63 Works

Data from: Genetic restoration in the eastern collared lizard under prescribed woodland burning

Jennifer L. Neuwald & Alan R. Templeton
Eastern collared lizards of the Ozarks live in glades—open, rocky habitats embedded in a woodland matrix. Past fire suppression had made the woodlands a barrier to dispersal, leading to habitat destruction, fragmentation and local extinction. Reintroduced populations of lizards were subjected to 10 years of habitat fragmentation under continued fire suppression followed by twelve years of landscape restoration with prescribed burns. Prior to prescribed burning, genetic diversity decreased within glades and differentiation increased among glades....

Data from: Factors related to building loss due to wildfires in the conterminous United States

Patricia M. Alexandre, Susan I. Stewart, Nicholas S. Keuler, Murray K. Clayton, Miranda H. Mockrin, Avi Bar-Massada, Alexandra D. Syphard & Volker C. Radeloff
Wildfire is globally an important ecological disturbance affecting biochemical cycles, and vegetation composition, but also puts people and their homes at risk. Suppressing wildfires has detrimental ecological effects and can promote larger and more intense wildfires when fuels accumulate, which increases the threat to buildings in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI). Yet, when wildfires occur, typically only a small proportion of the buildings within the fire perimeter are lost, and the question is what determines...

Data from: Triplet MaxCut: a new toolkit for rooted supertree

Gur Sevillya, Zeev Frenkel & Sagi Snir
The rapid increase of molecular, as well as other types, of available classification data has created the need to combine this data into a unified hypothesis. Supertree methods are essential when amalgamating phylogenetic information from various, possibly conflicting, sources into a single tree. The goal of a supertree algorithm is to satisfy maximally each such source of information in the output tree. Triplets, rooted trees over three leaves, are the minimal piece of such information...

Data from: miR-9a modulates maintenance and ageing of Drosophila germline stem cells by limiting N-cadherin expression

Yehonatan Epstein, Noam Perry, Marina Volin, Maayan Zohar-Fux, Rachel Braun, Lilach Porat-Kuperstein & Hila Toledano
Ageing is characterized by a decline in stem cell functionality leading to dampened tissue regeneration. While the expression of microRNAs across multiple species is markedly altered with age, the mechanism by which they govern stem cell-sustained tissue regeneration is unknown. We report that in the Drosophila testis, the conserved miR-9a is expressed in germline stem cells and its levels are significantly elevated during ageing. Transcriptome and functional analyses show that miR-9a directly regulates the expression...

Data from: Invasiveness, chimerism and genetic diversity

Rachel Ben-Shlomo
Adaptation for invasiveness should comprise the capability to exploit and prosper in a wide range of ecological conditions, and is therefore expected to be associated with a certain level of genetic diversity. Paradoxically, however, invasive populations are established by only a few founders, resulting in low genetic diversity. As a conceivable way of attaining high genetic diversity and high variance of gene expression even when a small number of founders is involved in invasiveness, I...

Data from: Spatiotemporal dynamics and genome-wide association analysis of desiccation tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster

Subhash Rajpurohit, Eran Gefen, Alan O. Bergland, Dmitri A. Petrov, Allen G. Gibbs & Paul S. Schmidt
Water availability is a major environmental challenge to a variety of terrestrial organisms. In insects, desiccation tolerance varies predictably over spatial and temporal scales and is an important physiological determinant of fitness in natural populations. Here, we examine the dynamics of desiccation tolerance in North American populations of Drosophila melanogaster using: 1) natural populations sampled across latitudes and seasons; 2) experimental evolution in field mesocosms over seasonal time; 3) genome-wide associations to identify SNPs/genes associated...

Data from: Legume abundance along successional and rainfall gradients in neotropical forests

Maga Gei, Danaë M. A. Rozendaal, Lourens Poorter, Frans Bongers, Janet I. Sprent, Mira D. Garner, T. Mitchell Aide, José Luis Andrade, Patricia Balvanera, Justin M. Becknell, Pedro H.S. Brancalion, George A. L. Cabral, Ricardo Gomes César, Robin L. Chazdon, Rebecca J. Cole, Gabriel Dalla Colletta, Ben De Jong, Julie S. Denslow, Daisy H. Dent, Saara J. DeWalt, Juan Manuel Dupuy, Sandra M. Durán, Mário Marcos Do Espírito Santo, G. Wilson Fernandes, Yule Roberta Ferreira Nunes … & Jennifer S. Powers
The nutrient demands of regrowing tropical forests are partly satisfied by nitrogen (N)-fixing legume trees, but our understanding of the abundance of those species is biased towards wet tropical regions. Here we show how the abundance of Leguminosae is affected by both recovery from disturbance and large-scale rainfall gradients through a synthesis of forest-inventory plots from a network of 42 Neotropical forest chronosequences. During the first three decades of natural forest regeneration, legume basal area...

Seasonal niche tracking of climate emerges at the population level in a migratory bird

Guillermo Fandos, Shay Rotics, Nir Sapir, Wolfgang Fiedler, Michael Kaatz, Martin Wikelski, Ran Nathan & Damaris Zurell
Seasonal animal migration is a widespread phenomenon. At the species level, it has been shown that many migratory animal species track similar climatic conditions throughout the year. However, it remains unclear whether such niche tracking pattern is a direct consequence of individual behaviour or emerges at the population or species level through behavioural variability. Here, we estimated seasonal niche overlap and seasonal niche tracking at the individual and population level of Central European White Storks...

Groping in the fog: Soaring migrants exhibit wider scatter in flight directions and respond differently to wind under low visibility conditions

Paolo Becciu, Michele Panuccio, Giacomo Dell'Omo & Nir Sapir
Atmospheric conditions are known to affect flight propensity, behaviour during flight, and migration route in birds. Yet, the effects of fog have only rarely been studied although they could disrupt orientation and hamper flight. Fog could limit the visibility of migrating birds such that they might not be able to detect landmarks that guide them during their journey. Soaring migrants modulate their flight speed and direction in relation to the wind vector to optimise the...

Data from: Islands and streams: clusters and gene flow in wild barley populations from the Levant

Sariel Hübner, Torsten Günther, Andrew Flavell, Eyal Fridman, Andreas Graner, Abraham Korol & Karl J. Schmid
The domestication of plants frequently results in a high level of genetic differentiation between domesticated plants and their wild progenitors. This process is counteracted by gene flow between wild and domesticated plants because they are usually able to inter-mate and to exchange genes. We investigated the extent of gene flow between wild barley Hordeum spontaneum and cultivated barley Hordeum vulgare, and its effect on population structure in wild barley by analyzing a collection of 896...

Data from: Phylogenetic analyses unravel the evolutionary history of NAC proteins in plants

Tingting Zhu, Eviatar Nevo, Dongfa Sun & Junhua Peng
NAC (NAM/ATAF/CUC) proteins are one of the largest groups of transcription factors in plants. Although many NAC proteins based on Arabidopsis and rice genomes have been reported in a number of species, a complete survey and classification of all NAC genes in plant species from disparate evolutionary groups is lacking. In this study, we analyzed whole-genome sequences from nine major lineages of land plants in order to unveil the relationships between these proteins. Our results...

Data from: Weighted quartets phylogenetics

Eliran Avni, Reuven Cohen & Sagi Snir
Despite impressive technical and theoretical developments, reconstruction of phylogenetic trees for enormous quantities of molecular data is still a challenging task. A key tool in analyses of large data sets has been the construction of separate trees for subsets (e.g., quartets) of sequences, and subsequent combination of these subtrees into a single tree for the full set (i.e., supertree analysis). Unfortunately, even amalgamating quartets into a supertree remains a computationally daunting task. Assigning weights to...

Data from: The joint evolution of the Myxozoa and their alternate hosts: a cnidarian recipe for success and vast biodiversity

Astrid S. Holzer, Pavla Bartosova-Sojkova, Ana Born-Torrijos, Alena Lövy, Ashlie Hartigan & Ivan Fiala
The relationships between parasites and their hosts are intimate, dynamic and complex; the evolution of one is inevitably linked to the other. Despite multiple origins of parasitism in the Cnidaria, only parasites belonging to the Myxozoa are characterized by a complex life cycle, alternating between fish and invertebrate hosts, as well as by exceptionally high species diversity. This inspired us to examine the history of reciprocal interactions and adaptive radiations in myxozoans and their hosts...

Data from: Positive selection on sociobiological traits in invasive fire ants

Eyal Privman, Pnina Cohen, Amir B. Cohanim, Oksana Riba-Grognuz, DeWayne Shoemaker & Laurent Keller
The fire ant Solenopsis invicta and its close relatives are highly invasive. Enhanced social cooperation may facilitate invasiveness in these and other invasive ant species. We investigated whether invasiveness in Solenopsis fire ants was accompanied by positive selection on sociobiological traits by applying a phylogenomics approach to infer ancient selection, and a population genomics approach to infer recent and ongoing selection in both native and introduced S. invicta populations. A combination of whole-genome sequencing of...

The evolutionary advantage of fitness-dependent recombination in diploids: a deterministic mutation–selection–balance model

Sviatoslav Rybnikov, Zeev Frenkel & Abraham B. Korol
Recombination’s omnipresence in nature is one of the most intriguing problems in evolutionary biology. The question of why recombination exhibits certain general features is no less interesting than that of why it exists at all. One such feature is recombination’s fitness dependence (FD). The so far developed population-genetics models have focused on the evolution of FD recombination mainly in haploids, although the empirical evidence for this phenomenon comes mostly from diploids. Using numerical analysis of...

Data on universities offering undergraduate degrees that train students for soil science careers at universities in the USA and its territories

Eric C. Brevik, Holly Dolliver, Susan Edinger-Marshall, Danny Itkin, Jodi Johnson-Maynard, Garrett Liles, Monday Mbila, Colby Moorberg, Yaniria Sanchez-De Leon, Joshua J. Steffan, April Ulery & Karen Vaughan
Several soil science education studies over the last 15 years have focused on the number of students enrolled in soil science programs. However, no studies have quantitatively addressed the number of undergraduate soil science preparatory programs that exist in the United States, which means we do not have solid data concerning whether overall program numbers are declining, rising, or holding steady. This also means we do not have complete data on the same trends for...

Limited divergent adaptation despite a substantial environmental cline in wild pea

Timo Hellwig, Shahal Abbo, Amir Sherman, Clarice Coyne, Yehoshua Saranga, Doreen Main, Ping Zheng, Simcha Lev-Yadun & Ron Ophir
Isolation by environment (IBE) is a wide spread phenomenon in nature. It is commonly expected that the degree of differences among environments is proportional to the level of divergence between populations in these environments. Consequentially, it is assumed that species’ genetic diversity displays pattern of IBE in the presence of a strong environmental cline if geneflow does not mitigate isolation. We tested this common assumption by analyzing the genetic diversity and demographic history of Pisum...

Revealing cryptic interactions between large mammalian herbivores and plant-dwelling arthropods via DNA metabarcoding

Moshe Inbar & Tali Berman
In the past decade, it has become clear that omnivory, feeding on more than one trophic level, is important in natural and agricultural systems. Large mammalian herbivores (LMH) frequently encounter plant-dwelling arthropods (PDA) on their food plants. Yet, ingestion of PDA by LMH is only rarely addressed and the extent of this direct trophic interaction, especially at the PDA community level, remains unknown. Using a DNA metabarcoding analysis on feces of free-ranging cattle from a...

Comparative genetics of Scyphozoan species reveals the geological history and contemporary processes of the Mediterranean Sea

Gur Mizrahi, Eli Shemesh, Avia Mizrachi & Dan Tchernov
Jellyfish are attractive biological indicators of shifts in the marine environment, as they have limited mobility and they are highly exposed to the physics and chemistry of the water column. For this study, we focused on three Mediterranean macro-jellyfish - Rhizostoma pulmo, Aurelia sp. and Phyllorhiza punctata. We used comparative genomics and molecular clock (timetree) approaches to estimate occurrences of past geological events and contemporary anthropogenic effects in the Mediterranean Sea. Our results proved that...

Environmental controls on butterfly occurrence and species richness in Israel: The importance of temperature over rainfall

Orr Comay, Oz Ben Yehuda, Racheli Schwartz-Tzachor, Dubi Benyamini, Israel Pe'er, Inbar Ktalav & Guy Pe’er
Aim Butterflies are considered important indicators representing the state of biodiversity and key ecosystem functions, but their use as bioindicators requires better understanding of how their observed response link to environmental factors. Moreover, better understanding how butterfly faunas vary with climate and land cover may be useful to estimate the potential impacts of various drivers, including climate change, botanical succession, grazing, and afforestation. It is particularly important to establish which species of butterflies are sensitive...

Large herbivores facilitate an insect herbivore by modifying plant community composition in a temperate grassland

Xiaofei Li, Shengnan Wang, Chelse Prather, Ho Yi Wan, Hui Zhu, Petri Nummi, Moshe Inbar, Qiang Gao, Deli Wang & Zhiwei Zhong
Large herbivores often co-occur and share plant resources with herbivorous insects in grassland ecosystems, yet how they interact with each other remains poorly understood. We conducted a series of field experiments to investigate whether and how large domestic herbivores (sheep; Ovis aries) may affect the abundance of a common herbivorous insect (aphid; Hyalopterus pruni) in a temperate grassland of northeast China. Our exclosure experiment showed that three years (2010-2012) of sheep grazing had led to...

Data from: Genetic variation in bitter taste receptor genes influences the foraging behavior of plateau zokor (Eospalax baileyi)

Fang Zhao, Tongzuo Zhang, Jiuxiang Xie, Shoudong Zhang, Eviatar Nevo, Jianping Su & Gonghua Lin
The ability to detect bitter tastes is important for animals; it can help them to avoid ingesting harmful substances. Bitter taste perception is mainly mediated by bitter taste receptor proteins, which are encoded by members of the Tas2r gene family and vary with the dietary preference of a specific species. Although individuals with different genotypes differ in bitterness recognition capability, little is known about the relationship between genetic variation and food selection tendencies at the...

Data from: Acclimatization of symbiotic corals to mesophotic light environments through wavelength transformation by fluorescent protein pigments

Edward G. Smith, Cecilia D'Angelo, Yoni Sharon, Dan Tchernov & Joerg Wiedenmann
The depth distribution of reef-building corals exposes their photosynthetic symbionts of the genus Symbiodinium to extreme gradients in the intensity and spectral quality of the ambient light environment. Characterizing the mechanisms used by the coral holobiont to respond to the low intensity and reduced spectral composition of the light environment in deeper reefs (greater than 20 m) is fundamental to our understanding of the functioning and structure of reefs across depth gradients. Here, we demonstrate...

Data from: An experimental evolution study confirms that discontinuous gas exchange does not contribute to body water conservation in locusts

Stav Talal, Amir Ayali & Eran Gefen
The adaptive nature of discontinuous gas exchange (DGE) in insects is contentious. The classic “hygric hypothesis”, which posits that DGE serves to reduce respiratory water loss (RWL), is still the best supported. We thus focused on the hygric hypothesis in this first ever experimental evolution study of any of the competing adaptive hypotheses. We compared populations of the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria) that underwent ten consecutive generations of selection for desiccation-resistance with control populations. Selected...

Data from: Large birds travel farther in homogeneous environments

Marlee A. Tucker, Olga Alexandrou, , Keith L. Bildstein, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Chloe Bracis, John N. Brzorad, Evan R. Buechley, David Cabot, Justin M. Calabrese, Carlos Carrapato, André Chiaradia, Lisa C. Davenport, Sarah C. Davidson, Mark Desholm, Christopher R. DeSorbo, Robert Domenech, Peter Enggist, William F. Fagan, Nina Farwig, Wolfgang Fiedler, Christen H. Fleming, Alastair Franke, John M. Fryxell, Clara García-Ripollés … & João Paulo Silva
Aim: Animal movement is an important determinant of individual survival, population dynamics, and ecosystem structure and function. Yet it is still unclear how local movements are related to resource availability and the spatial arrangement of resources. Using resident bird species and migratory bird species outside of the migratory period, we examined how the distribution of resources affect the movement patterns of both large terrestrial birds (e.g., raptors, bustards, hornbills) and waterbirds (e.g., cranes, storks, ducks,...

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