126 Works

Data from: Multiple constraints cause positive and negative feedbacks limiting grassland soil CO2 efflux under CO2 enrichment

Philip Fay, Dafeng Hui, Robert Jackson, Harold Collins, Lara Reichmann, Michael Aspinwall, Virginia Jin, Albina Khasanova, Robert Heckman & Wayne Polley
Terrestrial ecosystems are increasingly enriched with resources such as atmospheric CO2 that limit ecosystem processes. The consequences for ecosystem carbon cycling depend on the feedbacks from other limiting resources and plant community change, which remain poorly understood for soil CO2 efflux, JCO2, a primary carbon flux from the biosphere to the atmosphere. We applied a unique CO2 enrichment gradient (250 to 500 µL L-1) for eight years to grassland plant communities on soils from different...

Data from: Climate-driven prediction of land water storage anomalies: An outlook for water resources monitoring across the conterminous United States

Clement Sohoulande, Clement D.D. Sohoulande, Jerry Martin, Ariel Szogi & Kenneth Stone
These research data are associated with the manuscript entitled “Climate-driven prediction of land water storage anomalies: An outlook for water resources monitoring across the conterminous United States” (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2020.125053). The study focused on the conterminous United States (CONUS) which extends over a region of contrasting climates with an uneven distribution of freshwater resources. Under climate change, an exacerbation of the contrast between dry and wet regions is expected across the CONUS and could drastically affect local...

Phased, chromosome-scale genome assemblies of tetraploid potato reveals a complex genome, transcriptome, and predicted proteome landscape underpinning genetic diversity

Genevieve Hoopes, Xiaoxi Meng, John P. Hamilton, Sai Reddy Achakkagari, Fernanda De Alves Freitas Guesdes, Marie E. Bolger, Joseph J. Coombs, Danny Esselink, Natalie R. Kaiser, Linda Kodde, Maria Kyriakidou, Brian Lavrijssen, Natascha Van Lieshout, Rachel Shereda, Heather K. Tuttle, Brieanne Vaillancourt, Joshua C. Wood, Jan M. De Boer, Nolan Bornowski, Peter Bourke, David Douches, Herman J. Van Eck, Dave Ellis, Max J. Feldman, Kyle M. Gardner … & Richard Finkers
Hoopes G., Meng X., Hamilton J.P., Achakkagari S.R., de Alves Freitas Guesdes F., Bolger M.E., Coombs J.J., Esselink D., Kaiser N.R., Kodde L., Kyriakidou M., Lavrijssen B., van Lieshout N., Shereda R., Tuttle H.K., Vaillancourt B., Wood J.C., de Boer J.M., Bornowski N., Bourke P., Douches D., van Eck H.J., Ellis D., Feldman M.J., Gardner K.M., Hopman J.C.P., Jiang J., De Jong W.S., Kuhl J.C., Novy R.G., Oome S., Sathuvalli V., Tan E.H., Ursum R.A.,...

Honey bee hive weight and temperature Southern Arizona 2019-2020

William Meikle
In an effort to determine the effects of the orientation of hive entrance on honey bee colony activity and temperature, hives were placed facing different cardinal directions (3-5 hives per direction). Hive weight was recorded every 5 minutes and temperature every 30 minutes from April 2019 to June 2020. Daily weight data were analyzed using piecewise regression. In southern Arizona from December to March, hives facing east started daily flight activity 50 minutes earlier than...

Environmental impacts on diapause and survival of the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata

Elisabeth Wilson, Claire Murphy, Covey Wong, Joseph Rinehart, George Yocum & Julia Bowsher
Megachile rotundata exhibits a facultative prepupal diapause but the cues regulating diapause initiation are not well understood. Possible cues include daylength and temperature. Megachile rotundata females experience changing daylengths over the nesting season that may influence diapause incidence in their offspring through a maternal effect. Juvenile M. rotundata spend their developmental period confined in a nesting cavity, potentially subjected to stressful temperatures that may affect diapause incidence and survival. To estimate the impact of daylength...

Feather corticosterone reveals developmental challenges in a long‐term study of juvenile northern spotted owls

Ashlee Mikkelsen, Katie Dugger, Kathleen O'Reilly & Damon Lesmeister
1. Corticosterone is a steroid hormone integral to a variety of physiological pathways and is strongly associated with the vertebrate stress–response. In avian species, circulating corticosterone is sequestered into developing feathers and is used as an indicator of energy allocation during feather growth and widely applied in conservation physiology. 2. The northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) is a federally threatened old–growth forest obligate of conservation concern endemic to the Pacific Northwest of the United...

Data from: Anthelmintic drugs modulate the acute phase immune response but not the microbiota in wild Song Sparrows

Grace Vaziri, Michelle Jusino, Jon Palmer, Matthew Brewer & James Adelman
Co-infection with microparasites (e.g., bacteria) and macroparasites (e.g., helminths) is often the natural state for wild animals. Despite evidence that gut helminths can bias immune responses away from inflammatory processes, few field studies have examined the role that helminths, or their potential interactions with internal microbial communities, play in modulating immunity in free-living, wild birds. Here, we used anthelmintic drugs to treat wild Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia) for helminth infections and measured markers of systemic...

Effect of data source on estimates of regional bird richness in northeastern United States

Roi Ankori-Karlinsky, Ronen Kadmon, Michael Kalyuzhny, Katherine F. Barnes, Andrew M. Wilson, Curtis Flather, Rosalind Renfrew, Joan Walsh & Edna Guk
Standardized data on large-scale and long-term patterns of species richness are critical for understanding the consequences of natural and anthropogenic changes in the environment. The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) is one of the largest and most widely used sources of such data, but so far, little is known about the degree to which BBS data provide accurate estimates of regional richness. Here we test this question by comparing estimates of regional richness based...

Unifying community detection across scales from genomes to landscapes

Andrii Zaiats, Stephanie F. Hudon, Anna Roser, Anand Roopsind, Cristina Barber, Brecken C. Robb, Britt A. Pendleton, Meghan J. Camp, Patrick E. Clark, Merry M. Davidson, Jonas Frankel-Bricker, Marcella Fremgen-Tarantino, Jennifer Sorensen Forbey, Eric J. Hayden, Lora A. Richards, Olivia K. Rodrigues & T. Trevor Caughlin
Biodiversity science encompasses multiple disciplines and biological scales from molecules to landscapes. Nevertheless, biodiversity data are often analyzed separately with discipline-specific methodologies, constraining resulting inferences to a single scale. To overcome this, we present a topic modeling framework to analyze community composition in cross-disciplinary datasets, including those generated from metagenomics, metabolomics, field ecology, and remote sensing. Using topic models, we demonstrate how community detection in different datasets can inform the conservation of interacting plants and...

Data from: Positron-emitting radiotracers spatially resolve unexpected biogeochemical relationships linked with methane oxidation in Arctic soils

Michael Schmidt, Steven Mamet, Curtis Senger, Alixandra Schebel, Mitsuaki Ota, Tony Tian, Umair Aziz, Lisa Stein, Tom Regier, Kevin Stanley, Derek Peak & Steven Siciliano
Arctic soils are marked by cryoturbic features, which impact soil-atmosphere methane (CH4) dynamics vital to global climate regulation. Cryoturbic diapirism alters C/N chemistry within frost boils by introducing soluble organic carbon and nutrients, potentially influencing microbial CH4 oxidation. CH4 oxidation in soils, however, requires a spatio-temporal convergence of ecological factors to occur. Spatial delineation of microbial activity with respect to these key microbial and biogeochemical factors at relevant scales is experimentally challenging in inherently complex...

Data from: Leaching potential of phosphite fertilizer in sandy soils of the Southern Coastal Plain, USA

Ariel A. Szogi, Paul D. Shumaker, Eric D. Billman & Philip J. Bauer
This is digital research data corresponding to a published manuscript, Leaching potential of phosphite fertilizer in sandy soils of the southern coastal plain, USA. Environments 2021, 8, 126, https://doi.org/10.3390/environments8110126 Novel biotechnology on transgenic plants capable of metabolizing phosphite (Phi), a reduced form of P, could improve the effectiveness of P fertilizers and reduce the P footprint in agriculture with the benefit of suppressing weed growth. However, potassium Phi (K-Phi) salts used as fertilizer are highly...

Data from: Loamy sand soil approaches organic carbon saturation after 37 years of conservation tillage

Jeffrey Novak, Donald Watts, Phillip Bauer, Douglas Karlen, Patrick Hunt & Umakant Mishra
This is digital research data corresponding to a published manuscript, Loamy sand soil approaches organic carbon saturation after 37 years of conservation tillage. Conservation tillage is reported to increase soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) contents, but long-term (>30 yr) field results quantifying the responses in Coastal Plain Ultisols are sparse. The distribution, accumulation, and topsoil storage of SOC and TN after 37 yr of crop production using conventional (CvT) or conservation tillage...

Data from: Watershed classification predicts streamflow regime and organic carbon dynamics in the Northeast Pacific Coastal Temperate Rainforest

Ian Giesbrecht, Suzanne Tank, Gordon Frazer, Eran Hood, Santiago Gonzalez Arriola, David Butman, Dave D'Amore, David Hutchinson, Allison Bidlack & Ken Lertzman
Watershed classification has long been a key tool in the hydrological sciences, but few studies have been extended to biogeochemistry. We developed a combined hydro-biogeochemical classification for watersheds draining to the coastal margin of the Northeast Pacific coastal temperate rainforest (1,443,062 km2), including 2,695 small coastal rivers (SCR) and 10 large continental watersheds. We used cluster analysis to group SCR watersheds into 12 types, based on watershed properties. The most important variables for distinguishing SCR...

Data from: Agriculturally dominated landscapes reduce bee phylogenetic diversity and pollination services

Heather Grab, Michael G. Branstetter, Nolan Amon, Katherine R. Urban-Mead, Mia G. Park, Jason Gibbs, Eleanor J. Blitzer, Katja Poveda, Greg Loeb & Bryan N. Danforth
Land-use change threatens global biodiversity and may reshape the tree of life by favoring some lineages over others. Whether phylogenetic diversity loss compromises ecosystem service delivery remains unknown. We address this knowledge gap using extensive genomic, community, and crop datasets to examine relationships among land use, pollinator phylogenetic structure, and crop production. Pollinator communities in highly agricultural landscapes contain 230 million fewer years of evolutionary history; this loss was strongly associated with reduced crop yield...

Data from: The importance of growing up: juvenile environment influences dispersal of individuals and their neighbours

Stacy B. Endriss, Megan L. Vahsen, Ellyn V. Bitume, J. Grey Monroe, Kathryn G. Turner, Andrew P. Norton & Ruth A. Hufbauer
Dispersal is a key ecological process that is strongly influenced by both phenotype and environment. Here, we show that juvenile environment influences dispersal not only by shaping individual phenotypes, but also by changing the phenotypes of neighbouring conspecifics, which influence how individuals disperse. We used a model system (Tribolium castaneum, red flour beetles) to test how the past environment of dispersing individuals and their neighbours influences how they disperse in their current environment. We found...

Data from: CO2 enrichment and soil type additively regulate grassland productivity

H. Wayne Polley, Michael J. Aspinwall, Harold P. Collins, Anne E. Gibson, Richard A. Gill, Robert B. Jackson, Virginia L. Jin, Albina R. Khasanova, Lara G. Reichmann & Philip A. Fay
Atmospheric CO2 enrichment usually increases aboveground productivity (ANPP) of grassland vegetation, but the magnitude of the ANPP-CO2 response differs among ecosystems. Soil properties affect ANPP via multiple mechanisms and vary over topographic to geographic gradients, but have received little attention as potential modifiers of the ANPP-CO2 response. We assessed effects of three soil types, sandy loam, silty clay, and clay, on the ANPP response of perennial C3/C4 grassland communities to a subambient to elevated CO2...

Data from: Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition

Daniel S. Karp, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Timothy D. Meehan, Emily A. Martin, Fabrice DeClerck, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Lauren Hunt, Ashley E. Larsen, Alejandra Martínez-Salinas, Megan E. O’Rourke, Adrien Rusch, Katja Poveda, Mattias Jonsson, Jay A. Rosenheim, Nancy A. Schellhorn, Teja Tscharntke, Stephen D. Wratten, Wei Zhang, Aaron L. Iverson, Lynn S. Adler, Matthias Albrecht, Audrey Alignier, Gina M. Angelella, Muhammad Zubair Anjum … & Yi Zou
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are...

Data from: Strong patterns of intraspecific variation and local adaptation in Great Basin plants revealed through a review of 75 years of experiments

Owen W. Baughman, Alison C. Agneray, Matthew L. Forister, Francis F. Kilkenny, Erin K. Espeland, Rob Fiegener, Matthew E. Horning, Richard C. Johnson, Thomas N. Kaye, Jeffery Ott, John Bradley St. Clair & Elizabeth A. Leger
Variation in natural selection across heterogeneous landscapes often produces 1) among-population differences in phenotypic traits, 2) trait-by-environment associations, and 3) higher fitness of local populations. Using a broad literature review of common garden studies published between 1941 and 2017, we documented the commonness of these three signatures in plants native to North America’s Great Basin, an area of extensive restoration and revegetation efforts, and asked which traits and environmental variables were involved. We also asked,...

Data from: Molecular analyses identify hybridization-mediated nuclear evolution in newly discovered fungal hybrids

Fabiano Sillo, Paolo Gonthier, Blakey Lockman, Takao Kasuga & Matteo Garbelotto
Hybridization may be a major driver in the evolution of plant pathogens. In a high elevation Alpine larch stand in Montana, a novel hybrid fungal pathogen of trees originating from the mating of Heterobasidion irregulare with H. occidentale has been recently discovered. In this study, sequence analyses of one mitochondrial and four nuclear loci from 11 Heterobasidion genotypes collected in the same Alpine larch stand indicated that hybridization has increased allelic diversity by generating novel...

Modelled annual average percentage yield loss due to ozone damage for four global staple crops, 2010-2012 version 2

K. Sharps, G. Mills, D. Simpson, H. Pleijel, M. Frei, K. Burkey, L. Emberson, J. Uddling, M. Broberg, Z. Feng, K. Kobayashi & M. Agrawal
Modelled average percentage yield loss due to ground-level ozone pollution (per 1 degree by 1 degree grid cell) are presented for the crops maize (Zea mays), rice (Oryza sativa), soybean (Glycine max) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) for the period 2010-2012. Data are on a global scale, based on the distribution of production for each crop, according to the Food and Agriculture Organisation’s (FAO) Global Agro-Ecological Zones (GAEZ) crop production data for the year 2000. Modelled...

Yield Constraint Score (YCS) for the effect of five crop stresses on global production of four staple food crops

K. Sharps, G. Mills, D. Simpson, H. Pleijel, M. Frei, K. Burkey, L. Emberson, J. Uddling, M. Broberg, Z. Feng, K. Kobayashi & M. Agrawal
A Yield Constraint Score (YCS; scale of 1-5) was developed for the effect of five key crop stresses (ozone, pests and diseases, soil nutrients, heat stress and aridity) on the production of the crops maize (Zea mays), rice (Oryza sativa), soybean (Glycine max) and wheat (Triticum aestivum). Data are on a global scale at 1° by 1° resolution, based on the distribution of production for each crop, according to the Food and Agriculture Organisation’s (FAO)...

Data from: Cereal rye mulch biomass and crop density affect weed suppression and community assembly in no-till planted soybean

Uriel Menalled, Guillaume ADEUX, Stéphane CORDEAU, Richard G. Smith, Steven B. Mirsky & Matthew Ryan

Data from: Hybridization of an invasive shrub affects tolerance and resistance to defoliation by a biological control agent

Wyatt I. Williams, Jonathan M. Friedman, John F. Gaskin & Andrew P. Norton
Evolution has contributed to the successful invasion of exotic plant species in their introduced ranges, but how evolution affects particular control strategies is still under evaluation. For instance, classical biological control, a common strategy involving the utilization of highly specific natural enemies to control exotic pests, may be negatively affected by host hybridization because of shifts in plant traits, such as root allocation or chemical constituents. We investigated introgression between two parent species of the...

Data from: Species delimitation in fungal endophyte diversity studies and its implications in ecological and biogeographic inferences

Romina Gazis, Stephen Rehner & Priscila Chaverri
The estimation of species diversity in fungal endophyte communities is based either on species counts or the assignment of operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Consequently, the application of different species recognition criteria affects not only diversity estimates but also the ecological hypotheses that arise from those observations. The main objective of the study was to examine how the choice and number of genetic markers and species delimitation criteria influences biodiversity estimates. Here, we compare approaches to...

Data from: Genetic variation and evolution of secondary compounds in native and introduced populations of the invasive plant Melaleuca quinquenervia

Steven J. Franks, Gregory S. Wheeler & Charles J. Goodnight
We examined multivariate evolution of 20 leaf terpenoids in the invasive plant Melaleuca quinquenervia in a common garden experiment. While most compounds, including 1,8-Cineole and Viridiflorol, were reduced in home compared with invaded range genotypes, consistent with an evolutionary decrease in defense, one compound (E-Nerolidol) was greater in invaded than home range genotypes. Nerolidol was negatively genetically correlated with Cineole and Viridiflorol, and the increase in this compound in the new range may have been...

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