30 Works

Leaf margins in a deciduous lineage from the Greater Cape Floristic Region track climate in unexpected directions

Henry Frye, Kerri Mocko, Timothy Moore, Carl Schlichting & Cynthia Jones
Premise of the study: The functional significance of leaf margins has long been debated. In this study we explore influences of climate, leaf lobing, woodiness, and shared evolutionary history on two leaf margin traits within the genus Pelargonium. Methods: Leaves from 454 populations of Pelargonium (161 species) were collected in the Greater Cape Floristic Region and scored for tooth presence/absence and degree of lobing. Tooth density (number of teeth per interior perimeter distance) was measured...

Habitat openness and edge avoidance predict saltmarsh sparrow abundance better than habitat area

Hallie Marshall, Erik Blomberg, Valerie Watson, Meaghan Conway, Jonathan Cohen, Maureen Correll, Chris Elphick, Thomas Hodgman, Alison Kocek, Adrienne Kovach, W. Gregory Shriver, Whitney Wiest & Brian Olsen
The Saltmarsh Sparrow (Ammospiza caudacuta) is a tidal marsh bird facing rapid population decline throughout its range, largely caused by degradation and loss of breeding habitat. Thus there is a need to preserve tidal marshes in the northeastern United States, but to do so requires an understanding of the habitat features that support robust populations. Previous studies have shown Saltmarsh Sparrow abundance increases with marsh size, but in similar bird species, area sensitivity is more...

Data from: Testing models of reciprocal relations between social influence and integration in STEM across the college years

Paul Hernandez, V. Bede Agocha, Lauren Carney, Mica Estrada, Sharon Lee, David Loomis, Michelle Williams & Crystal Park
The present study tests predictions from the Tripartite Integration Model of Social Influences (TIMSI) concerning processes linking social interactions to social integration into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) communities and careers. Students from historically overrepresented groups in STEM were followed from their senior year of high school through their senior year in college. Based on TIMSI, we hypothesized that interactions with social influence agents (operationalized as mentor network diversity, faculty mentor support, and research...

Nitrogen enrichment stimulates wetland plant responses whereas salt amendments alter sediment microbial communities and biogeochemical responses

Mary Donato, Olivia Johnson, Blaire Steven & Beth Lawrence
Freshwater wetlands of the temperate north are exposed to a range of pollutants that may alter their function, including nitrogen (N)-rich agricultural and urban runoff, seawater intrusion, and road salt contamination, though it is largely unknown how these drivers of change interact with the vegetation to affect wetland carbon (C) fluxes and microbial communities. We implemented a full factorial mesocosm (378.5 L tanks) experiment investigating C-related responses to three common wetland plants of eastern North...

Phase resolution of heterozygous sites in diploid genomes is important to phylogenomic analysis under the multispecies coalescent model

Ziheng Yang, Jun Huang, Tomas Flouri, Jeremy Bennett & Adam Leache
Genome sequencing projects routinely generate haploid consensus sequences from diploid genomes, which are effectively chimeric sequences with the phase at heterozygous sites resolved at random. The impact of phasing errors on phylogenomic analyses under the multispecies coalescent (MSC) model is largely unknown. Here we conduct a computer simulation to evaluate the performance of four phase-resolution strategies (the true phase resolution, the diploid analytical integration algorithm which averages over all phase resolutions, computational phase resolution using...

Strategies in herbivory by mammals revisited: The role of liver metabolism in a juniper specialist ( Neotoma stephensi ) and a generalist ( Neotoma albigula )

Teri Orr, Smiljka Kitanovic, Katharina Schramm, Michele Skopec, Ross Wilderman, James Halpert, Denise Dearing, Teri J. Orr, Katharina M. Schramm, Michele M. Skopec, P. Ross Wilderman, James R. Halpert, M. Denise Dearing & M. Denise Dearing
Although herbivory is widespread among mammals, few species have adopted a strategy of dietary specialization. Feeding on a single plant species often exposes herbivores to high doses of similar plant secondary metabolites (PSMs), which may exceed the animal’s detoxification capacities. Therefore, theory predicts that specialists will have unique detoxification mechanisms to process high levels of dietary toxins. To evaluate this hypothesis, we compared liver metabolism of a juniper specialist, Neotoma stephensi (diet >85% juniper), to...

Trends and Transitions in 150 years of The American Naturalist

Daniel Bolnick, Vassiliki Smocovitis, Christopher Moore & Patricia Morse
The American Naturalist recently passed its sesquicentennial. Throughout this long history, it regularly encountered moments of introspection and debate over its goals, mission, identity and audience. Here, we chronicle the history of those debates and transitions at critical moments. The Naturalist began as a popular magazine for amateur naturalists in the late 1860’s. In the late 1870’s it transitioned to an increasingly academic journal for professional scientists, from all branches of the natural sciences. By...

Avian point-counts from Rhode Island and Connecticut used to test species distribution models

Valerie Steen, Morgan Tingley, Peter Paton & Chris Elphick
Spatial-biases are a common feature of presence-absence data from citizen scientists. Spatial thinning can mitigate errors in species distribution models (SDMs) that use these data. When detections or non-detections are rare, however, SDMs may suffer from class imbalance or low sample size of the minority (i.e. rarer) class. Poor predictions can result, the severity of which may vary by modeling technique. To explore the consequences of spatial bias and class imbalance in presence-absence data, we...

Supporting data from: The distribution of leaf form among indigenous woody angiosperms in New Zealand

Tammo Reichgelt & William Lee
New Zealand’s woody indigenous eudicot flora comprises a variety of leaf shapes and features and occupies environments extending from subtropical to cold temperate climates. We used a dataset of over 300,000 occurrences of 557 indigenous woody eudicot species to investigate patterns and trends in the occurrence of six leaf features (leaf pubescence, leaf margin teeth, leaf size, leaf apex and base shape, and leaf length to width ratio) along critical climate gradients. Major climate variables...

Data from: Portable heaters for microhabitat heating experiments

Christina Baer, Diego Dierick & Carlos Garcia-Robledo
1. Global warming will likely cause more ecological change by altering how species interact with each other than by directly affecting individual species. Field heating experiments are essential to test how warming will change species interactions. However, such experiments pose many logistical challenges, including heater construction and accuracy and accessing necessary infrastructure. 2. To facilitate these experiments, we developed portable active heaters suitable for heating microhabitats and sites of species interactions. We validated heater performance...

Multi-species occupancy models as robust estimators of community richness

Morgan W. Tingley, Christopher Nadeau & Manette Sandor
1. Understanding patterns of diversity is central to ecology and conservation, yet estimates of diversity are often biased by imperfect detection. In recent years, multi-species occupancy models (MSOM) have been developed as a statistical tool to account for species-specific heterogeneity in detection while estimating true measures of diversity. Although the power of these models has been tested in various ways, their ability to estimate gamma diversity – or true community size, N – is a...

Past and future decline of tropical pelagic biodiversity

Moriaki Yasuhara, Chih-Lin Wei, Michal Kucera, Mark Costello, Derek Tittensor, Wolfgang Kiessling, Timothy Bonebrake, Clay Tabor, Ran Feng, Andrés Baselga, Kerstin Kretschmer, Buntarou Kusumoto & Yasuhiro Kubota
A major research question concerning global pelagic biodiversity remains unanswered: when did the apparent tropical biodiversity depression (i.e., bimodality of latitudinal diversity gradient [LDG]) begin? The bimodal LDG may be a consequence of recent ocean warming or of deep-time evolutionary speciation and extinction processes. Using rich time-slice datasets of planktonic foraminifers, we show here that a unimodal (or only weakly bimodal) diversity gradient, with a plateau in the tropics, occurred during the last ice age...

Microhabitat contributes to microgeographic divergence in threespine stickleback

Meghan Maciejewski, Cynthia Jiang, Yoel Stuart & Daniel Bolnick
Since the New Synthesis, most migration-selection balance theory predicted that there should be negligible differentiation over small spatial scales (relative to dispersal), because gene flow should erode any effect of divergent selection. Nevertheless, there are classic examples of microgeographic divergence, which theory suggests can arise under specific conditions: exceptionally strong selection, phenotypic plasticity in philopatric individuals, or non-random dispersal. Here, we present evidence of microgeographic morphological variation within lake and stream populations of threespine stickleback...

Data from: The arboreal ants of a Neotropical rainforest show high species density and comprise one third of the ant fauna

John Longino & Robert Colwell
In tropical rainforests, the ant community can be divided into ground and arboreal faunas. Here we report a thorough sampling of the arboreal ant fauna of La Selva Biological Station, a Neotropical rainforest site. Forty-five canopy fogging samples were centered around large trees. Individual samples harbored an average of 35 ant species, with up to 55 species in a single sample. The fogging samples yielded 163 observed species total, out of a statistically estimated 199...

Genetic differentiation underlies seasonal variation in thermal tolerance, body size, and plasticity in a short-lived copepod

Matthew Sasaki & Hans Dam
Organisms experience variation in the thermal environment on several different temporal scales, with seasonality being particularly prominent in temperate regions. For organisms with short generation times, seasonal variation is experienced across, rather than within, generations. How this variation affects the seasonal evolution of thermal tolerance and phenotypic plasticity is understudied, but has direct implications for the thermal ecology of these organisms. Here we document intra-annual patterns of thermal tolerance in two species of Acartia copepods...

Support for the habitat amount hypothesis from a global synthesis of species density studies

James Watling, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, Marion Pfeifer, Lander Baeten, Cristina Banks-Leite, Laura Cisneros, Rebecca Fang, Caroli Hamel-Leigue, Thibault Lachat, Inara Leal, Luc Lens, Hugh Possingham, Dinarzarde Raheem, Danilo Ribeiro, Eleanor Slade, Nicolas Urbina-Cardona, Eric Wood & Lenore Fahrig
Decades of research suggest that species richness depends on spatial characteristics of habitat patches, especially their size and isolation. In contrast, the habitat amount hypothesis predicts that: 1) species richness in plots of fixed size (species density) is more strongly and positively related to the amount of habitat around the plot than to patch size or isolation; 2) habitat amount better predicts species density than patch size and isolation combined, 3) there is no effect...

Evolutionary signal in the gut microbiomes of 74 bird species from Equatorial Guinea

Sarah Hird, Darien Capunitan, Oscar Johnson & Ryan Terrill
How the microbiome interacts with hosts across evolutionary time is poorly understood. To address this question, datasets comprised of many host species are required to conduct comparative analyses. Here, we have analyzed 142 intestinal microbiome samples from 92 birds belonging to 74 species from Equatorial Guinea, using the 16S rRNA gene. Using four definitions for microbial taxonomic units (97%OTU, 99%OTU, 99%OTU with singletons removed, ASV), we conducted alpha and beta diversity analyses and used phylogenetic...

Gibbon genome (Nleu3.0) custom gene annotation file

Mariam Okhovat, Kimberly A. Nevonen, Brett A. Davis, Pryce Michener, Samantha Ward, Mark Milhaven, Lana Harshman, Ajuni Sohota, Jason D. Fernandes, Sofie R. Salama, Rachel J. O'Neill, Nadav Ahituv, Krishna R. Veeramah & Lucia Carbone
Co-option of transposable elements (TEs) to become part of existing or new enhancers is an important mechanism for evolution of gene regulation. However, contributions of lineage-specific TE insertions to recent regulatory adaptations remain poorly understood. Gibbons present a suitable model to study these contributions as they have evolved a lineage-specific TE called LAVA, which is still active in the gibbon genome. The LAVA retrotransposon is thought to have played a role in the emergence of...

Data from: Between predators and parasitoids: complex interactions among shelter traits, predation, and parasitism in a shelter-building caterpillar community

Christina Baer & Robert Marquis
Shelter building is widespread in the animal world and such shelters often influence the success of their builders. Shelters built by caterpillars influence the likelihood of attacks by natural enemies, but how particular shelter traits influence caterpillar survival is not known. Furthermore, the differential effects of certain shelter traits on some natural enemies, such as predators, may lead to “enemy-free space” for other natural enemies (parasitoids). The parasitoid enemy-free space hypothesis has not been directly...

Datasets - Evolutionary history, not ecogeographic rules, explains size variation of tropical insects along elevational gradients

Carlos Garcia-Robledo
One of the best-known biogeographic rules for ectotherms is the temperature-size rule, which asserts that ectotherms produce smaller adults at warmer temperatures. Although this is often true, it has become clear that there is no single process behind the pattern and many exceptions to the rule. To disentangle such complex temperature-size relationships, individual clades must be examined at ecological and evolutionary scales. We examined temperature-size relationships for 2106 individuals from 64 populations and 40 species...

Burying beetle parents adaptively manipulate information broadcast from a microbial community

Stephen Trumbo, Paula Philbrick, Johannes Stokl & Sandra Steiger
Microbial volatiles provide essential information for animals, which compete to detect, respond to and perhaps control this information. Burying beetle parents have the opportunity to influence microbially-derived semiochemicals because they monopolize a small carcass for their family, repairing feeding holes and applying exudates that alter the microbial community. To study adaptive manipulation of microbial cues we integrated mechanistic and functional approaches. We contrasted Gas Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) volatile profiles from carcasses that were or...

Plant-caterpillar interaction matrices of temperate broadleaf forests

Carlo Lutz Seifert, Martin Volf, Leonardo R. Jorge, Tomokazu Abe, Grace Carscallen, Pavel Drozd, Rajesh Kumar, Greg P. A. Lamarre, Martin Libra, Maria E. Losada, Scott E. Miller, Masashi Murakami, Geoffrey Nichols, Petr Pyszko, Martin Šigut, David L. Wagner & Vojtěch Novotny
1. Assemblages of insect herbivores are structured by plant traits such as nutrient content, secondary metabolites, physical traits, and phenology. Many of these traits are phylogenetically conserved, implying a decrease in trait similarity with increasing phylogenetic distance of the host plant taxa. Thus, a metric of phylogenetic distances and relationships can be considered a proxy for phylogenetically conserved plant traits and used to predict variation in herbivorous insect assemblages among co-occurring plant species. 2. Using...

The cost of ectoparasitism in cliff swallows declines over 35 years

Charles Brown, Stacey Hannebaum, Valerie O'Brien, Catherine Page, Bruce Rannala, Erin Roche, Gigi Wagnon, Sarah Knutie, Amy Moore & Mary Brown
Host-parasite dynamics often vary over time, brought about by changes in the parasite’s virulence or the host’s ability to resist or tolerate the parasite. Although virulence evolution in microparasites is well studied, we know little about temporal change in the pathogenicity of macroparasites such as blood-feeding insects. Using data collected over 35 years, we report a reduction in pathogenicity of the hematophagous swallow bug (Cimex vicarius) on its cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) host. Relative to...

Data from: Anthelmintic drugs modulate the acute phase immune response but not the microbiota in wild Song Sparrows

Grace Vaziri, Michelle Jusino, Jon Palmer, Matthew Brewer & James Adelman
Co-infection with microparasites (e.g., bacteria) and macroparasites (e.g., helminths) is often the natural state for wild animals. Despite evidence that gut helminths can bias immune responses away from inflammatory processes, few field studies have examined the role that helminths, or their potential interactions with internal microbial communities, play in modulating immunity in free-living, wild birds. Here, we used anthelmintic drugs to treat wild Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia) for helminth infections and measured markers of systemic...

Circumventing surface tension: tadpoles suck bubbles to breathe air

Kurt Schwenk
The surface tension of water provides a thin, elastic membrane upon which many tiny animals are adapted to live and move. We show that it may be equally important to the minute animals living beneath it by examining air-breathing mechanics in five species (three families) of anuran (frog) tadpoles. Air-breathing is essential for survival and development in most tadpoles, yet we found that all tadpoles at small body sizes were unable to break through the...

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Connecticut
  • University of Washington
  • University of California, San Francisco
  • University of California Los Angeles
  • Loyola University Chicago
  • John Carroll University
  • Oregon Health & Science University
  • Ghent University
  • University of Erlangen-Nuremberg
  • Colby College