68 Works

Biomes as evolutionary arenas: convergence and conservatism in the trans-continental Succulent Biome

Jens Ringelberg, Niklaus Zimmermann, Andrea Weeks, Matt Lavin & Colin Hughes
Aim: Biomes are globally-distributed, structurally and functionally similar vegetation units, but there is debate about whether these similarities are superficial, and about how biomes are defined and mapped. We propose that combined assessment of evolutionary convergence of plant functional traits and phylogenetic biome conservatism provides a useful approach for characterising biomes. We focus on the little-known succulent biome, a trans-continentally distributed assemblage of succulent-rich, drought-deciduous, fire-free forest, thicket and scrub vegetation as a useful exemplar...

Adaptation to elevation but limited local adaptation in an amphibian

Judith C. Bachmann & Josh Van Buskirk
We performed a reciprocal transplant experiment to estimate “parallel” adaptation to elevation and “unique” adaptation to local sites at the same elevation, using the frog Rana temporaria in the Swiss Alps. It is important to distinguish these two processes because they have different implications for population structure and ecological specialization. Larvae were reared from hatching to metamorphosis within enclosures installed in their pond of origin, in three foreign ponds at the same elevation, and in...

Wildflower strips enhance wild bee reproductive success

Dominik Ganser, Matthias Albrecht & Eva Knop
1. Intensification of agriculture has resulted in a simplification and fragmentation of agroecosystems. Yet, its impact on the reproductive success and population dynamics of wild bees, and how adverse effects can be mitigated, remains poorly understood. 2. We established populations of seven solitary bee species varying in body size in experimentally sown wild flower strips (WFS), existing semi-natural habitats (SNH; forest edges) and isolated sites lacking WFS and SNH in the local surrounding (350 m...

Data for: Immigration counter-acts local micro-evolution of a major fitness component: migration-selection balance in free-living song sparrows

Jane Reid, Peter Arcese, Pirmin Nietlisbach, Matthew Wolak, Stefanie Muff, Lisa Dickel & Lukas Keller
Ongoing adaptive evolution, and resulting ‘evolutionary rescue’ of declining populations, requires additive genetic variation in fitness. Such variation can be increased by gene flow resulting from immigration, potentially facilitating evolution. But, gene flow could in fact constrain rather than facilitate local adaptive evolution if immigrants have low additive genetic values for local fitness. Local migration-selection balance and micro-evolutionary stasis could then result. However, key quantitative genetic effects of natural immigration, comprising the degrees to which...

Genomics of population differentiation in humpback dolphins, Sousa spp. in the Indo-Pacific Ocean

Ana Rita Amaral, Cátia Chanfana, Brian Smith, Rubaiyat Mansur, Tim Collins, Robert Baldwin, Gianna Minton, Guido Parra, Michael Krutzen, Thomas Jefferson, Leszek Karczmarski, Almeida Guissamulo, & Howard Rosenbaum
Speciation is a fundamental process in evolution and crucial to the formation of biodiversity. It is a continuous and complex process, which can involve multiple interacting barriers leading to heterogeneous genomic landscapes with various peaks of divergence among populations. In this study, we used a population genomics approach to gain insights on the speciation process and to understand the population structure within the genus Sousa across its distribution in the Indo-Pacifc region. We found 5...

Bird communities in the Swiss Alps, 1999-2018, abundance data

Vicente García-Navas, Thomas Sattler, Hans Schmid & Arpat Ozgul
Aim: Mountains are biodiversity hotspots and are among the most sensitive eco- systems to ongoing global change being thus of conservation concern. Under this scenario, assessing how biological communities vary over time along elevational gra- dients and the relative effects of niche-based deterministic processes and stochastic events in structuring assemblages is essential. Here, we examined how the temporal trends of bird communities vary with elevation over a 20 year-period (1999–2018). We also tested for differences...

Data from: Life-history dimensions indicate non-random assembly processes in tropical island tree communities

Julian Schrader, Dylan Craven, Cornelia Sattler, Rodrigo Cámara-Leret, Soetjipto Moeljono & Holger Kreft
Community assembly processes on islands are often non-random. The mechanisms behind non-random assembly, however, are generally difficult to disentangle. Functional diversity in combination with a null model approach that accounts for differences in species richness among islands can be used to test for non-random assembly processes, but has been applied rarely to island communities. By linking functional diversity of trees on islands with a null model approach, we bridge this gap and test for the...

Remotely sensed forest understory density and nest predator occurrence interact to predict suitable breeding habitat and the occurrence of a resident boreal bird species

Julian Klein, Paul Haverkamp, Eva Lindberg, Michael Griesser & Sönke Eggers
Habitat suitability models (HSM) based on remotely sensed data are useful tools in conservation work. However, they typically use species occurrence data rather than robust demographic variables, and their predictive power is rarely evaluated. These shortcomings can result in misleading guidance for conservation. Here, we develop and evaluate a HSM based on correlates of long term breeding success of an open nest building boreal forest bird, the Siberian jay. In our study site in northern...

How pulse disturbances shape size-abundance pyramids

Claire Jacquet, Isabelle Gounand & Florian Altermatt
Ecological pyramids represent the distribution of abundance and biomass of living organisms across body-sizes. Our understanding of their expected shape relies on the assumption of invariant steady-state conditions. However, most of the world’s ecosystems experience disturbances that keep them far from such a steady state. Here, using the allometric scaling between population growth rate and body-size, we predict the response of size-abundance pyramids within a trophic guild to any combination of disturbance frequency and intensity...

Data from: State-dependent decision-making by predators and its consequences for mimicry

Thomas G. Aubier & Thomas N. Sherratt
The mimicry of one species by another provides one of the most celebrated examples of evolution by natural selection. Edible Batesian mimics deceive predators into believing they may be defended, whereas defended Müllerian mimics have evolved a shared warning signal, more rapidly educating predators to avoid them. However, it may benefit hungry predators to attack defended prey, while the benefits of learning about unfamiliar prey depends on the future value of this information. Previous energetic...

Sexual size dimorphism is associated with reproductive life history trait differentiation in coexisting sepsid flies

Wolf Blanckenhorn, Julian Baur, Juan Pablo Busso, Athene Giesen, Natalia Gourgoulianni, Nicola Van Koppenhagen, Jeannine Roy, Martin Schäfer, Alexandra Wegmann & Patrick Rohner
Organismal life histories evolve as syndromes, resulting in correlated evolutionary differentiation of key traits that ultimately aid in discerning species. Reproductive success depends both on the absolute body size of an individual and its size relative to the opposite sex: sexual size dimorphism. In an attempt to further elucidate their coexistence and ecological diversification, we compared standard life history (first reproduction, clutch size, egg size) and associated reproductive trait differentiation of 15 widespread European sepsid...

African wild dog dispersal and implications for management

Gabriele Cozzi, Dominik M. Behr, Hugh S. Webster, Megan Claase, Caleb M. Bryce, John W. McNutt & Arpat Ozgul
Successful conservation of species that roam and disperse over large areas requires detailed understanding of their movement patterns and connectivity between subpopulations. But empirical information on movement, space use, and connectivity is lacking for many species, and data acquisition is often hindered when study animals cross international borders. The African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) exemplifies such species that require vast undisturbed areas to support viable, self‐sustaining populations. To study wild dog dispersal and investigate potential...

Data from: Plant biomass, not plant economics traits, determines responses of soil CO2 efflux to precipitation in the C4 grass Panicum virgatum

Robert Heckman, Albina Khasanova, Nicholas Johnson, Sören Weber, Jason Bonnette, Mike Aspinwall, Lara Reichman, Thomas Juenger, Philip Fay & Christine Hawkes
1. Plant responses to major environmental drivers like precipitation can influence important aspects of carbon (C) cycling like soil CO2 efflux (JCO2). These responses may be predicted by two independent classes of drivers: plant size—larger plants respire more and produce a larger quantity of labile C, and plant economics—plants possessing more acquisitive plant economics strategies (i.e., high metabolic rate and tissue nutrient content) produce higher-quality tissue that respires rapidly and decomposes quickly. 2. At two...

Relative brain size is predicted by the intensity of intrasexual competition in frogs

Chun Lan Mai, Wen Bo Liao, Stefan Lüpold & Alexander Kotrschal
Competition over mates is a powerful force shaping trait evolution. For instance, better cognitive abilities may be beneficial in male−male competition and thus be selected for by intrasexual selection. Alternatively, investment in physical attributes favoring male performance in competition for mates may lower the resources available for brain development, and more intense male mate competition would coincide with smaller brains. To date, only indirect evidence for such relationships exists and most studies are heavily biased...

Inhibition of firefly luciferase activity by a HIF prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor

Carsten Scholz, Julia Günter, Roland H. Wenger & Carsten C. Scholz
The three hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain (PHD) 1–3 enzymes confer oxygen sen-sitivity to the HIF pathway and are novel therapeutic targets for treatment of renal anemia. Inhibition of thePHDs may further be beneficial in other hypoxia-associated diseases, including ischemia and chronic in-flammation. Several pharmacologic PHD inhibitors (PHIs) are available, but our understanding of their selectivity and its chemical basis is limited.We here report that the PHI JNJ-42041935 (JNJ-1935) is structurally similar to the firefly...

Dsuite - fast D-statistics and related admixture evidence from VCF files

Milan Malinsky, Michael Matschiner & Hannes Svardal
Patterson’s D, also known as the ABBA-BABA statistic, and related statistics such as the f4-ratio, are commonly used to assess evidence of gene flow between populations or closely related species. Currently available implementations often require custom file formats, implement only small subsets of the available statistics, and are impractical to evaluate all gene flow hypotheses across datasets with many populations or species due to computational inefficiencies. Here we present a new software package Dsuite, an...

Sex-specific effects of cooperative breeding and colonial nesting on prosociality in corvids

Lisa Horn, Thomas Bugnyar, Michael Griesser, Marietta Hengl, Ei-Ichi Izawa, Tim Oortwijn, Christiane Rössler, Clara Scheer, Martina Schiestl, Masaki Suyama, Alex H. Taylor, Lisa-Claire Vanhooland, Auguste M. P. Von Bayern, Yvonne Zürcher & Jorg J. M. Massen
The investigation of prosocial behavior is of particular interest from an evolutionary perspective. Comparisons of prosociality across non-human animal species have, however, so far largely focused on primates, and their interpretation is hampered by the diversity of paradigms and procedures used. Here we present the first systematic comparison of prosocial behavior across multiple species in a taxonomic group outside the primate order, namely the bird family Corvidae. We measured prosociality in 8 corvid species, which...

Data from: Gene swamping alters evolution during range expansions in the protist Tetrahymena thermophila

Felix Moerman, Emanuel Fronhofer, Andreas Wagner & Florian Altermatt
At species’ range edges, individuals often face novel environmental conditions that may limit range expansion until populations adapt. The potential to adapt depends on genetic variation upon which selection can act. However, populations at species’ range edges are often genetically depauperated. One mechanism to increase genetic variation is to reshuffle existing variation through sex. During range expansions, sex can, however, act as a double-edged sword. The gene swamping hypothesis predicts that for populations expanding along...

Data from: Adaptive reduction of male gamete number in the selfing plant Arabidopsis thaliana

Takashi Tsuchimatsu, Hiroyuki Kakui, Misako Yamazaki, Cindy Marona, Hiroki Tsutsui, Afif Hedhly, Dazhe Meng, Yutaka Sato, Thomas Städler, Ueli Grossniklaus, Masahiro Kanaoka, Michael Lenhard, Magnus Nordborg & Kentaro Shimizu
The number of male gametes is critical for reproductive success and varies between and within species. The evolutionary reduction of the number of pollen grains encompassing the male gametes is widespread in selfing plants. Here, we employ genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify underlying loci and to assess the molecular signatures of selection on pollen number-associated loci in the predominantly selfing plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Regions of strong association with pollen number are enriched for signatures...

Was the Devonian placoderm Titanichthys a suspension-feeder?

Samuel Coatham, Jakob Vinther, Emily Rayfield & Christian Klug
Large nektonic suspension-feeders have evolved multiple times. The apparent trend among apex predators for some evolving into feeding on small zooplankton is of interest for understanding the associated shifts in anatomy and behaviour while the spatial and temporal distribution gives clues to an inherent relationship with ocean primary productivity and how past and future perturbations to these may impact on the different tiers of the food web. The evolution of large nektonic suspension-feeders - 'gentle...

How female × male and male × male interactions influence competitive fertilization in Drosophila melanogaster

Stefan Lüpold, Jonathan Reil, Mollie Manier, Valérian Zeender, John Belote & Scott Pitnick
How males and females contribute to joint reproductive success has been a long-standing question in sexual selection. Under postcopulatory sexual selection (PSS), paternity success is predicted to derive from complex interactions among females engaging in cryptic female choice and males engaging in sperm competition. Such interactions have been identified as potential sources of genetic variation in sexually selected traits but are also expected to inhibit trait diversification. To date, studies of interactions between females and...

Data from: A new small, mesorostrine inioid (Cetacea, Odontoceti, Delphinida) from four late Miocene localities of the Pisco Basin, Peru

Olivier Lambert, Alberto Collareta, Aldo Benites-Palomino, Claudio Di Celma, Christian De Muizon, Mario Urbina & Giovanni Bianucci
The moderately rich past diversity of the superfamily Inioidea (Cetacea, Odontoceti) in both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans contrasts with the present survival of a single genus (Inia, Amazon river dolphin, family Iniidae) in freshwater deposits of South America and of a single species (Pontoporia blainvillei, Franciscana, family Pontoporiidae) along the eastern coast of that continent. However, part of the late Miocene to Pliocene inioid fossil record is made of relatively fragmentarily known species, for...

Data from: Antagonistic interactions subdue inter‐species green‐beard cooperation in bacteria

Santosh Sathe & Rolf Kümmerli
Cooperation can be favored through the green-beard mechanism, where a set of linked genes encodes both a cooperative trait and a phenotypic marker (green beard), which allows carriers of the trait to selectively direct cooperative acts to other carriers. In theory, the green-beard mechanism should favor cooperation even when interacting partners are totally unrelated at the genome level. Here, we explore such an extreme green-beard scenario between two unrelated bacterial species – Pseudomonas aeruginosa and...

Data from: Testing multiple drivers of the temperature-size rule with nonlinear temperature increase

Andrea Tabi, Aurélie Garnier & Frank Pennekamp
The temperature-size rule (TSR) describes the inverse relationship between organism size and environmental temperature in uni- and multicellular species. Despite the TSR being widespread, the mechanisms for shrinking body size with warming remain elusive. Here, we experimentally test three hypotheses (differential development and growth [DDG], maintain aerobic scope and regulate oxygen supply [MASROS] and the supply-demand hypothesis [SD]) potentially explaining the TSR using the aquatic protist Colpidium striatum in three gradually changing and one constant...

Data from: Increasing dependence of lowland populations on mountain water resources

Daniel Viviroli, Matti Kummu, Michel Meybeck, Marko Kallio & Yoshihide Wada
Mountain areas provide disproportionally high runoff in many parts of the world, and here we quantify for the first time their importance for water resources and food production from the viewpoint of the lowland areas downstream. The dataset maps the degree to which lowland areas potentially depend on runoff contributions from mountain areas (39% of land mass) between the 1960s and the 2040s.

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Zurich
  • Naturalis Biodiversity Center
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich
  • University of Lisbon
  • Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution de Montpellier
  • University of Basel
  • Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research
  • University of Camerino
  • Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research
  • Institute of Genetics and Molecular and Cellular Biology