13 Works

Data from: The neuroscience of Romeo and Juliet: an fMRI study of acting

Steven Brown, Peter Cockett & Ye Yuan
The current study represents a first attempt at examining the neural basis of dramatic acting. While all people play multiple roles in daily life – for example “spouse” or “employee” – these roles are all facets of the “self” and thus the first-person (1P) perspective. Compared to such everyday role-playing, actors are required to portray other people and to adopt their gestures, emotions, and behaviors. Consequently, actors must think and behave not as themselves but...

Data from: Better safe than sorry: spider societies mitigate risk by prioritizing caution

Colin M. Wright, James L.L. Lichtenstein, Lauren P. Luscuskie, Graham A. Montgomery, Noa Pinter-Wollman & Jonathan N. Pruitt
Group members often vary in the information that they have about their environment. In this study, we evaluated the relative contribution of information held by the population majority vs. new immigrants to groups in determining group function. To do so we created experimental groups of the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola that were either iteratively exposed to a dangerous predator, the ant Anoplopepis custodiens, or kept in safety. We then seeded these groups (i.e., the population...

Magnetic resonance imaging reveals human brown adipose tissue is rapidly activated in response to cold

Katherine Morrison, Stephan Oreskovich, Frank Ong, Basma Ahmed, Norman Konyer, Denis Blondin, Elizabeth Gunn, Nina Singh, Michael Noseworthy, Francois Haman, Andre Carpentier, Zubin Punthakee & Gregory Steinberg
Context. In rodents, cold exposure induces the activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and the induction of intracellular triacylglycerol (TAG) lipolysis. However, in humans, the kinetics of supraclavicular (SCV) BAT activation and the potential importance of TAG stores remain poorly defined. Objective. To determine the time course of BAT activation and changes in intracellular TAG using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment of the SCV (i.e. BAT depot) and fat in the posterior neck region (i.e....

Defense against outside competition is linked to cooperation in male-male partnerships

Jennifer Hellmann, Kelly Stiver, Susan Marsh-Rollo & Suzanne Alonzo
Male-male competition is a well-known driver of reproductive success and sexually-selected traits in many species. However, in some species, males work together to court females or defend territories against male competitors. Dominant (nesting) males sire most offspring, but subordinate (satellite) males are better able to sneak fertilizations relative to unpartnered males. Because satellites only gain reproductive success by sneaking, there has been much interest in identifying the mechanisms enforcing satellite cooperation (defense) and reducing satellite...

Data from: A phase 3 randomized study evaluating sialic acid extended-release for GNE myopathy

Hanns Lochmüller, Anthony Behin, Yoseph Caraco, Heather Lau, Massimiliano Mirabella, Ivailo Tournev, Mark Tarnopolsky, Oksana Pogoryelova, Catherine Woods, Alexander Lai, Jinay Shah, Tony Koutsoukos, Alison Skrinar, Hank Mansbach, Emil Kakkis & Tahseen Mozaffar
Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of aceneuramic acid extended-release (Ace-ER), a treatment intended to replace deficient sialic acid, in patients with GNE myopathy. Methods: UX001-CL301 was a Phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, international study evaluating the efficacy and safety of Ace-ER in patients with GNE Myopathy. Participants who could walk ≥200 meters in a 6-minute walk test at screening were randomized 1:1, and stratified by sex, to receive Ace-ER 6g/day or placebo for...

Data from: Winners have higher pre-copulatory mating success but losers have better post-copulatory outcomes

David Filice & Reuven Dukas
In many animals, the outcomes of competitive interactions can have lasting effects that influence an individual’s reproductive success and have important consequences for the strength and direction of evolution via sexual selection. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, males that have won previous contests are more likely to win in subsequent conflicts and losers are more likely to lose (winner-loser effects), but the direct fitness consequences and genetic underpinnings of this plasticity are poorly understood....

Data from: Behavior, morphology, and microhabitat use: what drives individual niche variation?

Raul Costa-Pereira & Jonathan Pruitt
Generalist populations are often composed of individuals each specialized on only a subset of the resources exploited by the entire population. However, the traits underlying such niche variation remain underexplored. Classically, ecologists have focused on understanding why populations vary in their degree of intraspecific niche variation, with less attention paid to how individual-level traits lead to intraspecific differences in niches. We investigated how differences in behavior, morphology, and microhabitat affect niche variation between- and within-individuals...

Data from: Experimental evidence of frequency-dependent selection on group behaviour

Jonathan N. Pruitt, Brendan L. McEwen, Steven T. Cassidy, Gabriella M. Najm & Noa Pinter-Wollman
Evolutionary ecologists often seek to identify the mechanisms maintaining intraspecific variation. In social animals, whole groups can exhibit between-group differences in their collective traits. We examined whether negative frequency-dependent selection (i.e., a rare-type advantage) could help to maintain between-group variation. We engineered neighborhoods of social spider colonies bearing bold or shy foraging phenotypes and monitored their fecundity in situ. We found that bold colonies enjoyed a rare-type advantage that is lost as the frequency of...

Data from: Road avoidance and its energetic consequences for reptiles

James Paterson, James Baxter-Gilbert, Frederic Beaudry, Sue Carstairs, Patricia Chow-Fraser, Christopher Edge, Andrew Lentini, Jacqueline Litzgus, Chantel Markle, Kassie McKeown, Jennifer Moore, Jeanine Refsnider, Julia Riley, Jeremy Rouse, David Seburn, J Zimmerling & Christina Davy
Roads are one of the most widespread human-caused habitat modifications that can increase wildlife mortality rates and alter behaviour. Roads can act as barriers with variable permeability to movement and can increase distances wildlife travel to access habitats. Movement is energetically costly, and avoidance of roads could therefore impact an animal's energy budget. We tested whether reptiles avoid roads or road crossings and explored whether the energetic consequences of road avoidance decreased individual fitness. Using...

Data from: Male and female bees show large differences in floral preference

Michael Roswell, Jonathan Dushoff & Rachael Winfree
Intraspecific variation in foraging niche can drive food web dynamics and ecosystem processes. In particular, male and female animals can exhibit different, often cascading, impacts on their interaction partners. Despite this, studies of plant-pollinator interaction networks have focused on the partitioning of the floral community between pollinator species, with little attention paid to intraspecific variation in plant preference between male and female bees. We designed a field study to evaluate the strength and prevalence of...

Assessing the repeatability, robustness to disturbance, and parent‐offspring colony resemblance of collective behavior

David Fisher, James Lichtenstein, Raul Costa-Pereira, Justin Yeager & Jonathan Pruitt
Groups of animals possess phenotypes such as collective behaviour, which may determine the fitness of group members. However, the stability and robustness to perturbations of collective phenotypes in natural conditions is not established. Furthermore, whether group phenotypes are transmitted from parent to offspring groups with fidelity is required for understanding how selection on group phenotypes contributes to evolution, but parent-offspring resemblance at the group level is rarely estimated. We evaluated the repeatability, robustness to perturbation,...

Data from: Sources of intraspecific variation in the collective tempo and synchrony of ant societies

Grant Doering, Kirsten Sheehy, James Lichtenstein, Brian Drawert, Linda Petzold & Jonathan Pruitt
Populations of independently oscillating agents can sometimes synchronize. In the context of animal societies, conspicuous synchronization of activity is known in some social insects. However, the causes of variation in synchrony within and between species have received little attention. We repeatedly assessed the short-term activity cycle of ant colonies (Temnothorax rugatulus) and monitored the movements of individual workers and queens within nests. We detected persistent differences between colonies in the waveform properties of their collective...

Mechanisms for color convergence in a mimetic radiation of poison frogs

Evan Twomey, Morgan Kain, Myriam Claeys, Kyle Summers, Santiago Castroviejo-Fisher & Ines Van Bocxlaer
In animals, bright colors often evolve to mimic other species when a resemblance is selectively favored. Understanding the proximate mechanisms underlying such color mimicry can give insights into how mimicry evolves, for example, whether color convergence evolves from a shared set of mechanisms or through the evolution of novel color production mechanisms. We studied color production mechanisms in poison frogs (Dendrobatidae), focusing on the mimicry complex of Ranitomeya imitator. Using reflectance spectrometry, skin pigment analysis,...

Registration Year

  • 2019
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Affiliations

  • McMaster University
    13
  • University of California, Santa Barbara
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  • University of Ottawa
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  • University of California Los Angeles
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  • Grand Valley State University
    1
  • New Bulgarian University
    1
  • Vrije Universiteit Brussel
    1
  • St. Joseph's Hospital
    1
  • Ghent University
    1
  • Université de Sherbrooke
    1