47 Works

Data from: Urbanization and the temporal patterns of social networks and group foraging behaviours

Teri B. Jones, Julian C. Evans & Julie Morand-Ferron
Urbanization causes dramatic and rapid changes to natural environments, which can lead the animals inhabiting these habitats to adjust their behavioral responses. For social animals, urbanized environments may alter group social dynamics through modification of the external environment (e.g., resource distribution). This might lead to changes in how individuals associate or engage in group behaviors, which could alter the stability and characteristics of social groups. However, the potential impacts of urban habitat use, and of...

Data from: Understanding policing as a mechanism of cheater control in cooperating bacteria

Tobias Wechsler, Rolf Kümmerli & Akos Dobay
Policing occurs in insect, animal and human societies, where it evolved as a mechanism maintaining cooperation. Recently, it has been suggested that policing might even be relevant in enforcing cooperation in much simpler organisms such as bacteria. Here, we used individual‐based modelling to develop an evolutionary concept for policing in bacteria, and identify the conditions under which it can be adaptive. We modelled interactions between cooperators, producing a beneficial public good, cheaters exploiting the public...

Data from: 5α-cyprinol sulfate, a bile salt from fish, induces diel vertical migration in Daphnia

Meike A. Hahn, Christoph Effertz, Laurent Bigler & Eric Von Elert
Prey are under selection to minimize predation losses. In aquatic environments many prey use chemical cues released by predators, which initiate predator-avoidance. A prominent example of behavioural predator-avoidance constitutes diel vertical migration (DVM) in the freshwater microcrustacean Daphnia spp., which is induced by chemical cues (kairomones) released by planktivorous fish. In a bioassay-guided approach using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry we isolated the kairomone from fish incubation water and identified it as 5α-cyprinol sulfate inducing...

Data from: Red and orange flags for secondary headaches in clinical practice: SNNOOP10 list

Thien Phu Do, Angelique Remmers, Henrik Winther Schytz, Christoph Schankin, Sarah E. Nelson, Mark Obermann, Jakob Møller Hansen, Alexandra J. Sinclair, Andreas R. Ganteinbein & Guus G. Schoonman
A minority of headache patients have a secondary headache disorder. The medical literature presents and promotes red flags to increase the likelihood of identifying a secondary etiology. In this review, we aim to discuss the incidence and prevalence of secondary headaches as well as the data on sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of red flags for secondary headaches. We review the following red flags: (1) systemic symptoms including fever; (2) neoplasm history; (3) neurologic deficit...

Autoantibodies against the prion protein in individuals with PRNP mutations

Karl Frontzek, Manfredi Carta, Marco Losa, Mirka Epskamp, Georg Meisl, Alice Anane, Jean-Philippe Brandel, Ulrike Camenisch, Joaquín Castilla, Stéphane Haïk, Tuomas Knowles, Ewald Lindner, Andreas Lutterotti, Eric Vallabh Minikel, Ignazio Roiter, Jiri G. Safar, Raquel Sanchez-Valle, Dana Žáková, Simone Hornemann & Adriano Aguzzi
Objective. To determine whether naturally occurring autoantibodies against the prion protein are present in individuals with genetic prion disease mutations and controls, and if so, whether they are protective against prion disease. Methods. In this case-control study, we collected 124 blood samples from individuals with a variety of pathogenicPRNPmutations and 78 control individuals with a positive family history of genetic prion disease but lacking disease-associatedPRNPmutations. Antibody reactivity was measured using an indirect ELISA for the...

Intergroup aggression in meerkats

Mark Dyble, Thomas Houslay, Marta Manser & Tim Clutton-Brock
Violent conflicts between groups have been observed among many species of group living mammals and can have important fitness consequences, with individuals being injured or killed and with losing groups surrendering territory. Here, we explore between-group conflict among meerkats (Suricata suricatta), a highly social and cooperatively breeding mongoose. We show that interactions between meerkat groups are frequently 18 aggressive and sometimes escalate to fighting and lethal violence and that these interactions have consequences for group...

Data from: Male-only care and cuckoldry in black coucals: does parenting hamper sex life?

Ignas Safari, Wolfgang Goymann & Hanna Kokko
Providing parental care often reduces additional mating opportunities. Paternal care becomes easier to understand if trade-offs between mating and caring remain mild. The black coucal Centropus grillii combines male-only parental care with 50% of all broods containing young sired by another male. To understand how much caring for offspring reduces a male’s chance to sire additional young in other males’ nests, we matched the production of extra-pair young in each nest with the periods during...

Data from: Nonlinear effects of intraspecific competition alter landscape-wide scaling up of ecosystem function

Chelsea Jean Little, Emanuel A. Fronhofer & Florian Altermatt
A major focus of ecology is to understand and predict ecosystem function across scales. Many ecosystem functions are only measured at local scales, while their effects occur at a landscape level. Here, we investigate how landscape-scale predictions of ecosystem function depend on intraspecific competition, a fine-scale process, by manipulating intraspecific density of shredding macroinvertebrates and examining effects on leaf litter decomposition, a key function in freshwater ecosystems. For two species, we found that per-capita leaf...

Data from: Drought decreases cooperative sentinel behaviour and affects vocal coordination in meerkats

Ramona Rauber, Tim H. Clutton-Brock & Marta B. Manser
Cooperative breeding often evolved in harsh and arid habitats characterised by high levels of environmental uncertainty. Most forms of cooperative behaviour have energetic costs and previous studies have shown that the contributions of individuals to alloparental provisioning are conditional on the food intake of individuals. However, the effect of naturally occurring, extreme environmental conditions on the persistence of costly forms of cooperative behaviours and their coordination by communication remain unknown. Here, we show that in...

Drivers of large-scale geographical variation in sexual systems of woody plants

Yunyun Wang, Tong Lyu, Nawal Shrestha, Lisha Lyu, Yaoqi Li, Bernhard Schmid, Robert Freckleton, Dimitar Dimitrov, Shuguang Liu, Zhanqing Hao & Zhiheng Wang
Aim: Sexual systems strongly influence angiosperm evolution, and play important roles in community assembly and species responses to climate change. However, geographical variation in proportions of different sexual systems (dioecy, monoecy, and hermaphroditism) in response to changes in climate, life-history traits and evolutionary age remains poorly understood. Here, we map the geographical variation in proportions of different sexual systems and hypothesize that the prevalence of hermaphrodites increases with aridity due to their advantages in colonizing...

Terrestrial land-cover type richness is positively linked to landscape-level functioning

Jacqueline Oehri, Bernhard Schmid, Gabriela Schaepman-Strub & Pascal A. Niklaus
Biodiversity–ecosystem functioning (BEF) experiments have shown that local species richness promotes ecosystem functioning and stability. Whether this also applies under real-world conditions is still debated. Here, we focus on larger scales of space, time and ecological organization. We develop a quasi-experimental design in which we relate land-cover type richness as measure of landscape richness to 17-year time series of satellite-sensed functioning in 4,974 landscape plots 6.25 or 25 ha in size. We choose plots so...

Data from: Pollen analogues are transported across greater distances in bee-pollinated than in hummingbird-pollinated species of Justicia (Acanthaceae)

Alexander N. Schmidt-Lebuhn, Matthias Muller, Paola Pozo, Francisco Encinas-Viso & Michael Kessler
Several hummingbird-pollinated plant lineages have been demonstrated to show increased rates of diversification compared to related insect-pollinated lineages. It has been argued that this pattern is produced by a higher degree of specialization on part of both hummingbirds and plants. We here test an alternative hypothesis: The often highly territorial hummingbirds may on average carry pollen over shorter distances than other pollinators and drive diversification by reducing gene flow distances. We present experimental data from...

Data from: Does thermal plasticity align with local adaptation? – An interspecific comparison of wing morphology in sepsid flies

Patrick T. Rohner, Jeannine Roy, Martin A. Schäfer, Wolf U. Blanckenhorn & David Berger
Although genetic and plastic responses are sometimes considered as unrelated processes, their phenotypic effects may often align because genetic adaptation is expected to mirror phenotypic plasticity if adaptive, but run counter to it when maladaptive. The magnitude and direction of this alignment has further consequences for both the tempo and mode of adaptation. To better understand the interplay between phenotypic plasticity and genetic change in mediating adaptive phenotypic variation to climate variability, we here quantified...

Data from: Island woodiness underpins accelerated disparification in plant radiations

Nicolai M. Nürk, Guy W. Atchison & Colin E. Hughes
The evolution of secondary (insular) woodiness and the rapid disparification of plant growth forms associated with island radiations show intriguing parallels between oceanic islands and tropical alpine sky islands. However, the evolutionary significance of these phenomena remains poorly understood and the focus of debate. We explore the evolutionary dynamics of species diversification and trait disparification across evolutionary radiations in contrasting island systems compared to their non‐island relatives. We estimate rates of species diversification, growth form...

Plant responses to diversity-driven selection and associated rhizosphere microbial communities

Cameron Wagg, Terhi Hahl, Sofia Van Moorsel, Marc Schmid, Debra Zuppinger-Dingley & Bernhard Schmid
1. Plant diversity loss can alter plant interactions and rhizosphere microbial communities. These altered interactions in turn exert diversity-driven selection pressures to which plants may respond with phenotypic changes. Diverse plant communities may favour the survival and fitness of individuals with traits that avoid competition. Conversely monocultures may accumulate species-specific pests favouring greater investment in defence traits. Yet it is unknown how altered plant rhizosphere interactions influence the plant diversity-driven selection for altered plant phenotypes....

Data from: The way wear goes – phytolith-based wear on the dentine-enamel system in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus)

Louise F. Martin, Daniela Winkler, Thomas Tütken, Codron Daryl, Annelies De Cuyper, Jean-Michel Hatt & Marcus Clauss
The effect of phytoliths on tooth wear and function has been contested in studies of animal plant interactions. For herbivores whose occlusal chewing surface consists of enamel ridges in dentine tissue, the phytoliths might first erode the softer dentine, exposing the enamel ridges to different occlusal forces and thus leading to enamel wear. To test this hypothesis, we fed guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus; n=36 in 6 groups) for three weeks exclusively on dry or fresh...

Estimating uncertainty in divergence times among three-spined stickleback clades using the multispecies coalescent

Bohao Fang, Juha Merilä, Michael Matschiner & Paolo Momigliano
Incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) can lead to biased divergence time estimates. To explore if and how ILS has influenced the results of a recent study of worldwide phylogeny of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), we estimated divergence times among major clades by applying both a concatenation approach and the multispecies coalescent (MSC) model to single-nucleotide polymorphisms. To further test the influence of different calibration strategies, we applied different calibrations to the root and to younger nodes...

Intraspecific mating system evolution and its effect on complex male secondary sexual traits: does male-male competition increase selection on size or shape?

Julian Baur, Jeannine Roy, Martin A. Schäfer, Nalini Puniamoorthy, Wolf U. Blanckenhorn & Patrick T. Rohner
Sexual selection is generally held responsible for the exceptional diversity in secondary sexual traits in animals. Mating system evolution is therefore expected to profoundly affect the covariation between secondary sexual traits and mating success. While there is such evidence at the interspecific level, data within species remain scarce. We here investigate sexual selection acting on the exaggerated male fore femur and the male wing in the common and widespread dung flies Sepsis punctum and S....

Phylogeography, more than elevation, accounts for sex-chromosome differentiation in Swiss populations of the common frog (Rana temporaria)

Barret Phillips, Nicolas Rodrigues, Alexandra Jansen Van Rensburg & Nicolas Perrin
Sex chromosomes in vertebrates range from highly heteromorphic (as in most birds and mammals) to strictly homomorphic (as in many fishes, amphibians, and non-avian reptiles). Reasons for these contrasted evolutionary trajectories remain unclear, but species such as common frogs with polymorphism in the extent of sex-chromosome differentiation may potentially deliver important clues. By investigating 92 common-frog populations from a wide range of elevations throughout Switzerland, we show that sex-chromosome differentiation strongly correlates with alleles at...

Data from: A novel biomechanical approach for animal behaviour recognition using accelerometers

Pritish Chakravarty, Gabriele Cozzi, Arpat Ozgul & Kamiar Aminian
Data from animal‐borne inertial sensors are widely used to investigate several aspects of an animal's life, such as energy expenditure, daily activity patterns and behaviour. Accelerometer data used in conjunction with machine learning algorithms have been the tool of choice for characterising animal behaviour. Although machine learning models perform reasonably well, they may not rely on meaningful features, nor lend themselves to physical interpretation of the classification rules. This lack of interpretability and control over...

Data from: Cross-species hybridization and the origin of North African date palms

Jonathan M. Flowers, Khaled M. Hazzouri, Muriel Gros-Balthazard, Ziyi Mo, Konstantina Koutroumpa, Andreas Perrakis, Sylvie Ferrand, Hussam S. M. Khierallah, Dorian Q. Fuller, Frederique Aberlenc, Christini Fournaraki & Michael D. Purugganan
Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is a major fruit crop of arid regions that were domesticated 7,000 y ago in the Near or Middle East. This species is cultivated widely in the Middle East and North Africa, and previous population genetic studies have shown genetic differentiation between these regions. We investigated the evolutionary history of P. dactylifera and its wild relatives by resequencing the genomes of date palm varieties and five of its closest relatives....

Capture-recapture data with partially known birth date in four populations of yellow-bellied toads

Hugo Cayuela, Jean-François Lemaître, Eric Bonnaire, Julian Pichenot & Benedikt Schmidt
1. Patterns of actuarial senescence can be highly variable among species. Previous comparative analyses revealed that both age at the onset of senescence and rates of senescence are linked to species position along the fast-slow life-history continuum. As there are few long-term datasets of wild populations with known-age individuals, intraspecific (i.e. between-population) variation in senescence is understudied and limited to comparisons of wild and captive populations of the same species, mostly birds and mammals. 2....

Data from: A selfish genetic element linked to increased lifespan impacts metabolism in female house mice

Patricia C Lopes & Anna K Lindholm
Gene drive systems can lead to the evolution of traits that further enhance the transmission of the driving element. In gene drive, one allele is transmitted to offspring at a higher frequency than the homologous allele. This has a range of consequences, which generally include a reduction in fitness of the carrier of the driving allele, making such systems selfish. The t haplotype is one such driver, found in house mice. It is linked to...

Gene flow limits adaptation along steep environmental gradients

Judith Bachmann, Alexandra Jansen Van Rensburg, Maria Cortazar-Chinarro, Anssi Laurila & Josh Van Buskirk
When environmental variation is spatially continuous, dispersing individuals move among nearby sites with similar habitat conditions. But as an environmental gradient becomes steeper, gene flow may connect more divergent habitats, and this is predicted to reduce the slope of the adaptive cline that evolves. We compared quantitative genetic divergence of Rana temporaria frog populations along a 2000-m elevational gradient in eastern Switzerland (new experimental results) with divergence along a 1550-km latitudinal gradient in Fennoscandia (previously...

Inferring competitive outcomes, ranks and intransitivity from empirical data: A comparison of different methods

Enrica De Luca, Bernhard Schmid, Yanhao Feng, Santiago Soliveres, Eric Allan, Benjamin Rosenbaum, Cameron Wagg, Andrea Tabi, Nico Eisenhauer, Alexandra Weigelt, Wolfgang W. Weisser, Christiane Roscher & Markus Fischer
The inference of pairwise competitive outcomes (PCO) and multispecies competitive ranks and intransitivity from empirical data is essential to evaluate how competition shapes plant communities. Three categories of methods, differing in theoretical background and data requirements, have been used: (a) theoretically sound coexistence theory‐based methods, (b) index‐based methods, and (c) ‘process‐from‐pattern’ methods. However, how they are related is largely unknown. In this study, we explored the relations between the three categories by explicitly comparing three...

Registration Year

  • 2019

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Zurich
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Lausanne
  • Uppsala University
  • Ghent University
  • University of Göttingen
  • University College London
  • University of Ottawa
  • UNSW Sydney
  • University of Bristol