18 Works

Data from: Effects of feral cats on the evolution of anti-predator behaviours in island reptiles: insights from an ancient introduction

Binbin Li, Anat Belasen, Panayiotis Pafilis, Peter Bednekoff & Johannes Foufopoulos
Exotic predators have been the driving force behind the extinction of many island endemic species. We examined impacts of feral cats (Felis catus) on the abundance and anti-predator behaviors of Aegean wall lizards (Podarcis erhardii) in the Cyclades (Greece), where cats were introduced thousands of years ago. We compared populations with high and low cat density on Naxos and populations on surrounding islets with no cats. Results show that cats have strong negative effects on...

Microclimate measurements (15-minute intervals) at Fish Lake Environmental Education Center (Eastern Michigan University; Lapeer County, Michigan, USA)

Brian Connolly, Molly Ripka & Wolfgang Ebersole
Longitudinal microclimate data provide essential information on seasonal and annual trends in important measures of the physical environment. Here, we provide data sets from two independent microclimate stations reporting air temperature, soil temperature (at three depths), soil volumetric water content (VWC), and precipitation in an open forest clearing near Lapeer Michigan. This data is versatile and has multiple applications. For example, this data has been used in an environmental education setting to teach college students...

Data from: The phylogeographic history of Megistostegium (Malvaceae) in the dry, spiny thickets of southwestern Madagascar using RAD-seq data and ecological niche modeling.

Margaret Hanes, Susan Shell, Tahsina Shimu, Clarissa Crist & Salima Machkour-M’Rabet
The spiny thicket of southwestern Madagascar represents an extreme and ancient landscape with extraordinary levels of biodiversity and endemism. Few hypotheses exist for explaining speciation in the region and few plant studies have explored hypotheses for species diversification. Here we investigate three species in the endemic genus Megistostegium (Malvaceae) to evaluate phylogeographic structure and explore the roles of climate, soil and paleoclimate oscillations on population divergence and speciation throughout the region. We combine phylogenetic and...

Soil resources mediate the strength of species but not trait convergence across grassland restorations

Christopher Catano, Tyler Basset, Jonathan Bauer, Emily Grman, Anna Groves, Chad Zirbel & Lars Brudvig
Ecological restoration is notoriously unpredictable because similar actions can result in different outcomes. Outcomes can also differ for species and functional components of communities depending on how restoration actions and abiotic conditions alter community assembly trajectories. Quantifying variation in community trajectories across restorations for both species and traits is rare, but can help to resolve underlying assembly processes and refine strategies to maximize restoration success. We quantified the importance of soil resources, seed mix richness,...

Data from: Locomotor endurance predicts differences in realized dispersal between sympatric sexual and unisexual salamanders

Robert D. Denton, Katherine R. Greenwald & H. Lisle Gibbs
Dispersal is the central mechanism that determines connectivity between populations yet few studies connect the mechanisms of movement with realized dispersal in natural populations. To make such a link, we assessed how physiological variation among individuals predicted dispersal in natural populations of unisexual (all-female) and sexual Ambystoma salamanders on the same fragmented landscape in Ohio. Specifically, we assessed variation in a trait that influences long-distance animal movement (locomotor endurance) and determined whether variation in endurance...

Diameter measurements of 14 Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus) at Fish Lake Environmental Education Center (Eastern Michigan University; Lapeer County, Michigan, USA)

Brian Connolly, Molly Ripka & Wolfgang Ebersole
Longitudinal data on native tree growth (e.g., change in diameter) provides important information on the performance and productivity of these long-lived organisms over discrete environmental periods (e.g., seasons, years). The data in this file may prove useful to many users including, but not limited to ecological or forestry modelers ground truthing regional models estimating tree productivity, forestry students learning to estimate how individual tree basal area changes over seasons or year, or instructors and students...

Decreased coevolutionary potential and increased symbiont fecundity during the biological invasion of a legume-rhizobium mutualism

Camille Wendlandt, Emily Helliwell, Miles Roberts, Kyle Nguyen, Maren Friesen, Eric Von Wettberg, Paul Price, Joel Griffitts & Stephanie Porter
Although most invasive species engage in mutualism, we know little about how mutualism evolves as partners colonize novel environments. Selection on cooperation and standing genetic variation for mutualism traits may differ between a mutualism's invaded and native ranges, which could alter cooperation and coevolutionary dynamics. To test for such differences, we compare mutualism traits between invaded- and native-range host-symbiont genotype combinations of the weedy legume, Medicago polymorpha, and its nitrogen-fixing rhizobium symbiont, Ensifer medicae, which...

Data from: Evolution of antipredator behavior in an island lizard species, Podarcis erhardii (Reptilia: Lacertidae): the sum of all fears?

Kinsey M. Brock, Peter A. Bednekoff, Panayiotis Pafilis & Johannes Foufopoulos
Organisms generally have many defenses against predation yet may lack effective defenses if from populations without predators. Evolutionary theory predicts that ‘costly’ antipredator behaviors will be selected against when predation risk diminishes. We examined antipredator behaviors in Aegean wall lizards, Podarcis erhardii, across an archipelago of land-bridge islands that vary in predator diversity and period of isolation. We examined two defenses, flight initiation distance and tail autotomy. Flight initiation distance generally decreased with declining predator...

Data from: Energy conserving thermoregulatory patterns and lower disease severity in a bat resistant to the impacts of white-nose syndrome

Marianne S. Moore, Kenneth A. Field, Melissa J. Behr, Gregory G. Turner, Morgan E. Furze, Daniel W. F. Stern, Paul R. Allegra, Sarah A. Bouboulis, Chelsey D. Musante, Megan E. Vodzak, Matthew E. Biron, Melissa B. Meierhofer, Winifred F. Frick, Jeffrey T. Foster, Daryl Howell, Joseph A. Kath, Allen Kurta, Gerda Nordquist, Joseph S. Johnson, Thomas M. Lilley, Benjamin W. Barrett & DeeAnn M. Reeder
The devastating bat fungal disease, white-nose syndrome (WNS), does not appear to affect all species equally. To experimentally determine susceptibility differences between species, we exposed hibernating naïve little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to the fungus that causes WNS, Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). After hibernating under identical conditions, Pd lesions were significantly more prevalent and more severe in little brown myotis. This species difference in pathology correlates with susceptibility to WNS...

Data from: Periphytic algae decouple fungal activity from leaf litter decomposition via negative priming

Halvor M. Halvorson, Jacob R. Barry, Matthew B. Lodato, Robert H. Findlay, Steven N. Francoeur & Kevin A. Kuehn
1. Well-documented in terrestrial settings, priming effects describe stimulated heterotrophic microbial activity and decomposition of recalcitrant carbon by additions of labile carbon. In aquatic settings, algae produce labile exudates which may elicit priming during organic matter decomposition, yet the directions and mechanisms of aquatic priming effects remain poorly tested. 2. We tested algal-induced priming during decomposition of two leaf species of contrasting recalcitrance, Liriodendron tulipifera and Quercus nigra, in experimental streams under light or dark...

Wildlife activity timing in shrub-invaded and shrub-removed oak-hickory forest at Fish Lake Environmental Education Center (Eastern Michigan University; Lapeer County, Michigan, USA)

Brian Connolly, Scott Armstrong & Paul Wozniak
Wildlife activity timing reflects an individual animal’s need to balance activities that improve fitness with timing that minimizes risk of exposure to extreme climatic conditions, predation risk, and other threats to survival and growth. Habitat structure, such as the type or amount of vegetative cover, can have a direct effect on the timing and amount of wildlife activity and these habitat-mediated differences in animal activity can translate to shifts in important species interactions (e.g., predator-prey...

Group-size effect on vigilance in mammals

Guy Beauchamp, Zhongqiu Li, Cong Yu, Peter Bednekoff & Daniel Blumstein
Group-size effects, whereby antipredator vigilance decreases as group size increases, are widely reported in mammals and birds but a meta-analysis has only been conducted in birds. We systematically reviewed the literature on mammalian group-size effects, estimated the effect sizes in each study, and conducted a phylogenetic meta-analysis. We obtained 296 effect sizes from 97 species belonging to 10 Orders and 26 Families. Overall, effect sizes indicated a moderate negative effect of group size (r =...

Do tradeoffs govern plant species responses to different global change treatments?

J. Adam Langley, Emily Grman, Kevin Wilcox, Meghan Avolio, Kimberly Komatsu, Scott Collins, Sally Koerner, Melinda Smith, Andrew Baldwin, William Bowman, Nona Chiariello, Anu Eskelinen, Harry Harmens, Mark Hovenden, Kari Klanderud, Rebecca McCulley, Vladimir Onipchenko, Clare Robinson & Katharine Suding
Plants are subject to tradeoffs among growth strategies such that adaptations for optimal growth in one condition can preclude optimal growth in another. Thus, we hypothesized that the response of plant species abundance to one global change treatment would relate inversely to the response to a second treatment, particularly for treatment combinations that accentuate distinct traits. To address this hypothesis, we examined plant species abundances in 39 global change experiments manipulating CO2, nitrogen, phosphorus, water,...

Data from: Evolutionary basis of mitonuclear discordance between sister species of mole salamanders (Ambystoma sp.)

Robert D. Denton, Laura J. Kenyon, Katherine R. Greenwald, H. Lisle Gibbs & H.Lisle Gibbs
Distinct genetic markers should show similar patterns of differentiation between species reflecting their common evolutionary histories yet there are increasing examples of differences in the biogeographic distribution of species-specific nuclear (nuDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants within and between species. Identifying the evolutionary processes that underlie these anomalous patterns of genetic differentiation is an important goal. Here we analyze the putative mitonuclear discordance observed between sister species of mole salamanders (Ambystoma barbouri and A. texanum)...

Data from: Immune responses in hibernating little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) with white-nose syndrome

Thomas M. Lilley, Jenni M. Prokkola, Joseph S. Johnson, Elizabeth J. Rogers, Sarah Gronsky, Allen Kurta, DeeAnn M. Reeder & Kenneth A. Field
White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a fungal disease responsible for decimating many bat populations in North America. Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), the psychrophilic fungus responsible for WNS, prospers in the winter habitat of many hibernating bat species. The immune response that Pd elicits in bats is not yet fully understood; antibodies are produced in response to infection by Pd, but they may not be protective and indeed may be harmful. To understand how bats respond to infection...

Heating Arrays Aboveground Biomass Data

Louis Jochems, Jennifer Lau, Lars Brudvig & Emily Grman
Restoration in this era of climate change comes with a new challenge: anticipating how best to restore populations to persist under future climate conditions. Specifically, it remains unknown whether locally-adapted or warm-adapted seeds best promote native plant community restoration in the warmer conditions predicted in the future and whether local or warm-adapted soil microbial communities could mitigate plant responses to warming. This may be especially relevant for biomes spanning large climatic gradients, such as the...

Negotiating mutualism: a locus for exploitation by rhizobia has a broad effect size distribution and context-dependent effects on legume hosts

Camille Wendlandt, Miles Roberts, Kyle Nguyen, Marion Graham, Zoie Lopez, Emily Helliwell, Maren Friesen, Joel Griffitts, Paul Price & Stephanie Porter
In mutualisms, variation at genes determining partner fitness provides the raw material upon which coevolutionary selection acts, setting the dynamics and pace of coevolution. However, we know little about variation in the effects of genes that underlie symbiotic fitness in natural mutualist populations. In some species of legumes that form root nodule symbioses with nitrogen-fixing rhizobial bacteria, hosts secrete nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides that cause rhizobia to differentiate in the nodule environment. However, rhizobia can...

Data from: Plant functional traits and environmental conditions shape community assembly and ecosystem functioning during restoration

Chad R. Zirbel, Tyler Basset, Emily Grman, Lars A. Brudvig & Tyler Bassett
Recovering biological diversity and ecosystem functioning are primary objectives of ecological restoration, yet these outcomes are often unpredictable. Assessments based on functional traits may help with interpreting variability in both community composition and ecosystem functioning because of their mechanistic and generalizable nature. This promise remains poorly realized, however, because tests linking environmental conditions, functional traits, and ecosystem functioning in restoration are rare. Here, we provide such a test through what is to our knowledge the...

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