64 Works

Data from: Palaeobiogeographical structuration of Smithian (Early Triassic) ammonoid faunas within the western USA basin and its controlling parameters

Romain Jattiot, Arnaud Brayard, Hugo Bucher, Emmanuelle Vennin, Gwénaël Caravaca, James F. Jenks, Kevin G. Bylund & Gilles Escarguel
We present the first quantitative palaeobiogeographical analysis in terms of distribution and abundance of Early Triassic ammonoids from the western USA basin during the Smithian, c. 1 myr after the Permian–Triassic boundary mass extinction. The faunal dataset consists of a taxonomically homogenized compilation of spatial and temporal occurrences and abundances from 27 sections distributed within the western USA basin. Two complementary multivariate techniques were applied to identify the main biogeographical structuring recorded in the analysed...

Data from: Study of morphological variation of northern Neotropical Ariidae reveals conservatism despite macrohabitat transitions

Madlen Stange, Gabriel Aguirre-Fernández, Walter Salzburger & Marcelo R. Sánchez-Villagra
Background: Morphological convergence triggered by trophic adaptations is a common pattern in adaptive radiations. The study of shape variation in an evolutionary context is usually restricted to well-studied fish models. We take advantage of the recently revised systematics of New World Ariidae and investigate skull shape evolution in six genera of northern Neotropical Ariidae. They constitute a lineage that diversified in the marine habitat but repeatedly adapted to freshwater habitats. 3D geometric morphometrics was applied...

Data from: Replicated latitudinal clines in reproductive traits of European and North American yellow dung flies

Stephanie S. Bauerfeind, Martin A. Schäfer, David Berger, Wolf U. Blanckenhorn & Charles W. Fox
Geographic variation in phenotypic traits is commonly correlated with spatial variation in the environment, e.g., seasonality and mean temperature, providing evidence that natural selection generates such patterns. In particular, both body size and egg size of ectothermic animals are commonly larger in northern climates, and temperature induces plastic responses in both traits. Size-independent egg quality can also vary with latitude, though this is rarely investigated. For the widespread yellow dung fly (Scathophaga stercoraria; Diptera: Scathophagidae),...

Data from: Moving in the Anthropocene: global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

Marlee A. Tucker, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, William F. Fagan, John M. Fryxell, Bram Van Moorter, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Andrew M. Allen, Nina Attias, Tal Avgar, Hattie Bartlam-Brooks, Buuveibaatar Bayarbaatar, Jerrold L. Belant, Alessandra Bertassoni, Dean Beyer, Laura Bidner, Floris M. Van Beest, Stephen Blake, Niels Blaum, Chloe Bracis, Danielle Brown, P. J. Nico De Bruyn, Francesca Cagnacci, Justin M. Calabrese, Constança Camilo-Alves … & Thomas Mueller
Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral...

Data from: Numerical response of mammalian carnivores to rodents affects bird reproduction in temperate forests: a case of apparent competition?

Alexander Grendelmeier, Raphaël Arlettaz, Gilberto Pasinelli & Alex Grendelmeier
Resource pulses such as mast seeding in temperate forests may affect interspecific interactions over multiple trophic levels and link different seed and non-seed consumers directly via predation or indirectly via shared predators. However, the nature and strength of interactions among species remain unknown for most resource pulse driven ecosystems. We considered five hypotheses concerning the influence of resource pulses on the interactions between rodents, predators and bird reproduction with data from northern Switzerland collected between...

Data from: Anisian (Middle Triassic) ammonoids from British Columbia (Canada): biochronological and palaeobiogeographic implications

Cheng Ji & Hugo Bucher
New Anisian (Middle Triassic) ammonoids are reported from British Columbia (BC), Canada. Eight species are reported, including one new genus and two new species: Eufrechites roopnarini gen. et sp. nov. and Parafrechites cordeyi sp. nov. New ammonoid subzones are recognized, leading to improved correlation between BC and Nevada: the Hollandites minor Zone is correlated with the interval intercalated between the Unionvillites hadleyi Subzone and the Pseudodanubites nicholsi Subzone; an Eogymnotoceras thompsoni - Anagymnotoceras spivaki Zone...

Data from: Quantifying climate sensitivity and climate-driven change in North American amphibian communities

David A. W. Miller, Evan H. Campbell Grant, Erin Muths, Staci M. Amburgey, Michael J. Adams, Maxwell B. Joseph, J. Hardin Waddle, Pieter T. J. Johnson, Maureen E. Ryan, Benedikt R. Schmidt, Daniel L. Calhoun, Courtney L. Davis, Robert N. Fisher, David M. Green, Blake R. Hossack, Tracy A. G. Rittenhouse, Susan C. Walls, Larissa L. Bailey, Sam S. Cruickshank, Gary M. Fellers, Thomas A. Gorman, Carola A. Haas, Ward Hughson, David S. Pilliod, Steven J. Price … & Brent H. Sigafus
Changing climate will impact species’ ranges only when environmental variability directly impacts the demography of local populations. However, measurement of demographic responses to climate change has largely been limited to single species and locations. Here we show that amphibian communities are responsive to climatic variability, using >500,000 time-series observations for 81 species across 86 North American study areas. The effect of climate on local colonization and persistence probabilities varies among eco-regions and depends on local...

Data from: Predation risk shaped by habitat and landscape complexity in urban environments

David Frey, Kevin Vega, Florian Zellweger, Jaboury Ghazoul, Dennis Hansen & Marco Moretti
1. Habitat loss and modification are hallmarks of anthropogenic ecosystems, but the consequences for ecosystem functions and services often remain unclear. Understanding these links in cities is complicated by strong but fine-scale differences in habitat structure among green space patches, and a high variance in habitat amount across urban landscapes. 2. We used airborne laser scanning (ALS) data to disentangle the effects of 3D woody habitat heterogeneity of urban home gardens, and woody habitat amount...

Data from: Urban colonization through multiple genetic lenses: the city-fox phenomenon revisited

Alexandra L. DeCandia, Kristin E. Brzeski, Elizabeth Heppenheimer, Catherine V. Caro, Glauco Camenisch, Peter Wandeler, Carlos Driscoll & Bridgett M. VonHoldt
Urbanization is driving environmental change on a global scale, creating novel environments for wildlife to colonize. Through a combination of stochastic and selective processes, urbanization is also driving evolutionary change. For instance, difficulty traversing human-modified landscapes may isolate newly established populations from rural sources, while novel selective pressures, such as altered disease risk, toxicant exposure, and light pollution, may further diverge populations through local adaptation. Assessing the evolutionary consequences of urban colonization and the processes...

Data from: Experimental signal dissection and method sensitivity analyses reaffirm the potential of fossils and morphology in the resolution of the relationship of angiosperms and Gnetales

Mario Coiro, Guillaume Chomicki & James A. Doyle
The placement of angiosperms and Gnetales in seed plant phylogeny remains one of the most enigmatic problems in plant evolution, with morphological analyses (which have usually included fossils) and molecular analyses pointing to very distinct topologies. Almost all morphology-based phylogenies group angiosperms with Gnetales and certain extinct seed plant lineages, while most molecular phylogenies link Gnetales with conifers. In this study, we investigate the phylogenetic signal present in published seed plant morphological datasets. We use...

Data from: Evidence for nonconsumptive effects from a large predator in an ungulate prey?

Benedikt Gehr, Elizabeth J. Hofer, Andreas Ryser, Eric Vimercati, Kristina Vogt & Lukas F. Keller
Pedators can indirectly affect prey survival and reproduction by evoking costly anti-predator responses. Such non-consumptive effects may be as strong or stronger than consumptive predator effects. However, evidence for this in large terrestrial vertebrate systems is equivocal and few studies quantify the actual fitness costs of non-consumptive effects. Here we investigated whether non-consumptive effects elicited by Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), a large terrestrial predator, reduced survival in an ungulate prey, the European roe deer (Capreolus...

Data from: The diversity of population responses to environmental change

Fernando Colchero, Owen R. Jones, Dalia A. Conde, Dave Hodgson, Felix Zajitschek, Benedikt R. Schmidt, Aurelio F. Malo, Susan C. Alberts, Peter H. Becker, Sandra Bouwhuis, Anne M. Bronikowski, Kristel M. De Vleeschouwer, Richard J. Delahay, Stefan Dummermuth, Eduardo Fernández-Duque, John Frisenvænge, Martin Hesselsøe, Sam Larson, Jean-Francois Lemaitre, Jennifer McDonald, David A.W. Miller, Colin O'Donnell, Craig Packer, Becky E. Raboy, Christopher J. Reading … & Chris J. Reading
The current extinction and climate change crises pressure us to predict population dynamics with ever-greater accuracy. Although predictions rest on the well-advanced theory of age-structured populations, two key issues remain poorly-explored. Specifically, how the age-dependency in demographic rates and the year-to-year interactions between survival and fecundity affect stochastic population growth rates. We use inference, simulations, and mathematical derivations to explore how environmental perturbations determine population growth rates for populations with different age-specific demographic rates and...

Data from: Small-scale spatial variation in infection risk shapes the evolution of a Borrelia resistance gene in wild rodents

Luca Cornetti, Daniela Hilfiker, Mélissa Lemoine & Barbara Tschirren
Spatial variation in pathogen-mediated selection is predicted to influence the evolutionary trajectory of host populations and lead to spatial variation in their immunogenetic composition. However, to date few studies have been able to directly link small-scale spatial variation in infection risk to host immune gene evolution in natural, non-human populations. Here we use a natural rodent-Borrelia system to test for associations between landscape-level spatial variation in Borrelia infection risk along replicated elevational gradients in the...

Data from: Intransitive competition is common across five major taxonomic groups and is driven by productivity, competitive rank and functional traits.

Santiago Soliveres, Anika Lehmann, Steffen Boch, Florian Altermatt, Francesco Carrara, Thomas W. Crowther, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Anne Kempel, Daniel S. Maynard, Matthias C. Rillig, Brajesh K. Singh, Pankaj Trivedi & Eric Allan
1. Competition can be fully hierarchical or intransitive, and this degree of hierarchy is driven by multiple factors, including environmental conditions, the functional traits of the species involved or the topology of competition networks. Studies simultaneously analyzing these drivers of competition hierarchy are rare. Additionally, organisms compete either directly or via interference competition for resources or space, within a local neighbourhood or across the habitat. Therefore, the drivers of competition could change accordingly and depend...

Data from: Daphnia invest in sexual reproduction when its relative costs are reduced

Nina Gerber, Hanna Kokko, Dieter Ebert & Isobel Booksmythe
The timing of sex in facultatively sexual organisms is critical to fitness, due to the differing demographic consequences of sexual vs. asexual reproduction. In addition to the costs of sex itself, an association of sex with the production of dormant life stages also influences the optimal use of sex, especially in environments where resting eggs are essential to survive unfavourable conditions. Here we document population dynamics and the occurrence of sexual reproduction in natural populations...

Data from: Resilience of seed production to a severe El Niño‐induced drought across functional groups and dispersal types

Michael J. O'Brien, Daniel Peréz-Aviles & Jennifer S. Powers
More frequent and severe El Niño Southern Oscillations (ENSO) are causing episodic periods of decreased rainfall. Although the effects of these ENSO-induced droughts on tree growth and mortality have been well studied, the impacts on other demographic rates such as reproduction are less well known. We use a four-year seed rain dataset encompassing the most severe ENSO-induced drought in more than 30 years to assess the resilience (i.e. resistance and recovery) of the seed composition...

Data from: Plant life history stage and nurse age change the development of ecological networks in an arid ecosystem

Gianalberto Losapio, Francisco I. Pugnaire, Michael J. O'Brien & Christian Schöb
Understanding how ecological networks are organised over the course of an organism’s lifetime is crucial for predicting the dynamics of interacting populations and communities across temporal scales. However, most studies so far considered only one life history stage at a time, such as adult, when studying networks of interacting species. Therefore, knowledge about how multiple life history stages affect the development and stability of plant–plant association networks is lacking. We measured the understory adult plant...

Data from: Reverse audience effects on helping in cooperatively breeding marmoset monkeys

Rahel K. Brügger, Theresa Kappeler-Schmalzriedt & Judith M. Burkart
Cooperatively breeding common marmosets show substantial variation in the amount of help they provide. Pay-to-stay and social prestige models of helping attribute this variation to audience effects, i.e. that individuals help more if group members can witness their interactions with immatures, whereas models of kin selection, group augmentation, or ones stressing the need to gain parenting experience do not predict any audience effects. We quantified the readiness of adult marmosets to share food in the...

Data from: Plant interactions shape pollination networks via nonadditive effects

Gianalberto Losapio, Miguel A. Fortuna, Jordi Bascompte, Bernhard Schmid, Richard Michalet, Rainer Neumeyer, Leopoldo Castro, Pierfilippo Cerretti, Christoph Germann, Jean-Paul Haenni, Seraina Klopfstein, Francisco Javier Ortiz-Sánchez, Adrian C. Pont, Pascal Rousse, Jürg Schmid, Daniele Sommaggio & Christian Schöb
Plants grow in communities where they interact with other plants and with other living organisms such as pollinators. On the one hand, studies of plant–plant interactions rarely consider how plants interact with other trophic levels such as pollinators. On the other, studies of plant–animal interactions rarely deal with interactions within trophic levels such as plant–plant competition and facilitation. Thus, to what degree plant interactions affect biodiversity and ecological networks across trophic levels is poorly understood....

Data from: Evaluating alternative explanations for an association of extinction risk and evolutionary uniqueness in multiple insular lineages.

Ben H. Warren, Oskar Hagen, Florian Gerber, Christophe Thebaud, Emmanuel Paradis & Elena Conti
Studies in insular environments have often documented a positive association of extinction risk and evolutionary uniqueness (i.e. how distant a species is from its closest living relative). However, the cause of this association is unclear. One explanation is that species threatened with extinction are evolutionarily unique because they are old, implying that extinction risk increases with time since speciation (age-dependent extinction). An alternative explanation is that such threatened species are last survivors of clades that...

Data from: Male monkeys use punishment and coercion to de-escalate costly intergroup fights

T. Jean M. Arseneau-Robar, Eliane Müller, Anouk L. Taucher, Carel P. Van Schaik, Redouan Bshary & Erik P. Willems
In numerous social species, males direct aggression towards female group members during intergroup fights, and this behaviour is commonly thought to function as mate guarding, even though males often target non-receptive females. In studying intergroup fights in a wild population of vervet monkeys, we found that male intragroup aggression was primarily directed towards individuals who had either just finished exhibiting, or were currently attempting to instigate intergroup aggression. Targeted females were less likely to instigate...

Data from: Assessing canalisation of intraspecific variation on a macroevolutionary scale: the case of crinoid arms through the Phanerozoic

Catalina Pimiento, Kit Lam Tang, Samuel Zamora, Christian Klug & Marcelo Ricardo Sánchez-Villagra
Pictures of Crinoid Specimens 1Pictures of species with names that start with the letters A-Ccrinoids_1.zipPictures of Crinoid Specimens 2Pictures of species with names that start with the letters D-Ocrinoids_2.zipPictures of Crinoid Specimens 3Pictures of species with names that start with the letter Pcrinoids_3.zipPictures of Crinoid Specimens 4Pictures of species with names that start with the letters S-Zcrinoids_4.zip

Data from: Structural and defensive roles of angiosperm leaf venation network reticulation across an Andes-Amazon elevation gradient

Benjamin Blonder, Norma Salinas, Lisa Patrick Bentley, Alexander Shenkin, Percy Orlando Chambi Porroa, Yolvi Valdez Tejeira, Tatiana Erika Boza Espinoza, Gregory R. Goldsmith, Lucas Enrico, Roberta Martin, Gregory P. Asner, Sandra Díaz, Brian J. Enquist & Yadvinder Malhi
1.The network of minor veins of angiosperm leaves may include loops (reticulation). Variation in network architecture has been hypothesized to have hydraulic and also structural and defensive functions. 2.We measured venation network trait space in eight dimensions for 136 biomass-dominant angiosperm tree species along a 3,300 m elevation gradient in southeastern Peru. We then examined the relative importance of multiple ecological, and evolutionary predictors of reticulation. 3.Variation in minor venation network reticulation was constrained to...

Data from: Sex-specific additive genetic variances and correlations for fitness in a song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) population subject to natural immigration and inbreeding

Matthew Ernest Wolak, Peter Arcese, Lukas F. Keller, Pirmin Nietlisbach & Jane M. Reid
Quantifying sex-specific additive genetic variance (VA) in fitness, and the cross-sex genetic correlation (rA), is prerequisite to predicting evolutionary dynamics and the magnitude of sexual conflict. Further, quantifying VA and rA in underlying fitness components, and genetic consequences of immigration and resulting gene flow, is required to identify mechanisms that maintain VA in fitness. However, these key parameters have rarely been estimated in wild populations experiencing natural environmental variation and immigration. We used comprehensive pedigree...

Data from: Ramalina sarahae (Ramalinaceae), a new species from the Channel Islands of California, U.S.A.

Kerry Knudsen, James C. Lendemer & Jana Kocourková
Ramalina sarahae is described as new to science and considered to be closely related to the widespread R. lacera. It has a cortex without chondroid strands but differs from R. lacera in having a densely caespitose thallus of thin branches with only pseudocyphellae. The species is considered to be naturally rare, occurring in a small area of San Miguel Island in southern California, and on San Nicolas Island. Currently eight species of Ramalina are known...

Registration Year

  • 2018

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Zurich
  • University of Basel
  • University of Oxford
  • Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics
  • Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research
  • University of Minnesota
  • German Center for Integrative Biodiversity Research
  • University of Kentucky
  • Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich