10 Works

Data from: Within-group relatedness is correlated with colony-level social structure and reproductive sharing in a social fish.

Jennifer K. Hellmann, Michael G. Sovic, H. Lisle Gibbs, Adam R. Reddon, Constance M. O'Connor, Isaac Y. Ligocki, Susan Marsh-Rollo, Sigal Balshine & Ian M. Hamilton
In group-living species, the degree of relatedness among group members often governs the extent of reproductive sharing, cooperation and conflict within a group. Kinship among group members can be shaped by the presence and location of neighbouring groups, as these provide dispersal or mating opportunities that can dilute kinship among current group members. Here, we assessed how within-group relatedness varies with the density and position of neighbouring social groups in Neolamprologus pulcher, a colonial and...

Data from: Limited genomic consequences of hybridization between two African clawed frogs, Xenopus gilli and X. laevis (Anura: Pipidae)

Benjamin L.S. Furman, Caroline M.S. Cauret, Graham A. Colby, G. John Measey & Ben J. Evans
The Cape platanna, Xenopus gilli, an endangered frog, hybridizes with the African clawed frog, X. laevis, in South Africa. Estimates of the extent of gene flow between these species range from pervasive to rare. Efforts have been made in the last 30 years to minimize hybridization between these two species in the west population of X. gilli, but not the east populations. To further explore the impact of hybridization and the efforts to minimize it,...

Data from: A test of male infanticide as a reproductive tactic in a cichlid fish

Shagun Jindal, Aneesh P.H. Bose, Constance M. O'Connor, Sigal Balshine & Aneesh P. H. Bose
Infanticide and offspring cannibalism are taxonomically widespread phenomena. In some group-living species, a new dominant individual taking over a group can benefit from infanticide if doing so induces potential mates to become reproductively available sooner. Despite widespread observations of infanticide (i.e. egg cannibalism) among fishes, no study has investigated whether egg cannibalism occurs in fishes as a result of group takeovers, or how this type of cannibalism might be adaptive. Using the cooperatively breeding cichlid,...

Data from: Speciation over the edge: gene flow among non-human primate species across a formidable biogeographic barrier

Ben J. Evans, Anthony J. Tosi, Kai Zeng, Jonathan Dushoff, André Corvelo & Don J. Melnick
Many genera of terrestrial vertebrates diversified exclusively on one or the other side of Wallace’s Line, which lies between Borneo and Sulawesi islands in Southeast Asia, and demarcates one of the sharpest biogeographic transition zones in the world. Macaque monkeys are unusual among vertebrate genera in that they are distributed on both sides of Wallace‘s Line, raising the question of whether dispersal across this barrier was an evolutionary one-off or a more protracted exchange—and if...

Data from: Does increased heat resistance result in higher susceptibility to predation? A test using (Drosophila melanogaster) selection and hardening

Sandra Hangartner, Ian Dworkin, Michael DeNieu & Ary A. Hoffmann
Heat resistance of ectotherms can be increased both by plasticity and evolution, but these effects may have trade-offs resulting from biotic interactions. Here we test for predation costs in Drosophila melanogaster populations with altered heat resistance produced by adult hardening and directional selection for increased heat resistance. In addition, we also tested for genetic trade-offs by testing heat resistance in lines that have evolved under increased predation risk. We show that while 35/37°C hardening increases...

Data from: Multilayered and digitally structured presentation formats of trustworthy recommendations: a combined survey and randomised trial

Linn Brandt, Per Olav Vandvik, Pablo Alonso-Coello, Elie A. Akl, Judith Thornton, David Rigau, Katie Adams, Paul O'Connor, Gordon Guyatt & Annette Kristiansen
Objectives: To investigate practicing physicians preferences, perceived usefulness and understanding of a new multilayered guideline presentation format - compared to a standard format - as well as conceptual understanding of trustworthy guideline concepts. Design: Mixed survey and randomized controlled trial through a standardised lecture for physicians. We presented participants with a clinical scenario and randomised them to view a guideline recommendation in multilayered or standard format. Both groups were presented and asked about guideline concepts....

Data from: How do organisational characteristics influence teamwork and service delivery in lung cancer diagnostic assessment programmes? A mixed-methods study

Gladys N. Honein-AbouHaidar, Terri Stuart-McEwan, Tom Waddell, Alexandra Salvarrey, Jennifer Smylie, Mark J. Dobrow, Melissa C. Brouwers & Anna R. Gagliardi
Objectives: Diagnostic assessment programs (DAPs) can reduce wait times for cancer diagnosis but optimal DAP design is unknown. This study explored how organizational characteristics influenced multidisciplinary teamwork and diagnostic service delivery in lung cancer DAPs. Design: A mixed methods approach integrated data from descriptive qualitative interviews and medical record abstraction at four lung cancer DAPs. Findings were analyzed with the Integrated Team Effectiveness Model. Setting: Four DAPs at two teaching and two community hospitals in...

Data from: Ranking and characterization of established BMI and lipid associated loci as candidates for gene-environment interactions

Dmitry Shungin, Wei Q. Deng, Tibor V. Varga, Jian'an Luan, Evelin Mihailov, Andres Metspalu, Andrew P. Morris, Nita G. Forouhi, Cecilia Lindgren, Patrik K. E. Magnusson, Nancy L. Pedersen, Göran Hallmans, Audrey Y. Chu, Anne E. Justice, Mariaelisa Graff, Thomas W. Winkler, Lynda M. Rose, Claudia Langenberg, L. Adrienne Cupples, Paul M. Ridker, Nicholas J. Wareham, Ken K. Ong, Ruth J. F. Loos, Daniel I. Chasman, Erik Ingelsson … & Paul W. Franks
Phenotypic variance heterogeneity across genotypes at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may reflect underlying gene-environment (G·E) or gene-gene interactions. We modeled variance heterogeneity for blood lipids and BMI in up to 44,211 participants and investigated relationships between variance effects (Pv), G·E interaction effects (with smoking and physical activity), and marginal genetic effects (Pm). Correlations between Pv and Pm were stronger for SNPs with established marginal effects (Spearman's ρ=0.401 for triglycerides, and ρ=0.236 for BMI) compared...

Data from: Hybridization increases mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species in sunfish

Sherry N. N. Du, Fariborz Khajali, Neal J. Dawson & Graham R. Scott
Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have been suggested to be possible mechanisms underlying hybrid breakdown, as a result of mito-nuclear incompatibilities in respiratory complexes of the electron transport system. However, it remains unclear whether hybridization increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mitochondria. We used high-resolution respirometry and fluorometry on isolated liver mitochondria to examine mitochondrial physiology and ROS emission in naturally occurring hybrids of pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) and bluegill (L. macrochirus). ROS...

Data from: Genetic population structure of the round whitefish (Prosopium cylindraceum) in North America: multiple markers reveal glacial refugia and regional subdivision.

Thomas D. Morgan, Carly F. Graham, Andrew G. McArthur, Amogelang R. Raphenya, Douglas R. Boreham, Richard G. Manzon, Joanna Y. Wilson, Stacey L. Lance, Kimberly L. Howland, Paul H. Patrick & Christopher M. Somers
Round whitefish (Prosopium cylindraceum) have a broad, disjunct range across northern North America and Eurasia, and little is known about their genetic population structure. We performed genetic analyses of round whitefish from 17 sites across its range using nine microsatellites, two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) loci, and 4918 to 8835 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. Our analyses identified deep phylogenetic division between eastern and western portions of the range, likely indicative of origins from at least two...

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