59 Works

High spatial resolution mapping identifies habitat characteristics of the invasive vine Antigonon leptopus on St. Eustatius (Lesser Antilles)

Elizabeth Haber, Maria Santos, Pedro Leitão, Marcel Schwieder, Pieter Ketner, Joris Ernst, Max Rietkerk, Martin Wassen & Maarten Eppinga
On the Caribbean island of St. Eustatius, Coralita (Antigonon leptopus) is an aggressive invasive vine posing major biodiversity conservation concerns. The generation of distribution maps can address these conservation concerns by helping to elucidate the drivers of invasion. We test the use of support vector machines to map the distribution of Coralita on St. Eustatius at high spatial resolution and use this map to identify potential landscape and geomorphological factors associated with Coralita presence. This...

Date From: The myriad of complex demographic responses of terrestrial mammals to climate change and gaps of knowledge: A global analysis

Maria Paniw, Tamora James, C. Ruth Archer, Gesa Römer, Sam Levin, Aldo Compagnoni, Judy Che-Castaldo, Joanne Bennett, Andrew Mooney, Dylan Childs, Arpat Ozgul, Owen Jones, Jean Burns, Andrew Beckerman, Abir Patwari, Nora Sanchez-Gassen, Tiffany Knight & Roberto Salguero-Gómez
Approximately 25% of mammals are currently threatened with extinction, a risk that is amplified under climate change. Species persistence under climate change is determined by the combined effects of climatic factors on multiple demographic rates (survival, development, reproduction), and hence, population dynamics. Thus, to quantify which species and regions on Earth are most vulnerable to climate-driven extinction, a global understanding of how different demographic rates respond to climate is urgently needed. Here, we perform a...

Food discovery is associated with different reliance on social learning and lower cognitive flexibility across environments in a food caching bird

Virginia Heinen, Angela Pitera, Ben Sonnenberg, Lauren Benedict, Eli Bridge, Damien Farine & Vladimir Pravosudov
Social learning is a primary mechanism for information acquisition in social species. Despite many benefits, social learning may be disadvantageous when independent learning is more efficient. For example, searching independently may be more advantageous when food sources are ephemeral and unpredictable. Individual differences in cognitive abilities such as spatial memory, which affect an individual’s environmental predictability, can also be expected to influence social information use. We investigated how resident food-caching chickadees discovered multiple novel food...

How biases in sperm storage relate to sperm use during oviposition in female yellow dung flies

Marco Demont, Paul Ward, Wolf Blanckenhorn, Stefan Lüpold, Oliver Martin & Luc Bussière
Precise mechanisms underlying sperm storage and utilization are largely unknown, and data directly linking stored sperm to paternity remain scarce. We used competitive microsatellite PCR to study the effects of female morphology, copula duration and oviposition on the proportion of stored sperm provided by the second of two copulating males (S2) in Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae), the classic model for sperm competition studies. We genotyped all offspring from potentially mixed-paternity clutches to establish the relationship...

Alpine ibex simulation files

Deborah Leigh, Heidi Lischer, Frederic Guillaume, Christine Grossen & Torsten Gunther
Identifying local adaptation in bottlenecked species is essential for conservation management. Selection detection methods have an important role in species management plans, assessments of adaptive capacity, and looking for responses to climate change. Yet, the allele frequency changes exploited in selection detection methods are similar to those caused by the strong neutral genetic drift expected during a bottleneck. Consequently, it is often unclear what accuracy selection detection methods have across bottlenecked populations. In this study,...

Predicting intraspecific trait variation among California’s grasses

Brody Sandel, Claire Pavelka, Thomas Hayashi, Lachlan Charles, Jennifer Funk, Fletcher Halliday, Gaurav Kandlikar, Andrew Kleinhesslink, Nathan Kraft, Loralee Larios, Tesa Madsen-McQueen & Marko Spasojevic
1. Plant species can show considerable morphological and functional variation along environmental gradients. This intraspecific trait variation (ITV) can have important consequences for community assembly, biotic interactions, ecosystem functions and responses to global change. However, directly measuring ITV across many species and wide geographic areas is often infeasible. Thus, a method to predict spatial variation in a species’ functional traits could be valuable. 2. We measured specific leaf area (SLA), height and leaf area (LA)...

Genomic signals of admixture and reinforcement between two closely related species of European sepsid flies

Martin Kapun, Athene Giesen, Wolf U Blanckenhorn, Martin A Schäfer, Kentaro K Shimizu, Rie Shimizu-Inatsugi, Bernhard Misof, Oliver Niehuis, Lars Podsiadlowski, Heidi E L Liescher & Simon Aeschbacher
Interspecific gene flow by hybridization may weaken species barriers and adaptive divergence, but can also initiate reinforcement of reproductive isolation through natural and sexual selection. However, the extent of interspecific gene flow and its consequences for the initiation and maintenance of species barriers in natural systems remain poorly understood. We first applied coalescence simulations and approximate Bayesian calculations based on microsatellite data to infer the yet unknown demographic history of the two closely related European...

Siderophores drive invasion dynamics in bacterial communities through their dual role as public good versus public bad

Alexandre R. T. Figueiredo, Özhan Özkaya, Rolf Kuemmerli & Jos Kramer
Microbial invasions can compromise ecosystem services and spur dysbiosis and disease in hosts. Nevertheless, the mechanisms determining invasion outcomes often remain unclear. Here, we examine the role of iron-scavenging siderophores in driving invasions of Pseudomonas aeruginosa into resident communities of environmental pseudomonads. Siderophores can be “public goods” by delivering iron to individuals possessing matching receptors; but they can also be “public bads” by withholding iron from competitors lacking these receptors. Accordingly, siderophores should either promote...

Data from: Family dynamics reveal that female house mice preferentially breed in their maternal community

Julian Evans, Anna Lindholm & Barbara König
Whether females breed in their natal group is an important factor in the evolution of extended families in animal sociality. Breeding in natal groups comes with costs and benefits, depending on group size and presence of older relatives, including mothers. Studying the consequences of breeding in the natal versus another group provides insight into the decisions and trade-offs governing the formation and structure of family groups. We investigated the family dynamics of a population of...

Patch size distribution affects species invasion dynamics in dendritic networks

Holenstein Kathrin, Eric Harvey & Florian Altermatt
Biological invasions are globally affecting ecosystems, causing local species loss and altering ecosystem functioning. Understanding how such biological invasions occur and succeed is thus of high priority. Both local properties and the spatial network structure have been shown to be determinants of invasion success, and the identification of spatial invasion hubs directly promoting invasion dynamics is gaining attention. Spatial dynamics, however, could also indirectly alter invasion success by shaping pre- invasion local community structure: in...

Competition alters species' plastic and genetic response to environmental change

Lynn Govaert, Florian Altermatt & Luis Gilarranz
Species react to environmental change via plastic and evolutionary responses. While both of them determine species’ survival, most studies quantify these responses only individually. As species occur in communities, competing species may further influence their respective response to environmental change. Yet, how environmental change and competing species combined shape plastic and genetic responses to environmental change remains unclear. Quantifying how species interactions such as competition alter plastic and genetic responses of species to environmental change...

Online Appendix and Cetacean Datasets for: The Occurrence Birth-Death Process for combined-evidence analysis in macroevolution and epidemiology

Jérémy Andréoletti, Antoine Zwaans, Rachel Warnock, Gabriel Aguirre-Fernández, Joëlle Barido-Sottani, Ankit Gupta, Tanja Stadler & Marc Manceau
Phylodynamic models generally aim at jointly inferring phylogenetic relationships, model parameters, and more recently, the number of lineages through time, based on molecular sequence data. In the fields of epidemiology and macroevolution these models can be used to estimate, respectively, the past number of infected individuals (prevalence) or the past number of species (paleodiversity) through time. Recent years have seen the development of “total-evidence” analyses, which combine molecular and morphological data from extant and past...

Community-wide trait means and variations affect biomass in a biodiversity experiment with tree seedlings

Shan Luo, Bernhard Schmid, Cameron Wagg, Yuxin Chen, Bin Jiang, Minxia Liang, Xubing Liu & Shixiao Yu
The structure of a plant community in terms of functional traits can strongly affect community productivity. Two components may contribute to this, community-wide trait means (mass-ratio hypothesis) or community-wide trait variations (diversity hypothesis) across species and individuals. We compared the explanatory power of the two hypotheses for explaining biomass variation among individuals and communities as measures of productivity. We set up experimental communities of tree seedlings that ranged in species richness from 1‒8. We measured...

Diversity of response and effect traits provides complementary information about avian community dynamics linked to ecological function

Lisbeth Hordley, Simon Gillings, Owen Petchey, Joseph Tobias, Thomas Oliver, Lisbeth A. Hordley, Owen L. Petchey, Joseph A. Tobias & Thomas H. Oliver
Functional diversity metrics based on species traits are widely used to investigate ecosystem functioning. In theory, such metrics have different implications depending on whether they are calculated from traits mediating responses to environmental change (response traits) or those regulating function (effect traits), yet trait choice in diversity metrics is rarely scrutinized. Here, we compile effect and response traits for British bird species supplying two key ecological services – seed dispersal and insect predation – to...

Data from: Condition-dependent interaction between mating success and competitive fertilization success in Drosophila melanogaster

Alessio N. De Nardo, Jeannine Roy, Sonja H. Sbilordo & Stefan Lüpold
Dietary restriction during development can affect adult body size and condition. In many species, larger (high-condition) males gain higher mating success through male-male competition and female choice, and female condition can affect the extent of both female mate choice and male investment in courtship or ejaculates. However, few studies have examined the joint effects and interplay of male and female condition during both the pre- and the post-copulatory phases of sexual selection. We therefore manipulated...

Adaptation and competition in deteriorating environments

Romana Limberger & Gregor Fussmann
Evolution might rescue populations from extinction in changing environments. Using experimental evolution with microalgae, we investigated if competition influences adaptation to an abiotic stressor, and vice versa, if adaptation to abiotic change influences competition. In a first set of experiments, we propagated monocultures of five species with and without increasing salt stress for ~180 generations. When assayed in monoculture, two of the five species showed signatures of adaptation, that is, lines with a history of...

Sociability increases survival of adult female giraffes

Monica Bond, Derek Lee, Damien Farine, Arpat Ozgul & Barbara Koenig
Studies increasingly show that social connectedness plays a key role in determining survival, in addition to natural and anthropogenic environmental factors. Few studies, however, integrated social, non-social, and demographic data to elucidate what components of an animal’s socio-ecological environment are most important to their survival. Female giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) form structured societies with highly dynamic group membership but stable long-term associations. We examined the relative contributions of sociability (relationship strength, gregariousness, and betweenness), together with...

Cheating in mutualisms

Daniel Wechsler & Jordi Bascompte
Mutualisms such as those between flowering plants and their pollinators are common in nature. Yet, understanding their persistence in the face of cheaters and identifying the mechanisms behind their stunning diversity provide formidable challenges for evolutionary biologists. To shed light into these questions, we introduce an individual-based model of two coevolving species in which individuals of one species use a Boolean circuit to discriminate between cooperators and cheaters in the other species. This conveys the...

Data from: Selection on growth rate and local adaptation drive genomic adaptation during experimental range expansions in the protist Tetrahymena thermophila

Felix Moerman, Emanuel Fronhofer, Florian Altermatt & Andreas Wagner
1. Populations that expand their range can undergo rapid evolutionary adaptation of life-history traits, dispersal behaviour, and adaptation to the local environment. Such adaptation may be aided or hindered by sexual reproduction, depending on the context. 2. However, few empirical and experimental studies have investigated the genetic basis of adaptive evolution during range expansions. Even less attention has been given to the question how sexual reproduction may modulate such adaptive evolution during range expansions. 3....

Structural heterogeneity of cellular K5/K14 filaments as revealed by cryo-electron microscopy

Miriam Sarah Weber, Matthias Eibauer, Suganya Sivagurunathan, Thomas Magin, Robert Goldman & Ohad Medalia
Keratin intermediate filaments are an essential and major component of the cytoskeleton in epithelial cells. They form a stable yet dynamic filamentous network extending from the nucleus to the cell periphery, which provides resistance to mechanical stresses. Mutations in keratin genes are related to a variety of epithelial tissue diseases. Despite their importance, the molecular structure of keratin filaments remains largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed the structure of keratin 5/keratin 14 filaments within...

Simulation Data from: The EOS/Resolution Conspiracy: Convergence in Proto-Planetary Collision Simulations

Thomas Meier, Christian Reinhardt & Joachim Stadel
We investigate how the choice of equation of state (EOS) and resolution conspire to affect the outcomes of giant impact (GI) simulations. We focus on the simple case of equal mass collisions of two Earth-like 0.5ME proto-planets showing that the choice of EOS has a profound impact on the outcome of such collisions as well as on the numerical convergence with resolution. In simulations where the Tillotson EOS is used, impacts generate an excess amount...

Data for: Are immigrants outbred and unrelated? Testing standard assumptions in a wild metapopulation

Lisa Dickel, Peter Arcese, Pirmin Nietlisbach, Lukas Keller & Jane Reid
Immigration into small recipient populations is expected to alleviate inbreeding and increase genetic variation, and hence facilitate population persistence through genetic and/or evolutionary rescue. Such expectations depend on three standard assumptions: that immigrants are outbred, unrelated to existing natives at arrival, and unrelated to each other. These assumptions are rarely explicitly verified, including in key field systems in evolutionary ecology. Yet, they could be violated due to non-random or repeated immigration from adjacent small populations....

Electrophysiological recordings and a liposome-based assay showing the absence of chloride and proton conduction in TTYH proteins

Anastasiia Sukalskaia & Raimund Dutzler
The Tweety homologues (TTYHs) are members of a conserved family of eukaryotic membrane proteins that are abundant in the brain. The three human paralogs were assigned to function as anion channels that are either activated by Ca2+ or cell swelling. To uncover their unknown architecture and its relationship to function, we have determined the structures of human TTYH1–3 by cryo-electron microscopy. All structures display equivalent features of a dimeric membrane protein that contains five transmembrane...

Strain diversity and spatial distribution are linked to epidemic dynamics in host populations

Jenalle Eck, Benoit Barrès, Samuel Soubeyrand, Jukka Siren, Elina Numminen & Anna-Liisa Laine
The inherently variable nature of epidemics renders predictions of when and where infection is expected to occur challenging. Differences in pathogen strain composition, diversity, fitness, and spatial distribution are generally ignored in epidemiological modeling and are rarely studied in natural populations, yet they may be important drivers of epidemic trajectories. To examine how these factors are linked to epidemics in natural host populations, we collected epidemiological and genetic data from fifteen populations of the powdery...

Biodiversity facets, canopy structure and surface temperature of grassland communities

Claudia Regina Guimaraes-Steinicke, Alexandra Weigelt, Raphaël Prouxl, Thomas Lanners, Nico Eisenhauer, Joaquín Duque-Lazo, Björn Reu, Christiane Roscher, Cameron Wagg, Nina Buchmann & Christian Wirth
Canopy structure is an important driver of the energy budget of the grassland ecosystem and is, at the same time, altered by plant diversity. Diverse plant communities typically have taller and more densely packed canopies than less diverse communities. With this, they absorb more radiation, have a higher transpiring leaf surface, and are better coupled to the atmosphere which leads to cooler canopy surfaces. However, whether plant diversity generally translates into a cooling potential remains...

Registration Year

  • 2021
    59

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    59

Affiliations

  • University of Zurich
    59
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich
    6
  • University of Cambridge
    3
  • Leipzig University
    3
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
    2
  • McGill University
    2
  • Swiss Ornithological Institute
    2
  • University of Helsinki
    2
  • Botswana Predator Conservation Trust
    2
  • State University of Campinas
    2