111 Works

Data from: A robust and representative lower bound on object processing speed in humans

Magdalena M. Bieniek, Patrick J. Bennett, Allison B. Sekuler & Guillaume A. Rousselet
How early does the brain decode object categories? Addressing this question is critical to constrain the type of neuronal architecture supporting object categorization. In this context, much effort has been devoted to estimating face processing speed. With onsets estimated from 50 to 150 ms, the timing of the first face-sensitive responses in humans remains controversial. This controversy is due partially to the susceptibility of dynamic brain measurements to filtering distortions and analysis issues. Here, using...

Data from: Divergent subgenome evolution after allopolyploidization in African clawed frogs (Xenopus)

Benjamin L.S. Furman, Utkarsh J. Dang, Ben J. Evans, G. Brian Golding & Benjamin L. S. Furman
Whole genome duplication (WGD), the doubling of the nuclear DNA of a species, contributes to biological innovation by creating genetic redundancy. One mode of WGD is allopolyploidization, wherein each genome from two ancestral species becomes a 'subgenom' of a polyploid descendant species. The evolutionary trajectory of a duplicated gene that arises from WGD is influenced both by natural selection, creating new or partitioning functions, and by gene silencing (pseudogenization). Here, we explored how these two...

Data from: Experimental evidence for within- and cross-seasonal effects of fear on survival and reproduction

Kyle H. Elliott, Gustavo S. Betini, Ian Dworkin & D. Ryan Norris
Fear of predation can have non-lethal effects on individuals within a season but whether, and to what extent, these effects carry over into subsequent seasons is not known. Using a replicated seasonal population of the common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, we examined both within- and cross-seasonal effects of fear on survival and reproductive output. Compared to controls, flies exposed to the scent of mantid (Tenodera sinensis) predators in the non-breeding season had 64% higher mortality,...

Data from: Gene duplication and divergence produce divergent MHC genotypes without disassortative mating

Donald C. Dearborn, Andrea B. Gager, Andrew G. McArthur, Morgan E. Gilmour, Elena Mandzhukova & Robert A. Mauck
Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) exhibit heterozygote advantage in immune defence, which in turn can select for MHC-disassortative mate choice. However, many species lack this expected pattern of MHC-disassortative mating. A possible explanation lies in evolutionary processes following gene duplication: if two duplicated MHC genes become functionally diverged from each other, offspring will inherit diverse multilocus genotypes even under random mating. We used locus-specific primers for high-throughput sequencing of two expressed MHC Class...

Data from: Disintegrating the fly: a mutational perspective on phenotypic integration and covariation

Annat Haber & Ian Dworkin
The structure of environmentally induced phenotypic covariation can influence the effective strength and magnitude of natural selection. Yet our understanding of the factors that contribute to and influence the evolutionary lability of such covariation is poor. Most studies have either examined environmental variation without accounting for covariation, or examined phenotypic and genetic covariation without distinguishing the environmental component. In this study we examined the effect of mutational perturbations on different properties of environmental covariation, as...

Data from: Sequential turnovers of sex chromosomes in African clawed frogs (Xenopus) suggest some genomic regions are good at sex determination

Benjamin L. S. Furman & Ben J. Evans
Sexual differentiation is fundamentally important for reproduction, yet the genetic triggers of this developmental process can vary, even between closely related species. Recent studies have uncovered, for example, variation in the genetic triggers for sexual differentiation within and between species of African clawed frogs (genus Xenopus). Here, we extend these discoveries by demonstrating that yet another sex determination system exists in Xenopus, specifically in the species Xenopus borealis. This system evolved recently in an ancestor...

Data from: Reproductive sharing in relation to group and colony-level attributes in a cooperative breeding fish

Jennifer K. Hellmann, Isaac Y. Ligocki, Constance M. O'Connor, Adam R. Reddon, Kelly A. Garvy, Susan E. Marsh-Rollo, H. Lisle Gibbs, Sigal Balshine & Ian M. Hamilton
The degree to which group members share reproduction is dictated by both within-group (e.g. group size and composition) and between-group (e.g. density and position of neighbours) characteristics. While many studies have investigated reproductive patterns within social groups, few have simultaneously explored how within-group and between-group social structure influence these patterns. Here, we investigated how group size and composition, along with territory density and location within the colony, influenced parentage in 36 wild groups of a...

Data from: Genetic population structure of the round whitefish (Prosopium cylindraceum) in North America: multiple markers reveal glacial refugia and regional subdivision.

Thomas D. Morgan, Carly F. Graham, Andrew G. McArthur, Amogelang R. Raphenya, Douglas R. Boreham, Richard G. Manzon, Joanna Y. Wilson, Stacey L. Lance, Kimberly L. Howland, Paul H. Patrick & Christopher M. Somers
Round whitefish (Prosopium cylindraceum) have a broad, disjunct range across northern North America and Eurasia, and little is known about their genetic population structure. We performed genetic analyses of round whitefish from 17 sites across its range using nine microsatellites, two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) loci, and 4918 to 8835 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. Our analyses identified deep phylogenetic division between eastern and western portions of the range, likely indicative of origins from at least two...

Data from: Effects on population divergence of within-generational learning about prospective mates

Maria R. Servedio & Reuven Dukas
Although learned mate preferences are suspected to have important effects during speciation, theoretical models have largely neglected the effects on speciation and population divergence of within-generational learning, that is, learning based upon prior experience with potential mates. Here we use population genetic models to address this deficit. Focussing on the situation of secondary contact between populations that still hybridize, we consider models of learning by females and by males under polygyny. We assess the effects...

Data from: Carving out turf in a biodiversity hotspot: multiple, previously unrecognized shrew species co-occur on Java Island, Indonesia

Jacob A. Esselstyn, , Anang S. Achmadi, Cameron D. Siler & Ben J. Evans
In theory, competition among species in a shared habitat results in niche separation. In the case of small recondite mammals such as shrews, little is known about their autecologies, leaving open questions regarding the degree to which closely related species co-occur and how or whether ecological niches are partitioned. The extent to which species are able to coexist may depend on the degree to which they exploit different features of their habitat, which may in...

Data from: The Rift Valley is a major barrier to dispersal of African clawed frogs (Xenopus) in Ethiopia

Ben J Evans, Shireen M Maarschalk, Simone A Mendel & Richard C Tinsley
The Ethiopian highlands – home to striking species diversity and endemism – are bisected by the Rift Valley, a zone of tectonic divergence. Using molecular data we examined the evolutionary history of two co-distributed species of African clawed frog (Xenopus clivii and X. largeni) that are endemic to this region. Our field collections substantially extend the known distribution of X. largeni, a species formerly known from highlands southeast of the Rift, but that also occurs...

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