Data from: High-density cultivation of microalgae continuously fed with unfiltered water from a recirculating aquaculture systemSophia Egloff, Fridolin Tschudi, Zala Schmautz & Dominik Refardt
Water from recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) has been shown to be a suitable growth medium for microalgae and their cultivation can, therefore, be used to reduce RAS emissions. However, while efficient wastewater treatment is possible, the nutrient content of RAS water limits attainable microalgae biomass densities to 1–2 g l−1 at best, which requires frequent harvesting of microalgae. We have taken advantage of the constant evaporation of water from an open thin-layer photobioreactor (200 l...
Data from: Geographic clines in wing morphology relate to colonization history in New World but not Old World populations of yellow dung fliesMartin A. Schaefer, David Berger, Patrick T. Rohner, Anders Kjaersgaard, Stephanie S. Bauerfeind, Frédéric Guillaume, Charles W. Fox, Wolf Blanckenhorn & Wolf U. Blanckenhorn
Geographic clines offer insights about putative targets and agents of natural selection as well as tempo and mode of adaptation. However, demographic processes can lead to clines that are indistinguishable from adaptive divergence. Using the widespread yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae), we examine quantitative genetic differentiation (QST) of wing shape across North America, Europe and Japan, and compare this differentiation with that of ten microsatellites (FST). Morphometric analyses of 28 populations reared at...
Data from: Species divergence and maintenance of species cohesion of three closely related Primula species in the Qinghai-Tibet PlateauGuangpeng Ren, Rubén G. Mateo, Antoine Guisan, Elena Conti & Nicolas Salamin
Aim: Understanding the relative roles of geography and ecology in driving speciation, population divergence and maintenance of species cohesion is of great interest to molecular ecology. Closely related species that are parapatrically distributed in mountainous areas provide an ideal model to evaluate these key issues, especially when genomic data are analyzed within a spatially and ecologically explicit context. Here we used three closely related species of Primula that occur in the Himalayas, the Hengduan Mountains...
Data from: The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa senses and gradually responds to inter-specific competition for ironAnne Leinweber, Michael Weigert & Rolf Kümmerli
Phenotypic plasticity in response to competition is a well-described phenomenon in higher organisms. Here, we show that also bacteria have the ability to sense the presence of competitors and mount fine-tuned responses to match prevailing levels of competition. In our experiments, we studied inter-specific competition for iron between the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) and its competitor Burkholderia cenocepacia (BC). We focused on the ability of PA to phenotypically adjust the production of pyoverdine, an iron-scavenging...
Data from: Positive effects of liana cutting on seedlings are reduced during El Niño-induced droughtMichael J. O'Brien, Christopher D. Philipson, Glen Reynolds, Dzaeman Dzulkifli, Jake L. Snaddon, Robert Ong & Andy Hector
1. Liana cutting is a management practice currently applied to encourage seedling regeneration and tree growth in some logged tropical forests. However, there is limited empirical evidence of its effects on forest demographic rates in Southeast Asia. 2. We used 22 four-hectare plots in the Sabah Biodiversity Experiment (a reduced impact logging site) enrichment line planted with 16 dipterocarp species to assess the effects of complete liana cutting on tree growth and survival. We compared...
Data from: Internal cranial anatomy of Early Triassic species of †Saurichthys (Actinopterygii: †Saurichthyiformes): implications for the phylogenetic placement of †saurichthyiformsThodoris Argyriou, Sam Giles, Matt Friedman, Carlo Romano, Ilja Kogan & Marcelo R. Sanchez-Villagra
Background: †Saurichthyiformes was a successful group of latest Permian-Middle Jurassic predatory actinopterygian fishes and constituted important and widely-distributed components of Triassic marine and freshwater faunas. Their systematic affinities have long been debated, with †saurichthyiforms often being aligned with chondrosteans, a group today comprising sturgeons and paddlefishes. However, their character-rich endocranial anatomy has not been investigated in detail since the first half of the 20th century. Since that time, major advances have occurred in terms of...
Data from: Predator size and prey size-gut capacity ratios determine kill frequency and carcass production in terrestrial carnivorous mammalsAnnelies De Cuyper, Marcus Clauss, Chris Carbone, Daryl Codron, An Cools, Myriam Hesta & Geert P. J. Janssens
Carnivore kill frequency is a fundamental part of predator-prey interactions, which are important shapers of ecosystems. Current field kill frequency data are rare and existing models are insufficiently adapted to carnivore functional groups. We developed a kill frequency model accounting for carnivore mass, prey mass, pack size, partial consumption of prey and carnivore gut capacity. Two main carnivore functional groups, small prey-feeders vs large prey-feeders, were established based on the relationship between stomach capacity (C)...
Data from: Batch effects in a multi-year sequencing study: false biological trends due to changes in read lengthsDeborah M. Leigh, Heidi E.L. Lischer, Christine Grossen & Lukas F. Keller
High-throughput sequencing is a powerful tool, but suffers biases and errors that must be accounted for to prevent false biological conclusions. Such errors include batch effects, technical errors only present in subsets of data due to procedural changes within a study. If overlooked and multiple batches of data are combined, spurious biological signals can arise, particularly if batches of data are correlated with biological variables. Batch effects can be minimized through randomisation of sample groups...
Data from: Background selection and biased gene conversion affect more than 95% of the human genome and bias demographic inferencesFanny Pouyet, Simon Aeschbacher, Alexandre Thiéry & Laurent Excoffier
Disentangling the effect on genomic diversity of natural selection from that of demography is notoriously difficult, but necessary to properly reconstruct the history of species. Here, we use high-quality human genomic data to show that purifying selection at linked sites (i.e. background selection, BGS) and GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC) together affect as much as 95% of the variants of our genome. We find that the magnitude and relative importance of BGS and gBGC are largely...
The impact of species loss from competitive communities partly depends on how populations of the surviving species respond. Predicting the response should be straightforward using models that describe population growth as a function of competitor densities; but these models require accurate estimates of interaction strengths. Here, we quantified how well we could predict responses to competitor removal in a community of annual plants, using a combination of observation and experiment. It was straightforward to fit...
Data from: Patterns of polymorphism and selection in the subgenomes of the allopolyploid Arabidopsis kamchaticaTimothy Paape, Roman V. Briskine, Gwyneth Halstead-Nussloch, Heidi E. L. Lischer, Rie Shimizu-Inatsugi, Masaomi Hatekayama, Kenta Tanaka, Tomoaki Nishiyama, Renat Sabirov, Jun Sese & Kentaro K. Shimizu
Genome duplication is widespread in wild and crop plants. However, little is known about genome-wide selection in polyploids due to the complexity of duplicated genomes. In polyploids, the patterns of purifying selection and adaptive substitutions may be affected by masking owing to duplicated genes or homeologs as well as effective population size. Here, we resequence 25 accessions of the allotetraploid Arabidopsis kamchatica, which is derived from the diploid species A. halleri and A. lyrata. We...
Mutation is fundamental to evolution, because it generates the genetic variation on which selection can act. In nature, genetic changes often increase the mutation rate in systems that range from viruses and bacteria to human tumors. Such an increase promotes the accumulation of frequent deleterious or neutral alleles, but it can also increase the chances that a population acquires rare beneficial alleles. Here, we study how up to 100-fold increases in Escherichia coli’s genomic mutation...
Sex is ancestral in eukaryotes. Meiotic sex differs from bacterial ways of exchanging genetic material by involving the fusion of two cells. We examine the hypothesis that fusion evolved in early eukaryotes because it was directly beneficial, rather than a passive side-effect of meiotic sex. We assume that the uptake of (proto)mitochondria into eukaryotes preceded the evolution of cell fusion, and that Muller’s ratchet operating within symbiont lineages led to the accumulation of lineage-specific sets...
Data from: UV bullseye contrast of Hemerocallis flowers attracts hawkmoths but not swallowtail butterfliesShun K. Hirota, Nozomu Miki, Akiko A. Yasumoto & Tetsukazu Yahara
The colour and patterns of animal-pollinated flowers are known to have effects on pollinator attraction. In this study, the relative importance of flower colour and colour contrast patterns on pollinator attraction was examined in two pollinator groups, swallowtail butterflies and hawkmoths using two Hemerocallis species; butterfly-pollinated H. fulva and hawkmoth-pollinated H. citrina, having reddish and yellowish flowers in human vision, respectively. Flowers of both species have UV bullseye patterns, composed of UV-absorbing centres and UV-reflecting...
University of Zurich64
University of Basel6
University of Oxford6
Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics4
Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research3
University of Minnesota3
German Center for Integrative Biodiversity Research3
University of Kentucky3
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research3
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich3