111 Works

Magnetic resonance imaging reveals human brown adipose tissue is rapidly activated in response to cold

Katherine Morrison, Stephan Oreskovich, Frank Ong, Basma Ahmed, Norman Konyer, Denis Blondin, Elizabeth Gunn, Nina Singh, Michael Noseworthy, Francois Haman, Andre Carpentier, Zubin Punthakee & Gregory Steinberg
Context. In rodents, cold exposure induces the activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and the induction of intracellular triacylglycerol (TAG) lipolysis. However, in humans, the kinetics of supraclavicular (SCV) BAT activation and the potential importance of TAG stores remain poorly defined. Objective. To determine the time course of BAT activation and changes in intracellular TAG using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment of the SCV (i.e. BAT depot) and fat in the posterior neck region (i.e....

Adverse effects of remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, and lopinavir/ritonavir when used for COVID-19: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials

Anila Qasim, Ariel Izcovich, Reed Siemieniuk, Jessica Bartoszko, Long Ge, Dena Zeraatkar, Elena Kum, Assem Khamis, Bram Rochwerg, Thomas Agoritsas, Derek Chu, Shelley McLeod, Reem Mustafa, Per Vandvik & Romina Brignardello-Petersen
Background: To summarize specific adverse effects of remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, and lopinavir/ritonavir in patients with COVID-19. Methods: We searched 32 databases through 27 October 2020. We included randomized trials comparing any of the drugs of interest to placebo or standard care, or against each other. We conducted fixed-effects pairwise meta-analysis and assessed the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. Results: We included 16 randomized trials which enrolled 8226 patients. For most interventions and outcomes the...

Coordinated changes across the O2 transport pathway underlie adaptive increases in thermogenic capacity in high-altitude deer mice

Graham Scott, Kevin Tate, Oliver Wearing, Catherine Ivy, Zachary Cheviron, Jay Storz & Grant McClelland
Animals native to the hypoxic and cold environment at high altitude provide an excellent opportunity to elucidate the integrative mechanisms underlying the adaptive evolution of complex traits. The capacity for aerobic thermogenesis can be a critical determinant of survival for small mammals at high altitude, but the physiological mechanisms underlying the evolution of thermogenic capacity remain unresolved. We examined this issue by comparing high-altitude deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) to low-altitude deer mice and white-footed mice...

Data from: Physical and social cues shape nest-site preference and prey capture behavior in social spiders

Gabriella Najm, Angelika Pe, Jonathan Pruitt & Noa Pinter-Wollman
Animals often face conflicting demands when making movement decisions. To examine the decision process of social animals, we evaluated nest site preferences of the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola. Colonies engage in collective web building, constructing three-dimensional nests and two-dimensional capture webs on trees and fences. We examined how individuals and groups decide where to construct a nest based on habitat structure and conspecific presence. Individuals had a strong preference for three dimensional-substrates and conspecific presence....

Life history predicts flight muscle phenotype and function in birds

Shane DuBay, Yongjie Wu, Graham Scott, Yanhua Qu, Qiao Liu, Joel Smith, Chao Xin, Andrew Hart Reeve, Chen Juncheng, Dylan Meyer, Jing Wang, Jacob Johnson, Zachary Cheviron, Fumin Lei & John Bates
1. Functional traits are the essential phenotypes that underlie an organism’s life history and ecology. Although biologists have long recognized that intraspecific variation is consequential to an animals’ ecology, studies of functional variation are often restricted to species-level comparisons, ignoring critical variation within species. In birds, interspecific comparisons have been foundational in connecting flight muscle phenotypes to species-level ecology, but intraspecific variation has remained largely unexplored. 2. We asked how age- and sex-dependent demands on...

Evolution of the speech‐ready brain: The voice/jaw connection in the human motor cortex

Steven Brown, Ye Yuan & Michel Belyk
A prominent model of the origins of speech, known as the “frame/content” theory, posits that oscillatory lowering and raising of the jaw provided an evolutionary scaffold for the development of syllable structure in speech. Because such oscillations are non‐vocal in most non‐human primates, the evolution of speech required the addition of vocalization onto this scaffold in order to turn such jaw oscillations into vocalized syllables. In the present functional MRI study, we demonstrate overlapping somatotopic...

UV reflectance in poison frog

Justin Yeager & James Barnett
We have identified strong UV reflectance in the white spots of only a single population of the polymorphic/polytypic poison frog species Oophaga sylvatica. As congeners (O. pumilio) are unable to view UV signals, it stands to reason that natural selection, or neutral processes are likely to be responsible for these signals. We employ visual modeling techniques to estimate the perception of these UV signals, and in a series of comparisons we show surprisingly minimal gains...

Tactic-specific antimicrobial activity suggests a parental care function for accessory glands in a marine toadfish

Meghan Pepler, Hindra Hindra, Jessica Miller, Marie Elliot & Sigal Balshine
Males of some species possess extra reproductive organs called accessory glands which are outgrowths of the testes or sperm duct. These organs have a well-established role in reproduction; however, they also appear to have other important functions that are less understood. Here we investigate the function of the highly complex accessory glands of a marine toadfish, Porichthys notatus, a fish with two reproductive male types: large care-providing ‘guarder’ males and small non-caring ‘sneaker’ males. While...

Data from: Artificial selection on sexual aggression: correlated traits and possible trade‐offs

Reuven Dukas, Janice L. Yan, Andrew M. Scott, Surabhi Sivaratnam & Carling M. Baxter
Forced copulation is an extreme form of sexual aggression that can affect the evolution of sex-specific anatomy, morphology and behavior. To characterize mechanistic and evolutionary aspects of forced copulation, we artificially selected male fruit flies based on their ability to succeed in the naturally prevalent behavior of forced matings with newly eclosed (teneral) females. The low and high forced copulation lineages showed rapid divergence, with the high lineages ultimately showing twice the rates of forced...

Defense against outside competition is linked to cooperation in male-male partnerships

Jennifer Hellmann, Kelly Stiver, Susan Marsh-Rollo & Suzanne Alonzo
Male-male competition is a well-known driver of reproductive success and sexually-selected traits in many species. However, in some species, males work together to court females or defend territories against male competitors. Dominant (nesting) males sire most offspring, but subordinate (satellite) males are better able to sneak fertilizations relative to unpartnered males. Because satellites only gain reproductive success by sneaking, there has been much interest in identifying the mechanisms enforcing satellite cooperation (defense) and reducing satellite...

Data from: A phase 3 randomized study evaluating sialic acid extended-release for GNE myopathy

Hanns Lochmüller, Anthony Behin, Yoseph Caraco, Heather Lau, Massimiliano Mirabella, Ivailo Tournev, Mark Tarnopolsky, Oksana Pogoryelova, Catherine Woods, Alexander Lai, Jinay Shah, Tony Koutsoukos, Alison Skrinar, Hank Mansbach, Emil Kakkis & Tahseen Mozaffar
Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of aceneuramic acid extended-release (Ace-ER), a treatment intended to replace deficient sialic acid, in patients with GNE myopathy. Methods: UX001-CL301 was a Phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, international study evaluating the efficacy and safety of Ace-ER in patients with GNE Myopathy. Participants who could walk ≥200 meters in a 6-minute walk test at screening were randomized 1:1, and stratified by sex, to receive Ace-ER 6g/day or placebo for...

Data from: The Achilles' heel hypothesis: misinformed keystone individuals impair collective learning and reduce group success

Jonathan Pruitt, Colin Wright, Carl Keiser, Alexander DeMarco, Matt Grobis, Noa Pinter-Wollman, Matthew M. Grobis, Alex E. DeMarco, Carl N. Keiser, Jonathan N. Pruitt & Colin M. Wright
Many animal societies rely on highly influential keystone individuals for proper functioning. When information quality is important for group success, such keystone individuals have the potential to diminish group performance if they possess inaccurate information. Here we test whether information quality (accurate or inaccurate) influences collective outcomes when keystone individuals are the first to acquire it. We trained keystone or generic individuals to attack or avoid novel stimuli and implanted these seed individuals within groups...

Data from: Winners have higher pre-copulatory mating success but losers have better post-copulatory outcomes

David Filice & Reuven Dukas
In many animals, the outcomes of competitive interactions can have lasting effects that influence an individual’s reproductive success and have important consequences for the strength and direction of evolution via sexual selection. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, males that have won previous contests are more likely to win in subsequent conflicts and losers are more likely to lose (winner-loser effects), but the direct fitness consequences and genetic underpinnings of this plasticity are poorly understood....

Data from: Impacts of degraded DNA on restriction enzyme associated DNA sequencing (RADSeq)

Carly F. Graham, Travis C. Glenn, Andrew G. McArthur, Douglas R. Boreham, Troy Kieran, Stacey Lance, Richard G. Manzon, Jessica A. Martino, Todd Pierson, Sean M. Rogers, Joanna Y. Wilson & Christopher M. Somers
Degraded DNA from suboptimal field sampling is common in molecular ecology. However, its impact on techniques that use restriction site associated next-generation DNA sequencing (RADSeq, GBS) is unknown. We experimentally examined the effects of in situDNA degradation on data generation for a modified double-digest RADSeq approach (3RAD). We generated libraries using genomic DNA serially extracted from the muscle tissue of 8 individual lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) following 0-, 12-, 48- and 96-h incubation at room...

Data from: Manipulating the appearance of a badge of status causes changes in true badge expression

Cody J. Dey, James Dale & James S. Quinn
Signals of dominance and fighting ability (i.e. status signals) are found in a wide range of taxa and are used to settle disputes between competitive rivals. Most previous research has considered status-signal phenotype as an attribute of the individual; however, it is more likely that signal expression is an emergent property that also incorporates aspects of the social environment. Furthermore, because an individual's signal phenotype is likely to influence its social interactions, the relationships between...

Data from: Species-specific patterns of nonapeptide brain gene expression relative to pair-bonding behaviour in grouping and non-grouping cichlids

Constance M. O'Connor, Susan E. Marsh-Rollo, Nadia Aubin-Horth & Sigal Balshine
Comparative studies have revealed that vasopressin-oxytocin pathways are associated with both pair bonding and grouping behaviour. However, the relationship between pair bonding and grouping behaviourremains unclear.In this study,our aim was to identify whether two species that differ in grouping behaviourdisplay a corresponding difference in their pair bonds, and in the underlying vasopressin-oxytocinhormonal pathways. Using two species of cichlid fishes, the highly social Neolamprologuspulcher and the non-social Telmatochromis temporalis, we measuredproximity of pairs during pair bond...

Data from: How do organisational characteristics influence teamwork and service delivery in lung cancer diagnostic assessment programmes? A mixed-methods study

Gladys N. Honein-AbouHaidar, Terri Stuart-McEwan, Tom Waddell, Alexandra Salvarrey, Jennifer Smylie, Mark J. Dobrow, Melissa C. Brouwers & Anna R. Gagliardi
Objectives: Diagnostic assessment programs (DAPs) can reduce wait times for cancer diagnosis but optimal DAP design is unknown. This study explored how organizational characteristics influenced multidisciplinary teamwork and diagnostic service delivery in lung cancer DAPs. Design: A mixed methods approach integrated data from descriptive qualitative interviews and medical record abstraction at four lung cancer DAPs. Findings were analyzed with the Integrated Team Effectiveness Model. Setting: Four DAPs at two teaching and two community hospitals in...

Data from: What is the primary function of the early teleost gill? Evidence for Na+/NH4+ exchange in developing rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Alex M. Zimmer, Patricia A. Wright & Chris M. Wood
Post-hatch fishes lack a functional gill and use cutaneous surfaces for exchange with the surrounding environment. The ionoregulatory hypothesis posits that ionoregulation is the first physiological process to be limited by cutaneous exchange, necessitating its shift to the gills. We hypothesized that the ontogeny of branchial ammonia excretion (Jamm) is coupled to Na+ uptake (Graphic) in accordance with the current model for Graphic exchange in freshwater. Using divided chambers, branchial and cutaneous Jamm, Graphic and...

Data from: Familiarity affects social network structure and discovery of prey patch locations in foraging stickleback shoals

Nicola Atton, Bennett J. Galef, William Hoppitt, Mike M. Webster & Kevin N. Laland
Numerous factors affect the fine-scale social structure of animal groups, but it is unclear how important such factors are in determining how individuals encounter resources. Familiarity affects shoal choice and structure in many social fishes. Here, we show that familiarity between shoal members of sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) affects both fine-scale social organization and the discovery of resources. Social network analysis revealed that sticklebacks remained closer to familiar than to unfamiliar individuals within the same shoal....

Data from: Context-dependent consequences of colour biases in a social fish

Brett Culbert, Sanduni Talagala, Emily Stanbrook, Parker Smale, Sigal Balshine & James Barnett
Colourful visual signals can provide receivers with valuable information about food, danger, and the quality of social partners. However, the value of the information that colour provides varies depending on the situation, and colour may even act as a sensory trap where signals that evolved under one context are exploited in another. Despite some elegant early work on colour as a sensory trap, few empirical studies have examined how colour biases may vary depending on...

Efficacy of treatments for polycystic ovarian syndrome management in adolescents: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

Reem Al Khalifah, Ivan Florez, Michael Zoratti, Brittany Dennis, Lehana Thabane & Ereny Bassilious
Limited evidence on treatment options for polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) has led to considerable variation in healthcare practices. We aimed to compare the effects of metformin and/or oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) in combination with pioglitazone, spironolactone, flutamide, and lifestyle interventions among adolescents aged 11-19 years with PCOS. Literature searches were performed in Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from database inception through December 2018, with no language restriction. Two reviewers screened...

Data for: Calibration of individual-based models to epidemiological data: a systematic review

C. Marijn Hazelbag, Jonathan Dushoff, Emanuel M. Dominic, Zinhle E. Mthombothi & Wim Delva
Calibrating or fitting an individual-based model (IBM) to data is a crucial step in model development. We performed a systematic review to provide an overview of calibration methods used in IBMs modelling infectious disease spread. We included articles if models stored individual-specific information and calibration involved running the model and comparing model output to population-level targets expressed as summary statistics. The dataset contains information for each of the included articles on model calibration methods, including;...

Data from: Remission of type 2 diabetes following a short-term intervention with insulin Glargine, Metformin and Dapagliflozin.

Natalia McInnes & Hertzel Gerstein
This dataset contains Supplemental Tables for the manuscript.

Data from: Field measurements of genotype by environment interaction for fitness caused by spontaneous mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana

Angela J. Roles, Matthew Thomas Rutter, Ian Dworkin, Charles B. Fenster & Jeffrey K. Conner
As the ultimate source of genetic diversity, spontaneous mutation is critical to the evolutionary process. The fitness effects of spontaneous mutations are almost always studied under controlled laboratory conditions rather than under the evolutionarily relevant conditions of the field. Of particular interest is the conditionality of new mutations - i.e., is a new mutation harmful regardless of the environment in which it is found? In other words, what is the extent of genotype-environment interaction for...

Data from: Multilayered and digitally structured presentation formats of trustworthy recommendations: a combined survey and randomised trial

Linn Brandt, Per Olav Vandvik, Pablo Alonso-Coello, Elie A. Akl, Judith Thornton, David Rigau, Katie Adams, Paul O'Connor, Gordon Guyatt & Annette Kristiansen
Objectives: To investigate practicing physicians preferences, perceived usefulness and understanding of a new multilayered guideline presentation format - compared to a standard format - as well as conceptual understanding of trustworthy guideline concepts. Design: Mixed survey and randomized controlled trial through a standardised lecture for physicians. We presented participants with a clinical scenario and randomised them to view a guideline recommendation in multilayered or standard format. Both groups were presented and asked about guideline concepts....

Registration Year

  • 2022
  • 2021
  • 2020
  • 2019
  • 2018
  • 2017
  • 2016
  • 2015
  • 2014
  • 2013

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • McMaster University
  • University of Guelph
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • McGill University
  • University of California, Santa Barbara
  • University of Calgary
  • University of California Los Angeles
  • University of Montana
  • Duke University
  • The Ohio State University