111 Works

Data from: Male and female bees show large differences in floral preference

Michael Roswell, Jonathan Dushoff & Rachael Winfree
Intraspecific variation in foraging niche can drive food web dynamics and ecosystem processes. In particular, male and female animals can exhibit different, often cascading, impacts on their interaction partners. Despite this, studies of plant-pollinator interaction networks have focused on the partitioning of the floral community between pollinator species, with little attention paid to intraspecific variation in plant preference between male and female bees. We designed a field study to evaluate the strength and prevalence of...

Plasticity in male mating behavior modulates female life-history in fruit flies

David Filice, Rajat Bhargava & Reuven Dukas
In many species, intense male-male competition for the opportunity to sire offspring has led to the evolution of selfish reproductive traits that are harmful to the females they mate with. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, males modulate their reproductive behavior based on the perceived intensity of competition in their pre-mating environment. Specifically, males housed with other males subsequently transfer a larger ejaculate during a longer mating compared to males housed alone. While the potential...

Territory acquisition mediates the influence of predators and climate on juvenile red squirrel survival

Jack G Hendrix, David Fisher, April Martinig, Stan Boutin, Ben Dantzer, Jeffrey Lane & Andrew McAdam
1) Juvenile survival to first breeding is a key life history stage for all taxa. Survival through this period can be particularly challenging when it can coincide with harsh environmental conditions such as a winter climate or food scarcity, leading to highly variable cohort survival. However, the small size and dispersive nature of juveniles generally makes studying their survival more difficult. 2) In territorial species, a key life history event is the acquisition of a...

Spatial heterogeneity in resources alters selective dynamics in Drosophila melanogaster

Ian Dworkin, Audrey E Wilson & Ali Siddiqui
Environmental features can alter the behaviours and phenotypes of organisms evolving within them influencing the dynamics of natural and sexual selection. Experimental environmental manipulation, particularly when conducted in experiments where the dynamics of the purging of deleterious alleles are compared, has demonstrated both direct and indirect effects on the strength and direction of selection. However, many of these experiments are conducted with fairly simplistic environments when it is not always clear how or why particular...

Data from: Colour pattern variation forms local background matching camouflage in a leaf-mimicking toad

James Barnett, Constantine Michalis, Nicholas Scott-Samuel & Innes Cuthill
Optimal camouflage can, in principle, be relatively easily achieved in simple, homogeneous, environments where backgrounds always have the same color, brightness, and patterning. Natural environments are, however, rarely homogenous and species often find themselves viewed against varied backgrounds where the task of concealment is more challenging. One result of variable backgrounds is the evolution of intraspecific phenotypic variation which may either be generalized, with multiple similarly cryptic patterns, or specialized, with each discrete color form...

16S V4 raw read count data; 16S reads metadata; new MHC class II allele sequences

Leanne Grieves
Pathogen-mediated selection at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is thought to promote MHC-based mate choice in vertebrates. Mounting evidence implicates odour in conveying MHC genotype, but the underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. MHC effects on odour may be mediated by odour-producing symbiotic microbes whose community structure is shaped by MHC genotype. In birds, preen oil is the primary source of body odour and similarity at MHC predicts similarity in preen oil composition. Hypothesizing that this relationship...

Data from: Female mating experience and genetic background independently influence male mating success in fruit flies

David Filice, Rajat Bhargava & Reuven Dukas
When the reproductive interests of males and females conflict, males can evolve traits that are harmful to females, and females can coevolve traits to resist this harm. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, there is genetic variation in female resistance traits, which can affect the pre- and post-mating success of males that try to mate with them. However, it is not clear to what extent the expression of these phenotypes can be modified by environmental...

Cross-biome synthesis of source versus sink limits to tree growth

Antoine Cabon, Steven A. Kannenberg, Flurin Babst, Dennis Baldocchi, Soumaya Belmecheri, Nicolas Delpierre, Rossella Guerrieri, Justin Maxwell, Shawn McKenzie, Chritoforos Pappas, Adrian Rocha, Paul Szejner, Masahito Ueyama, Danielle Ulrich, Caroline Vincke, Jingshu Wei, David Woodruff, Altaf Arain, Rick Meinzer, David J. P. Moore, Steven L. Voelker, William R. L. Anderegg & Frederick C. Meinzer
Uncertainties surrounding tree carbon allocation to growth are a major limitation to projections of forest carbon sequestration and response to climate change. The prevalence and extent to which carbon assimilation (source) or cambial activity (sink) mediate wood production are fundamentally important and remain elusive. We quantified source-sink relations across biomes by combining eddy-covariance gross primary production with extensive on-site and regional tree ring observations. We found widespread temporal decoupling between carbon assimilation and tree growth,...

Data from: Targeted genome-wide SNP genotyping in feral horses using non-invasive fecal swabs

Stefan Gavriliuc, Salman Reza, Chanwoori Jeong, Philip McLoughlin & Jocelyn Poissant
The development of high-throughput sequencing has prompted a transition in wildlife genetics from using microsatellites toward sets of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). However, genotyping large numbers of targeted SNPs using non-invasive samples remains challenging due to relatively large DNA input requirements. Recently, target enrichment has emerged as a promising approach requiring little template DNA. We assessed the efficacy of Tecan Genomics’ Allegro Targeted Genotyping (ATG) for generating genome-wide SNP data in feral horses using DNA...

Data from: The genetic basis of variation in sexual aggression: evolution versus social plasticity

Andrew Scott, Janice Yan, Carling Baxter, Ian Dworkin & Reuven Dukas
Male sexual aggression towards females is a form of sexual conflict that can result in increased fitness for males through forced copulations or coercive matings at the cost of female lifetime fitness. We used male fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) as a model system to uncover the genomic contributions to variation in forced copulation, both due to standing variation in a wild population, and due to plastic changes associated with variation in social experience. We used...

Data from: Genomic dynamics of transposable elements in the Western Clawed Frog (Silurana tropicalis)

Jiangshan J. Shen, Jonathan Dushoff, Adam J. Bewick, Frederic J. J. Chain & Ben J. Evans
Transposable elements (TEs) are repetitive DNA sequences that can make new copies of themselves that are inserted elsewhere in a host genome. The abundance and distributions of TEs vary considerably among phylogenetically diverse hosts. With the aim of exploring the basis of this variation, we evaluated correlations between several genomic variables and the presence of TEs and non-TE repeats in the complete genome sequence of the Western clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis). This analysis reveals patterns...

Data from: Divergent subgenome evolution after allopolyploidization in African clawed frogs (Xenopus)

Benjamin L.S. Furman, Utkarsh J. Dang, Ben J. Evans, G. Brian Golding & Benjamin L. S. Furman
Whole genome duplication (WGD), the doubling of the nuclear DNA of a species, contributes to biological innovation by creating genetic redundancy. One mode of WGD is allopolyploidization, wherein each genome from two ancestral species becomes a 'subgenom' of a polyploid descendant species. The evolutionary trajectory of a duplicated gene that arises from WGD is influenced both by natural selection, creating new or partitioning functions, and by gene silencing (pseudogenization). Here, we explored how these two...

Data from: A robust and representative lower bound on object processing speed in humans

Magdalena M. Bieniek, Patrick J. Bennett, Allison B. Sekuler & Guillaume A. Rousselet
How early does the brain decode object categories? Addressing this question is critical to constrain the type of neuronal architecture supporting object categorization. In this context, much effort has been devoted to estimating face processing speed. With onsets estimated from 50 to 150 ms, the timing of the first face-sensitive responses in humans remains controversial. This controversy is due partially to the susceptibility of dynamic brain measurements to filtering distortions and analysis issues. Here, using...

Data from: Gene duplication and divergence produce divergent MHC genotypes without disassortative mating

Donald C. Dearborn, Andrea B. Gager, Andrew G. McArthur, Morgan E. Gilmour, Elena Mandzhukova & Robert A. Mauck
Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) exhibit heterozygote advantage in immune defence, which in turn can select for MHC-disassortative mate choice. However, many species lack this expected pattern of MHC-disassortative mating. A possible explanation lies in evolutionary processes following gene duplication: if two duplicated MHC genes become functionally diverged from each other, offspring will inherit diverse multilocus genotypes even under random mating. We used locus-specific primers for high-throughput sequencing of two expressed MHC Class...

Data from: Disintegrating the fly: a mutational perspective on phenotypic integration and covariation

Annat Haber & Ian Dworkin
The structure of environmentally induced phenotypic covariation can influence the effective strength and magnitude of natural selection. Yet our understanding of the factors that contribute to and influence the evolutionary lability of such covariation is poor. Most studies have either examined environmental variation without accounting for covariation, or examined phenotypic and genetic covariation without distinguishing the environmental component. In this study we examined the effect of mutational perturbations on different properties of environmental covariation, as...

Data from: Sequential turnovers of sex chromosomes in African clawed frogs (Xenopus) suggest some genomic regions are good at sex determination

Benjamin L. S. Furman & Ben J. Evans
Sexual differentiation is fundamentally important for reproduction, yet the genetic triggers of this developmental process can vary, even between closely related species. Recent studies have uncovered, for example, variation in the genetic triggers for sexual differentiation within and between species of African clawed frogs (genus Xenopus). Here, we extend these discoveries by demonstrating that yet another sex determination system exists in Xenopus, specifically in the species Xenopus borealis. This system evolved recently in an ancestor...

Data from: Amplicon pyrosequencing late Pleistocene permafrost: the removal of putative contaminant sequences and small-scale reproducibility

Teresita M. Porter, G. Brian Golding, Christine King, Duane Froese, Grant Zazula & Hendrik N. Poinar
DNA sequencing of ancient permafrost samples can be used to reconstruct past plant, animal and bacterial communities. In this study, we assess the small-scale reproducibility of taxonomic composition obtained from sequencing four molecular markers (mitochondrial 12S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), prokaryote 16S rDNA, mitochondrial cox1 and chloroplast trnL intron) from two soil cores sampled 10 cm apart. In addition, sequenced control reactions were used to produce a contaminant library that was used to filter similar sequences...

Data from: Measuring engagement in advance care planning: a cross-sectional multicentre feasibility study.

Michelle Howard, Aaron Bonham, Daren Heyland, Rebecca Sudore, Konrad Fassbender, Carole Robinson, Michael McKenzie, Dawn Elston & John J. You
Objectives: To assess feasibility, acceptability, and clinical sensibility of a novel survey, the Advance Care Planning (ACP) Engagement Survey in various health care settings. Setting: A target sample of 50 patients from each of primary care, hospital, cancer care, and dialysis care settings. Participants: A convenience sample of patients without cognitive impairment who could speak and read English was recruited. Patients 50 years and older were eligible in primary care; patients 80 and older or...

Data from: A controlled quasi-experimental study of an educational intervention to reduce the unnecessary use of antimicrobials for asymptomatic bacteriuria

Neal Irfan, Annie Brooks, Siraj Mithoowani, Steve J. Celetti, Cheryl Main & Dominik Mertz
Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) should only be treated in cases of pregnancy or in-patients undergoing urologic procedures; however, unnecessary treatment of ABU is common in clinical practice. Objective: To identify risk factors for unnecessary treatment and to assess the impact of an educational intervention focused on these risk factors on treatment of ABU. Design: Quasi-experimental study with a control group. Setting: Two tertiary teaching adult care hospitals. Participants: Consecutive patients with positive urine cultures between...

Data from: Carotenoid-based bill coloration functions as a social, not sexual, signal in songbirds (Aves: Passeriformes)

Cody J. Dey, Mihai Valcu, Bart Kempenaers & James Dale
Many animals use coloration to communicate with other individuals. While the signalling role of avian plumage colour is relatively well studied, there has been much less research on coloration in avian bare parts. However, bare parts could be highly informative signals as they can show rapid changes in coloration. We measured bill colour (a ubiquitous bare part) in over 1600 passerine species and tested whether interspecific variation in carotenoid-based coloration is consistent with signalling to...

Data from: Stochastic faunal exchanges drive diversification in widespread Wallacean and Pacific island lizards (Squamata: Scincidae: Lamprolepis smaragdina)

Charles W. Linkem, Rafe M. Brown, Cameron D. Siler, Ben J. Evans, Christopher C. Austin, Djoko T. Iskandar, Arvin C. Diesmos, Jatna Supriatna, Noviar Andayani, Jimmy A. McGuire & Malte Ebach
Aim: Widespread species found in disturbed habitats are often expected to be human commensals. In island systems, this association predicts that dispersal will be mediated by humans. We investigated the biogeographical relationships among populations of a widespread tree skink that inhabits coastal forest and human-cultivated plantations in Southeast Asia. We sought to determine whether populations of the emerald tree skink, Lamprolepis smaragdina, dis- persed via mechanisms that were not human-mediated (‘natural’ dispersal) or whether dispersal...

Data from: Genetic population structure of the round whitefish (Prosopium cylindraceum) in North America: multiple markers reveal glacial refugia and regional subdivision.

Thomas D. Morgan, Carly F. Graham, Andrew G. McArthur, Amogelang R. Raphenya, Douglas R. Boreham, Richard G. Manzon, Joanna Y. Wilson, Stacey L. Lance, Kimberly L. Howland, Paul H. Patrick & Christopher M. Somers
Round whitefish (Prosopium cylindraceum) have a broad, disjunct range across northern North America and Eurasia, and little is known about their genetic population structure. We performed genetic analyses of round whitefish from 17 sites across its range using nine microsatellites, two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) loci, and 4918 to 8835 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. Our analyses identified deep phylogenetic division between eastern and western portions of the range, likely indicative of origins from at least two...

Data from: Reproductive sharing in relation to group and colony-level attributes in a cooperative breeding fish

Jennifer K. Hellmann, Isaac Y. Ligocki, Constance M. O'Connor, Adam R. Reddon, Kelly A. Garvy, Susan E. Marsh-Rollo, H. Lisle Gibbs, Sigal Balshine & Ian M. Hamilton
The degree to which group members share reproduction is dictated by both within-group (e.g. group size and composition) and between-group (e.g. density and position of neighbours) characteristics. While many studies have investigated reproductive patterns within social groups, few have simultaneously explored how within-group and between-group social structure influence these patterns. Here, we investigated how group size and composition, along with territory density and location within the colony, influenced parentage in 36 wild groups of a...

Data from: Experimental evidence for within- and cross-seasonal effects of fear on survival and reproduction

Kyle H. Elliott, Gustavo S. Betini, Ian Dworkin & D. Ryan Norris
Fear of predation can have non-lethal effects on individuals within a season but whether, and to what extent, these effects carry over into subsequent seasons is not known. Using a replicated seasonal population of the common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, we examined both within- and cross-seasonal effects of fear on survival and reproductive output. Compared to controls, flies exposed to the scent of mantid (Tenodera sinensis) predators in the non-breeding season had 64% higher mortality,...

Data from: Effects on population divergence of within-generational learning about prospective mates

Maria R. Servedio & Reuven Dukas
Although learned mate preferences are suspected to have important effects during speciation, theoretical models have largely neglected the effects on speciation and population divergence of within-generational learning, that is, learning based upon prior experience with potential mates. Here we use population genetic models to address this deficit. Focussing on the situation of secondary contact between populations that still hybridize, we consider models of learning by females and by males under polygyny. We assess the effects...

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