14 Works

Data from: The effects of life history and sexual selection on male and female plumage colouration

James Dale, Cody J. Dey, Kaspar Delhey, Bart Kempenaers & Mihai Valcu
Classical sexual selection theory provides a well-supported conceptual framework for understanding the evolution and signalling function of male ornaments. It predicts that males obtain greater fitness benefits than females through multiple mating because sperm are cheaper to produce than eggs. Sexual selection should therefore lead to the evolution of male-biased secondary sexual characters. However, females of many species are also highly ornamented. The view that this is due to a correlated genetic response to selection...

Data from: Pan-African phylogeography of a model organism, the African clawed frog “Xenopus laevis”

Ben L.S. Furman, Adam J. Bewick, Tia L. Harrison, Eli Greenbaum, Václav Gvoždík, Chifundera Kusamba, Ben Evans, Benjamin L. S. Furman & Ben J. Evans
The African clawed frog Xenopus laevis has a large native distribution over much of sub-Saharan Africa and is a model organism for research, a proposed disease vector, and an invasive species. Despite its prominent role in research and abundance in nature, surprisingly little is known about the phylogeography and evolutionary history of this group. Here we report an analysis of molecular variation of this clade based on 17 loci (one mitochondrial, 16 nuclear) in up...

A database of radionuclide biological half-life values for wildlife

N.A. Beresford, K. Beaugelin-Seiller, C. Wells, S. Vives-Lynch, J. Vives I Batlle, M.D. Wood, K. Tagami, A. Real, J. Burgos, S. Fesenko, M. Cujic, A. Kryshev, N. Pachal, B.S. Su, C.L. Barnett, S. Uchida, T. Hinton, J. Mihalík, K. Stark, C. Willrodt & J.S. Chaplow
Data comprise biological and ecological half-life values for marine, freshwater, terrestrial and riparian organisms. The database includes 1908 biological half-life values for 52 elements across a range of wildlife groups (marine, freshwater, terrestrial and riparian). The compilation of values from a range of sources was conducted by an international working group under the auspices of an International Atomic Energy Agency programme.

Data from: Genetics, morphology, advertisement calls, and historical records distinguish six new polyploid species of African clawed frog (Xenopus, Pipidae) from West and Central Africa

Ben J. Evans, Timothy F. Carter, Eli Greenbaum, Václav Gvoždík, Darcy B. Kelley, Patrick J. McLaughlin, Olivier S. G. Pauwels, Daniel M. Portik, Edward L. Stanley, Richard C. Tinsley, Martha L. Tobias & David C. Blackburn
African clawed frogs, genus Xenopus, are extraordinary among vertebrates in the diversity of their polyploid species and the high number of independent polyploidization events that occurred during their diversification. Here we update current understanding of the evolutionary history of this group and describe six new species from west and central sub-Saharan Africa, including four tetraploids and two dodecaploids. We provide information on molecular variation, morphology, karyotypes, vocalizations, and estimated geographic ranges, which support the distinctiveness...

Data from: Massively parallel multiplex DNA sequencing for specimen identification using an Illumina MiSeq platform

Shadi Shokralla, Teresita M. Porter, Joel F. Gibson, Rafal Dobosz, Daniel H. Janzen, Winnie Hallwachs, G. Brian Golding & Mehrdad Hajibabaei
Genetic information is a valuable component of biosystematics, especially specimen identification through the use of species-specific DNA barcodes. Although many genomics applications have shifted to High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS) or Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies, sample identification (e.g., via DNA barcoding) is still most often done with Sanger sequencing. Here, we present a scalable double dual-indexing approach using an Illumina Miseq platform to sequence DNA barcode markers. We achieved 97.3% success by using half of an Illumina...

Data from: Impacts of degraded DNA on restriction enzyme associated DNA sequencing (RADSeq)

Carly F. Graham, Travis C. Glenn, Andrew G. McArthur, Douglas R. Boreham, Troy Kieran, Stacey Lance, Richard G. Manzon, Jessica A. Martino, Todd Pierson, Sean M. Rogers, Joanna Y. Wilson & Christopher M. Somers
Degraded DNA from suboptimal field sampling is common in molecular ecology. However, its impact on techniques that use restriction site associated next-generation DNA sequencing (RADSeq, GBS) is unknown. We experimentally examined the effects of in situDNA degradation on data generation for a modified double-digest RADSeq approach (3RAD). We generated libraries using genomic DNA serially extracted from the muscle tissue of 8 individual lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) following 0-, 12-, 48- and 96-h incubation at room...

Data from: Intrinsic and realized generation intervals in infectious-disease transmission

David Champredon & Jonathan Dushoff
The generation interval is the interval between the time that an individual is infected by an infector and the time this infector was infected. Its distribution underpins estimates of the reproductive number and hence informs public health strategies. Empirical generation-interval distributions are often derived from contact-tracing data. But linking observed generation intervals to the underlying generation interval required for modeling purposes is surprisingly not straightforward, and misspecifications can lead to incorrect estimates of the reproductive...

Data from: Fine-scale ecological and genetic population structure of two whitefish (Coregoninae) species in the vicinity of industrial thermal emissions

Carly F. Graham, Rebecca L. Eberts, Thomas D. Morgan, Douglas R. Boreham, Stacey L. Lance, Richard G. Manzon, Jessica A. Martino, Sean M. Rogers, Joanna Y. Wilson & Christopher M. Somers
Thermal pollution from industrial processes can have negative impacts on the spawning and development of cold-water fish. Point sources of thermal effluent may need to be managed to avoid affecting discrete populations. Correspondingly, we examined fine-scale ecological and genetic population structure of two whitefish species (Coregonus clupeaformis and Prosopium cylindraceum) on Lake Huron, Canada, in the immediate vicinity of thermal effluent from nuclear power generation. Niche metrics using δ13C and δ15N stable isotopes showed high...

Data from: The legacy effects of keystone individuals on collective behavior scale to how long they remain within a group

Jonathan N. Pruitt & Noa Pinter-Wollman
The collective behaviour of social groups is often strongly influenced by one or few individuals, termed here ‘keystone individuals’. We examined whether the influence of keystone individuals on collective behaviour lingers after their departure and whether these lingering effects scale with their tenure in the group. In the social spider, Stegodyphus dumicola, colonies' boldest individuals wield a disproportionately large influence over colony behaviour. We experimentally manipulated keystones' tenure in laboratory-housed colonies and tracked their legacy...

Data from: Sensory-based niche partitioning in a multiple predator-multiple prey community

Jay J. Falk, Hannah M. Ter Hofstede, Patricia L. Jones, Marjorie M. Dixon, Paul A. Faure, Elisabeth K. V. Kalko & Rachel A. Page
Many predators and parasites eavesdrop on the communication signals of their prey. Eavesdropping is typically studied as dyadic predator–prey species interactions; yet in nature, most predators target multiple prey species and most prey must evade multiple predator species. The impact of predator communities on prey signal evolution is not well understood. Predators could converge in their preferences for conspicuous signal properties, generating competition among predators and natural selection on particular prey signal features. Alternatively, predator...

Data from: Reproductive sharing in relation to group and colony-level attributes in a cooperative breeding fish

Jennifer K. Hellmann, Isaac Y. Ligocki, Constance M. O'Connor, Adam R. Reddon, Kelly A. Garvy, Susan E. Marsh-Rollo, H. Lisle Gibbs, Sigal Balshine & Ian M. Hamilton
The degree to which group members share reproduction is dictated by both within-group (e.g. group size and composition) and between-group (e.g. density and position of neighbours) characteristics. While many studies have investigated reproductive patterns within social groups, few have simultaneously explored how within-group and between-group social structure influence these patterns. Here, we investigated how group size and composition, along with territory density and location within the colony, influenced parentage in 36 wild groups of a...

Data from: Experimental evidence for within- and cross-seasonal effects of fear on survival and reproduction

Kyle H. Elliott, Gustavo S. Betini, Ian Dworkin & D. Ryan Norris
Fear of predation can have non-lethal effects on individuals within a season but whether, and to what extent, these effects carry over into subsequent seasons is not known. Using a replicated seasonal population of the common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, we examined both within- and cross-seasonal effects of fear on survival and reproductive output. Compared to controls, flies exposed to the scent of mantid (Tenodera sinensis) predators in the non-breeding season had 64% higher mortality,...

Data from: A controlled quasi-experimental study of an educational intervention to reduce the unnecessary use of antimicrobials for asymptomatic bacteriuria

Neal Irfan, Annie Brooks, Siraj Mithoowani, Steve J. Celetti, Cheryl Main & Dominik Mertz
Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) should only be treated in cases of pregnancy or in-patients undergoing urologic procedures; however, unnecessary treatment of ABU is common in clinical practice. Objective: To identify risk factors for unnecessary treatment and to assess the impact of an educational intervention focused on these risk factors on treatment of ABU. Design: Quasi-experimental study with a control group. Setting: Two tertiary teaching adult care hospitals. Participants: Consecutive patients with positive urine cultures between...

Data from: A robust and representative lower bound on object processing speed in humans

Magdalena M. Bieniek, Patrick J. Bennett, Allison B. Sekuler & Guillaume A. Rousselet
How early does the brain decode object categories? Addressing this question is critical to constrain the type of neuronal architecture supporting object categorization. In this context, much effort has been devoted to estimating face processing speed. With onsets estimated from 50 to 150 ms, the timing of the first face-sensitive responses in humans remains controversial. This controversy is due partially to the susceptibility of dynamic brain measurements to filtering distortions and analysis issues. Here, using...

Registration Year

  • 2015
    14

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    14

Affiliations

  • McMaster University
    14
  • University of Guelph
    3
  • University of Georgia
    2
  • McGill University
    2
  • University of Regina
    2
  • University of Calgary
    2
  • The University of Texas at El Paso
    2
  • Institute of Vertebrate Biology
    2
  • Northern Ontario School of Medicine
    2
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
    1