mammalian communication, providing information about individual attributes such as identity, sex, group membership or genetic quality. Yet, the chemical underpinnings of olfactory cues remain little understood, one of the reasons being the difficulty in obtaining high quality samples for chemical analysis. 2. In the present study we adjusted and evaluated the use of thermal desorption (TD) tubes, commonly used in plant metabolomic and environmental studies, for non-invasive sampling...

Data from: Resistance of plant–plant networks to biodiversity loss and secondary extinctions following simulated environmental changes

Gianalberto Losapio & Christian Schöb
1. Plant interactions are fundamental processes for structuring plant communities and are an important mechanism governing the response of plant species and communities to environmental changes. Thus, understanding the role played by the interaction network in modulating the impact of environmental changes on plant community composition and diversity is crucial. Here, we aimed to develop a new analytical and conceptual framework to evaluate the responses of plant communities to environmental changes. 2. This framework uses...

Data from: Population genomics analyses of European ibex species show lower diversity and higher inbreeding in reintroduced populations

Christine Grossen, Iris Biebach, Samer Angelone-Alasaad, Lukas F. Keller & Daniel Croll
Restoration of lost species ranges to their native distribution is key for the survival of endangered species. However, reintroductions often fail and long-term genetic consequences are poorly understood. Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) are wild goats that recovered from <100 individuals to ~50,000 within a century by population reintroductions. We analyzed the population genomic consequences of the Alpine ibex reintroduction strategy. We genotyped 101'822 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism loci in 173 Alpine ibex, the closely related...

Data from: Dispersal in dendritic networks: ecological consequences on the spatial distribution of population densities

Florian Altermatt & Emanuel A. Fronhofer
1. Understanding the consequences of spatial structure on ecological dynamics is a central theme in ecology. Recently, research has recognized the relevance of river and river-analogue network structures, because these systems are not only highly diverse but also rapidly changing due to habitat modifications or species invasions. 2. Much of the previous work on ecological and evolutionary dynamics in metapopulations and metacommunities in dendritic river networks has been either using comparative approaches or was purely...

Data from: Selective sweeps of mitochondrial DNA can drive the evolution of uniparental inheritance

Joshua R. Christie & Madeleine Beekman
While the uniparental (or maternal) inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is widespread, the reasons for its evolution remain unclear. Two main hypotheses have been proposed: selection against individuals containing different mtDNAs (heteroplasmy) and selection against “selfish” mtDNA mutations. Recently, uniparental inheritance was shown to promote adaptive evolution in mtDNA, potentially providing a third hypothesis for its evolution. Here we explore this hypothesis theoretically and ask if the accumulation of beneficial mutations provides a sufficient fitness...

Data from: The shift from plant–plant facilitation to competition under severe water deficit is spatially explicit

Michael J. O'Brien, Francisco I. Pugnaire, Cristina Armas, Susana Rodríguez-Echeverría & Christian Schöb
The stress-gradient hypothesis predicts a higher frequency of facilitative interactions as resource limitation increases. Under severe resource limitation, it has been suggested that facilitation may revert to competition, and identifying the presence as well as determining the magnitude of this shift is important for predicting the effect of climate change on biodiversity and plant community dynamics. In this study, we perform a meta-analysis to compare temporal differences of species diversity and productivity under a nurse...

Data from: Extinction-driven changes in frugivore communities on oceanic islands

Julia H. Heinen, E. Emiel Van Loon, Dennis M. Hansen & W. Daniel Kissling
Global change and human expansion have resulted in many species extinctions worldwide, but the geographic variation and determinants of extinction risk in particular guilds still remain little explored. Here, we quantified insular extinctions of frugivorous vertebrates (including birds, mammals and reptiles) across 74 tropical and subtropical oceanic islands within 20 archipelagos worldwide and investigated extinction in relation to island characteristics (island area, isolation, elevation and climate) and species’ functional traits (body mass, diet and ability...

Data from: A landscape of coexistence for a large predator in a human dominated landscape

Benedikt Gehr, Elizabeth J. Hofer, Stefanie Muff, Andreas Ryser, Eric Vimercati, Kristina Vogt & Lukas F. Keller
Human related mortality is a major threat for large carnivores all over the world and there is increasing evidence that large predators respond to human related risks in a similar way as prey respond to predation risk. This insight recently led to the conceptual development of a landscape of coexistence that can be used to identify areas which can sustain large predator populations in human dominated landscapes. In this study we applied the landscape of...

Data from: Habitat filtering determines the functional niche occupancy of plant communities worldwide

Yuanzhi Li, Bill Shipley, Jodi N. Price, Vinícius De L. Dantas, Riin Tamme, Mark Westoby, Andrew Siefert, Brandon S. Schamp, Marko J. Spasojevic, Vincent Jung, Daniel C. Laughlin, Sarah J. Richardson, Yoann Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Christian Schöb, Antonio Gazol, Honor C. Prentice, Nicolas Gross, Jacob Overton, Marcus V. Cianciaruso, Frédérique Louault, Chiho Kamiyama, Tohru Nakashizuka, Kouki Hikosaka, Takehiro Sasaki, Masatoshi Katabuchi … & Marco A. Batalha
How the patterns of niche occupancy vary from species-poor to species-rich communities is a fundamental question in ecology that has a central bearing on the processes that drive patterns of biodiversity. As species richness increases, habitat filtering should constrain the expansion of total niche volume, while limiting similarity should restrict the degree of niche overlap between species. Here, by explicitly incorporating intraspecific trait variability, we investigate the relationship between functional niche occupancy and species richness...

Data from: Effects of individual-based preferences for colour-banded mates on sex allocation in zebra finches

Zitan Song, Yao Liu, Isobel Booksmythe & Changqing Ding
Sex allocation theory predicts that females mated to attractive males produce more sons than females mated to unattractive males. However, previous tests of this hypothesis have obtained mixed results. We suggest that females differ in the traits they find attractive. To test this proposition, we assessed female zebra finches’ preferences for males banded with red or green plastic leg bands and then tested the sex allocation pattern of females paired with preferred and non-preferred males....

Data from: Hunting-mediated predator facilitation and superadditive mortality in a European ungulate

Benedikt Gehr, Elizabeth J. Hofer, Mirjam Pewsner, Andreas Ryser, Eric Vimercati, Kristina Vogt & Lukas F. Keller
Predator-prey theory predicts that in the presence of multiple types of predators using a common prey, predator facilitation may result as a consequence of contrasting prey defense mechanisms, where reducing the risk from one predator increases the risk from the other. While predator facilitation is well established in natural predator-prey systems, little attention has been paid to situations where human hunters compete with natural predators for the same prey. Here, we investigate hunting-mediated predator facilitation...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    74

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    74

Affiliations

  • University of Zurich
    74
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
    4
  • University of Bern
    4
  • Uppsala University
    4
  • University of Neuchâtel
    3
  • University of Lausanne
    3
  • Australian National University
    3
  • University of Basel
    3
  • Agroscope
    3
  • Universidade Federal de Goiás
    2