64 Works

Data from: Intransitive competition is common across five major taxonomic groups and is driven by productivity, competitive rank and functional traits.

Santiago Soliveres, Anika Lehmann, Steffen Boch, Florian Altermatt, Francesco Carrara, Thomas W. Crowther, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Anne Kempel, Daniel S. Maynard, Matthias C. Rillig, Brajesh K. Singh, Pankaj Trivedi & Eric Allan
1. Competition can be fully hierarchical or intransitive, and this degree of hierarchy is driven by multiple factors, including environmental conditions, the functional traits of the species involved or the topology of competition networks. Studies simultaneously analyzing these drivers of competition hierarchy are rare. Additionally, organisms compete either directly or via interference competition for resources or space, within a local neighbourhood or across the habitat. Therefore, the drivers of competition could change accordingly and depend...

Data from: Daphnia invest in sexual reproduction when its relative costs are reduced

Nina Gerber, Hanna Kokko, Dieter Ebert & Isobel Booksmythe
The timing of sex in facultatively sexual organisms is critical to fitness, due to the differing demographic consequences of sexual vs. asexual reproduction. In addition to the costs of sex itself, an association of sex with the production of dormant life stages also influences the optimal use of sex, especially in environments where resting eggs are essential to survive unfavourable conditions. Here we document population dynamics and the occurrence of sexual reproduction in natural populations...

Data from: Reverse audience effects on helping in cooperatively breeding marmoset monkeys

Rahel K. Brügger, Theresa Kappeler-Schmalzriedt & Judith M. Burkart
Cooperatively breeding common marmosets show substantial variation in the amount of help they provide. Pay-to-stay and social prestige models of helping attribute this variation to audience effects, i.e. that individuals help more if group members can witness their interactions with immatures, whereas models of kin selection, group augmentation, or ones stressing the need to gain parenting experience do not predict any audience effects. We quantified the readiness of adult marmosets to share food in the...

Data from: Structural and defensive roles of angiosperm leaf venation network reticulation across an Andes-Amazon elevation gradient

Benjamin Blonder, Norma Salinas, Lisa Patrick Bentley, Alexander Shenkin, Percy Orlando Chambi Porroa, Yolvi Valdez Tejeira, Tatiana Erika Boza Espinoza, Gregory R. Goldsmith, Lucas Enrico, Roberta Martin, Gregory P. Asner, Sandra Díaz, Brian J. Enquist & Yadvinder Malhi
1.The network of minor veins of angiosperm leaves may include loops (reticulation). Variation in network architecture has been hypothesized to have hydraulic and also structural and defensive functions. 2.We measured venation network trait space in eight dimensions for 136 biomass-dominant angiosperm tree species along a 3,300 m elevation gradient in southeastern Peru. We then examined the relative importance of multiple ecological, and evolutionary predictors of reticulation. 3.Variation in minor venation network reticulation was constrained to...

Data from: Plant life history stage and nurse age change the development of ecological networks in an arid ecosystem

Gianalberto Losapio, Francisco I. Pugnaire, Michael J. O'Brien & Christian Schöb
Understanding how ecological networks are organised over the course of an organism’s lifetime is crucial for predicting the dynamics of interacting populations and communities across temporal scales. However, most studies so far considered only one life history stage at a time, such as adult, when studying networks of interacting species. Therefore, knowledge about how multiple life history stages affect the development and stability of plant–plant association networks is lacking. We measured the understory adult plant...

Data from: Male monkeys use punishment and coercion to de-escalate costly intergroup fights

T. Jean M. Arseneau-Robar, Eliane Müller, Anouk L. Taucher, Carel P. Van Schaik, Redouan Bshary & Erik P. Willems
In numerous social species, males direct aggression towards female group members during intergroup fights, and this behaviour is commonly thought to function as mate guarding, even though males often target non-receptive females. In studying intergroup fights in a wild population of vervet monkeys, we found that male intragroup aggression was primarily directed towards individuals who had either just finished exhibiting, or were currently attempting to instigate intergroup aggression. Targeted females were less likely to instigate...

Data from: Assessing canalisation of intraspecific variation on a macroevolutionary scale: the case of crinoid arms through the Phanerozoic

Catalina Pimiento, Kit Lam Tang, Samuel Zamora, Christian Klug & Marcelo Ricardo Sánchez-Villagra
Pictures of Crinoid Specimens 1Pictures of species with names that start with the letters A-Ccrinoids_1.zipPictures of Crinoid Specimens 2Pictures of species with names that start with the letters D-Ocrinoids_2.zipPictures of Crinoid Specimens 3Pictures of species with names that start with the letter Pcrinoids_3.zipPictures of Crinoid Specimens 4Pictures of species with names that start with the letters S-Zcrinoids_4.zip

Data from: Sex-specific additive genetic variances and correlations for fitness in a song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) population subject to natural immigration and inbreeding

Matthew Ernest Wolak, Peter Arcese, Lukas F. Keller, Pirmin Nietlisbach & Jane M. Reid
Quantifying sex-specific additive genetic variance (VA) in fitness, and the cross-sex genetic correlation (rA), is prerequisite to predicting evolutionary dynamics and the magnitude of sexual conflict. Further, quantifying VA and rA in underlying fitness components, and genetic consequences of immigration and resulting gene flow, is required to identify mechanisms that maintain VA in fitness. However, these key parameters have rarely been estimated in wild populations experiencing natural environmental variation and immigration. We used comprehensive pedigree...

Data from: Lecanora caperatica (Lecanoraceae, lichenized ascomycetes) a new sorediate species widespread in eastern North America

Olivia A. Asher & James C. Lendemer
Lecanora caperatica is described based on collections from throughout temperate eastern North America. It is a crustose sorediate species in the L. subfusca group which has pulcaris-type apothecia, and produces atranorin and caperatic acid often with accessory roccellic/angardianic acid. The species is chemically similar to the European L. mugosphagneti which differs in ecology, thallus morphology and in having albella-type apothecia. The generic placement of L. caperatica, and its affinity to the L. subfusca group, are...

Data from: Hibernation constrains brain size evolution in mammals

Sandra Andrea Heldstab, Karin Isler & Carel P. Van Schaik
The expensive brain hypothesis predicts that the lowest stable level of steady energy input acts as a strong constraint on a species’ brain size, and thus that periodic troughs in net energy intake should select for reduced brain size relative to body mass. Here, we test this prediction for the extreme case of hibernation. Hibernators drastically reduce food intake for up to several months, and are therefore expected to have smaller relative brain sizes than...

Data from: Ramalina sarahae (Ramalinaceae), a new species from the Channel Islands of California, U.S.A.

Kerry Knudsen, James C. Lendemer & Jana Kocourková
Ramalina sarahae is described as new to science and considered to be closely related to the widespread R. lacera. It has a cortex without chondroid strands but differs from R. lacera in having a densely caespitose thallus of thin branches with only pseudocyphellae. The species is considered to be naturally rare, occurring in a small area of San Miguel Island in southern California, and on San Nicolas Island. Currently eight species of Ramalina are known...

Data from: Evaluating alternative explanations for an association of extinction risk and evolutionary uniqueness in multiple insular lineages.

Ben H. Warren, Oskar Hagen, Florian Gerber, Christophe Thebaud, Emmanuel Paradis & Elena Conti
Studies in insular environments have often documented a positive association of extinction risk and evolutionary uniqueness (i.e. how distant a species is from its closest living relative). However, the cause of this association is unclear. One explanation is that species threatened with extinction are evolutionarily unique because they are old, implying that extinction risk increases with time since speciation (age-dependent extinction). An alternative explanation is that such threatened species are last survivors of clades that...

Data from: Resilience of seed production to a severe El Niño‐induced drought across functional groups and dispersal types

Michael J. O'Brien, Daniel Peréz-Aviles & Jennifer S. Powers
More frequent and severe El Niño Southern Oscillations (ENSO) are causing episodic periods of decreased rainfall. Although the effects of these ENSO-induced droughts on tree growth and mortality have been well studied, the impacts on other demographic rates such as reproduction are less well known. We use a four-year seed rain dataset encompassing the most severe ENSO-induced drought in more than 30 years to assess the resilience (i.e. resistance and recovery) of the seed composition...

Data from: Alteration of nitrous oxide emissions from floodplain soils by aggregate size, litter accumulation and plant–soil interactions

Martin Ley, Moritz F. Lehmann, Pascal A. Niklaus & Jörg Luster
Semi-terrestrial soils such as floodplain soils are considered potential hot spots of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Microhabitats in the soil – such as within and outside of aggregates, in the detritusphere, and/or in the rhizosphere – are considered to promote and preserve specific redox conditions. Yet our understanding of the relative effects of such microhabitats and their interactions on N2O production and consumption in soils is still incomplete. Therefore, we assessed the effect of aggregate...

Data from: Plant interactions shape pollination networks via nonadditive effects

Gianalberto Losapio, Miguel A. Fortuna, Jordi Bascompte, Bernhard Schmid, Richard Michalet, Rainer Neumeyer, Leopoldo Castro, Pierfilippo Cerretti, Christoph Germann, Jean-Paul Haenni, Seraina Klopfstein, Francisco Javier Ortiz-Sánchez, Adrian C. Pont, Pascal Rousse, Jürg Schmid, Daniele Sommaggio & Christian Schöb
Plants grow in communities where they interact with other plants and with other living organisms such as pollinators. On the one hand, studies of plant–plant interactions rarely consider how plants interact with other trophic levels such as pollinators. On the other, studies of plant–animal interactions rarely deal with interactions within trophic levels such as plant–plant competition and facilitation. Thus, to what degree plant interactions affect biodiversity and ecological networks across trophic levels is poorly understood....

Data from: Mitochondrial complementation: a possible neglected factor behind early eukaryotic sex

Anaïs Tilquin, Joshua R. Christie & Hanna Kokko
Sex is ancestral in eukaryotes. Meiotic sex differs from bacterial ways of exchanging genetic material by involving the fusion of two cells. We examine the hypothesis that fusion evolved in early eukaryotes because it was directly beneficial, rather than a passive side-effect of meiotic sex. We assume that the uptake of (proto)mitochondria into eukaryotes preceded the evolution of cell fusion, and that Muller’s ratchet operating within symbiont lineages led to the accumulation of lineage-specific sets...

Data from: Batch effects in a multi-year sequencing study: false biological trends due to changes in read lengths

Deborah M. Leigh, Heidi E.L. Lischer, Christine Grossen & Lukas F. Keller
High-throughput sequencing is a powerful tool, but suffers biases and errors that must be accounted for to prevent false biological conclusions. Such errors include batch effects, technical errors only present in subsets of data due to procedural changes within a study. If overlooked and multiple batches of data are combined, spurious biological signals can arise, particularly if batches of data are correlated with biological variables. Batch effects can be minimized through randomisation of sample groups...

Data from: Internal cranial anatomy of Early Triassic species of †Saurichthys (Actinopterygii: †Saurichthyiformes): implications for the phylogenetic placement of †saurichthyiforms

Thodoris Argyriou, Sam Giles, Matt Friedman, Carlo Romano, Ilja Kogan & Marcelo R. Sanchez-Villagra
Background: †Saurichthyiformes was a successful group of latest Permian-Middle Jurassic predatory actinopterygian fishes and constituted important and widely-distributed components of Triassic marine and freshwater faunas. Their systematic affinities have long been debated, with †saurichthyiforms often being aligned with chondrosteans, a group today comprising sturgeons and paddlefishes. However, their character-rich endocranial anatomy has not been investigated in detail since the first half of the 20th century. Since that time, major advances have occurred in terms of...

Data from: Predator size and prey size-gut capacity ratios determine kill frequency and carcass production in terrestrial carnivorous mammals

Annelies De Cuyper, Marcus Clauss, Chris Carbone, Daryl Codron, An Cools, Myriam Hesta & Geert P. J. Janssens
Carnivore kill frequency is a fundamental part of predator-prey interactions, which are important shapers of ecosystems. Current field kill frequency data are rare and existing models are insufficiently adapted to carnivore functional groups. We developed a kill frequency model accounting for carnivore mass, prey mass, pack size, partial consumption of prey and carnivore gut capacity. Two main carnivore functional groups, small prey-feeders vs large prey-feeders, were established based on the relationship between stomach capacity (C)...

Data from: UV bullseye contrast of Hemerocallis flowers attracts hawkmoths but not swallowtail butterflies

Shun K. Hirota, Nozomu Miki, Akiko A. Yasumoto & Tetsukazu Yahara
The colour and patterns of animal-pollinated flowers are known to have effects on pollinator attraction. In this study, the relative importance of flower colour and colour contrast patterns on pollinator attraction was examined in two pollinator groups, swallowtail butterflies and hawkmoths using two Hemerocallis species; butterfly-pollinated H. fulva and hawkmoth-pollinated H. citrina, having reddish and yellowish flowers in human vision, respectively. Flowers of both species have UV bullseye patterns, composed of UV-absorbing centres and UV-reflecting...

Data from: Patterns of polymorphism and selection in the subgenomes of the allopolyploid Arabidopsis kamchatica

Timothy Paape, Roman V. Briskine, Gwyneth Halstead-Nussloch, Heidi E. L. Lischer, Rie Shimizu-Inatsugi, Masaomi Hatekayama, Kenta Tanaka, Tomoaki Nishiyama, Renat Sabirov, Jun Sese & Kentaro K. Shimizu
Genome duplication is widespread in wild and crop plants. However, little is known about genome-wide selection in polyploids due to the complexity of duplicated genomes. In polyploids, the patterns of purifying selection and adaptive substitutions may be affected by masking owing to duplicated genes or homeologs as well as effective population size. Here, we resequence 25 accessions of the allotetraploid Arabidopsis kamchatica, which is derived from the diploid species A. halleri and A. lyrata. We...

Data from: Strong responses from weakly interacting species

Sean Tuck, Janielle Porter, Mark Rees, Lindsay A. Turnbull & Sean L. Tuck
The impact of species loss from competitive communities partly depends on how populations of the surviving species respond. Predicting the response should be straightforward using models that describe population growth as a function of competitor densities; but these models require accurate estimates of interaction strengths. Here, we quantified how well we could predict responses to competitor removal in a community of annual plants, using a combination of observation and experiment. It was straightforward to fit...

Data from: Background selection and biased gene conversion affect more than 95% of the human genome and bias demographic inferences

Fanny Pouyet, Simon Aeschbacher, Alexandre Thiéry & Laurent Excoffier
Disentangling the effect on genomic diversity of natural selection from that of demography is notoriously difficult, but necessary to properly reconstruct the history of species. Here, we use high-quality human genomic data to show that purifying selection at linked sites (i.e. background selection, BGS) and GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC) together affect as much as 95% of the variants of our genome. We find that the magnitude and relative importance of BGS and gBGC are largely...

Data from: High mutation rates limit evolutionary adaptation in Escherichia coli

Kathleen Sprouffske, José Aguilar-Rodríguez, Paul Sniegowski & Andreas Wagner
Mutation is fundamental to evolution, because it generates the genetic variation on which selection can act. In nature, genetic changes often increase the mutation rate in systems that range from viruses and bacteria to human tumors. Such an increase promotes the accumulation of frequent deleterious or neutral alleles, but it can also increase the chances that a population acquires rare beneficial alleles. Here, we study how up to 100-fold increases in Escherichia coli’s genomic mutation...

Data from: Palaeobiogeographical structuration of Smithian (Early Triassic) ammonoid faunas within the western USA basin and its controlling parameters

Romain Jattiot, Arnaud Brayard, Hugo Bucher, Emmanuelle Vennin, Gwénaël Caravaca, James F. Jenks, Kevin G. Bylund & Gilles Escarguel
We present the first quantitative palaeobiogeographical analysis in terms of distribution and abundance of Early Triassic ammonoids from the western USA basin during the Smithian, c. 1 myr after the Permian–Triassic boundary mass extinction. The faunal dataset consists of a taxonomically homogenized compilation of spatial and temporal occurrences and abundances from 27 sections distributed within the western USA basin. Two complementary multivariate techniques were applied to identify the main biogeographical structuring recorded in the analysed...

Registration Year

  • 2018

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Zurich
  • University of Basel
  • University of Oxford
  • Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics
  • Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research
  • University of Minnesota
  • German Center for Integrative Biodiversity Research
  • University of Kentucky
  • Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich