31 Works

African elephants can detect water from natural and artificial sources via olfactory cues

Matthew Wood, Simon Chamaillé-Jammes, Almuth Hammerbacher & Adrian Shrader
Water is vital for mammals. Yet, as ephemeral sources can be difficult to find, it raises the question, how do mammals locate water? Elephants (Loxodonta africana) are water-dependent herbivores that possess exceptional olfactory capabilities, and it has been suggested that they may locate water via smell. However, there is no evidence to support this claim. To explore this, we performed two olfactory choice experiments with semi-tame elephants. In the first, we tested whether elephants could...

Canine histiocytic sarcoma genome-wide association study

Benoit Hedan
Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is a rare but aggressive cancer in both humans and dogs. The spontaneous canine model, which has clinical, epidemiological, and histological similarities with human HS and specific breed predispositions, provides a unique opportunity to unravel the genetic basis of this cancer. In this study, we aimed to identify germline risk factors associated with the development of HS in canine-predisposed breeds. We used a methodology that combined several genome-wide association studies in a...

Age-specific fecundity under pathogenic threat in an insect: terminal investment versus reproductive restraint

Charly Jehan, Camille Sabarly, Thierry Rigaud & Yannick Moret
The terminal investment hypothesis predicts that as an organism’s prospects for survival decrease, through age or when exposed to a pathogenic infection, it will invest more in reproduction, which should trade-off against somatic maintenance (including immunity) and therefore future survival. Attempts to test this hypothesis have produced mixed results, which, in addition, mainly rely on the assessment of changes in reproductive effort and often overlooking its impact on somatic defences and survival. Alternatively, animals may...

Biodiversity-productivity relationships are key to nature-based climate solutions

Akira Mori, Laura Dee, Andrew Gonzalez, Haruka Ohashi, Jane Cowles, Alexandra Wright, Michel Loreau, Yann Hautier, Tim Newbold, Peter Reich, Tetsuya Matsui, Wataru Takeuchi, Kei-Ichi Okada, Rupert Seidl & Forest Isbell
The global impacts of biodiversity loss and climate change are interlinked but the feedbacks between them are rarely assessed. Areas with greater tree diversity tend to be more productive, providing a greater carbon sink, and biodiversity loss could reduce these natural C sinks. Here, we quantify how tree and shrub species richness could affect biomass production at biome, national and regional scales. We find that greenhouse gas mitigation could help maintain tree diversity and thereby...

Age-related breeding success in little penguins: A result of selection and ontogenetic changes in foraging and phenology

Claire Saraux & André Chiaradia
Reproductive performance typically improves with age, reaching a plateau at middle age and subsequently declining in older age classes (senescing individuals). Three potential non-exclusive mechanisms can explain the improvement in reproductive performance with age: (1) selection (poor quality individuals are removed from the population with increasing age), (2) constraint (individual efficiency increases through experience) and (3) restraint (reproductive investment increases with age as the residual reproductive value decreases). While all three mechanisms received strong empirical...

Echolocating toothed whales use ultra-fast echo-kinetic responses to track evasive prey

Heather Vance, Peter Madsen, Natacha Aguilar De Soto, Danuta Wisniewska, Michael Ladegaard, Sascha Hooker & Mark Johnson
Visual predators rely on fast-acting optokinetic responses to track and capture agile prey. Most toothed whales, however, rely on echolocation for hunting and have converged on biosonar clicking rates reaching 500/s during prey pu rsuits. If echoes are processed on a click by click basis, as assumed, neural responses 100x faster than those in vision are required to keep pace with this information flow. Using high resolution bio-logging of wild predator prey interactions we show...

Computational and Experimental Investigations of Supramolecular Assemblies of p-Sulfonatocalix[4]arene Organized by Weak Forces

A. Ghoufi, L. Pison, J. P. Morel, N. Morel-Desrosiers, C. Bonal & P. Malfreyt
We report the study of the supramolecular assemblies formed by the incorporation of quaternary ammonium cations such as Me4N+ or Et4N+ into host−guest assemblies with p-sulfonatocalix[4]arene in the presence of a lanthanide(III) cation in water. We use microcalorimetry to characterize the formation of these supramolecular assemblies. We obtain a molecular description of these assemblies by performing molecular dynamics simulations over a very large period of time. The structures of these supramolecular complexes have been determined...

Thermodynamics of the Complexation of the p-Sulfonatocalix[4]arene with Simple Model Guests in Water: a Microcalorimetric Study

Florent Perret, Jean-Pierre Morel & Nicole Morel-Desrosiers
(2003). Thermodynamics of the Complexation of the p-Sulfonatocalix[4]arene with Simple Model Guests in Water: a Microcalorimetric Study. Supramolecular Chemistry: Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 199-206.

Binding of dipeptides and tripeptides containing lysine or arginine by p-sulfonatocalixarenes in water: NMR and microcalorimetric studiesElectronic supplementary information (ESI) available: chemical shifts experienced by different protons of KK, RR, KKK or RRR in the presence of increasing amounts of 14 or 16; heat effects observed upon titration of 14, 16 or 18 by KK, RR, KKK or RRR; COSY and ROESY 2D 1H NMR spectra for 14 complexed with KK or RR. See http://www.rsc.org/suppdata/p2/b1/b109553f/

Nathalie Douteau-Guével, Florent Perret, Anthony W. Coleman, Jean-Pierre Morel & Nicole Morel-Desrosiers
The water soluble -sulfonatocalix[]arenes ( = 4, 6 and 8) (, and ) show glycosylaminoglycan (GAG) mimicry, being both active antithrombotics and modulators of lysyloxidase activity. In order to understand how these synthetic receptors interact with GAG receptor sequences, we have undertaken a study to thermodynami

IASI-FT spectrally resolved Outgoing Longwave Radiation (from IASI/Metop-A)

simon whitburn
The IASI spectrally resolved Outgoing Longwave Radiation product (IASI OLR) is a monthly (L3), 2 x 2 degree global dataset of spectral OLR derived from the clear-sky IASI satellite radiance measurements in the range 645-2300 cm-1 at the 0.25 cm-1 native spectral sampling of the L1C spectra. The algorithm for the conversion of the spectra to the OLR is detailed in Whitburn et al. (2020, Journal of Climate). It relies on precalculated angular distribution models...

Data for: Hierarchial motor adaptations negotiate failures during force field learning

Tsuyoshi Ikegami, Gowrishankar Ganesh, Tricia Gibo, Toshinori Yoshioka, Rieko Osu & Mitsuo Kawato
Humans have the amazing ability to learn the dynamics of the body and environment to develop motor skills. Traditional motor studies using arm reaching paradigms have viewed this ability as the process of ‘internal model adaptation’. However, the behaviors have not been fully explored in the case when reaches fail to attain the intended target. Here we examined human reaching under two force fields types; one that induces failures (i.e., target errors), and the other...

Disturbance and the (surprising?) role of ecosystem engineering in explaining spatial patterns of non-native plant establishment

Meredith Root-Bernstein, Cesar Muñoz & Juan Armesto
The Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis is widely considered to be wrong but is rarely tested against alternative hypotheses. It predicts that soil disturbances and herbivory have identical impacts on species richness via identical mechanisms (reduction in biomass and in competition). An alternative hypothesis is that the specific traits of disturbance agents (small mammals) and plants differentially affects richness or abundance of different plant groups. We tested these hypotheses on a degu (Octodon degus) colony in central...

Cape fur seal vocal repertoire - acoustic parameters

Mathilde Martin, Tess Gridley, Simon Elwen & Isabelle Charrier
Communication is primordial for survival of animal species as signals are involved in many social interactions (mate selection, parental care, and collective behaviours). The acoustic channel is the primary modality used by birds and mammals to reliably exchange information among individuals. In group-living species, the propagation of vocal signals is limited due to the density of individuals and the background noise. Vocal exchanges are therefore challenging. This study is the first investigation into the acoustic...

Species ecology explains the various spatial components of genetic diversity in tropical reef fishes

Giulia Francesca Azzurra Donati, Niklaus Zemp, Stéphanie Manel, Maude Poirier, Thomas Claverie, Franck Ferraton, Théo Gaboriau, Rodney Govinden, Oskar Hagen, Shameel Ibrahim, David Mouillot, Julien Leblond, Pagu Julius, Laure Velez, Irthisham Zareer, Adam Ziyad, Fabien Leprieur, Camille Albouy & Loïc Pellissier
Generating genomic data for 19 tropical reef fish species of the Western Indian Ocean, we investigate how species ecology influences genetic diver- sity patterns from local to regional scales. We distinguish between the α, β and γ components of genetic diversity, which we subsequently link to six ecological traits. We find that the α and γ components of genetic diversity are strongly correlated so that species with a high total regional genetic diversity display systematically...

Data from: Impact of male trait exaggeration on sex-biased gene expression and genome architecture in a water strider

Abderrahman Khila, William Toubiana, David Armisen, Corentin Dechaud & Roberto Arbore
Background: Exaggerated secondary sexual traits are widespread in nature and often evolve under strong directional sexual selection. Although heavily studied from both theoretical and empirical viewpoints, we have little understanding of how sexual selection influences sex-biased gene regulation during the development of exaggerated secondary sexual phenotypes, and how these changes are reflected in genomic architecture. This is primarily due to the limited availability of representative genomes and associated tissue- and sex-transcriptomes to study the development...

Assessing the effects of artificial light at night on biodiversity across latitude – Current knowledge gaps

Jean Secondi, Aurélie Davranche, Marc Théry, Nathalie Mondy & Thierry Lengagne
Aim: Exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) is a risk factor for organisms. Considering the spread and increasing intensity of night brightness across the globe, and the key role of light at all biological levels, alterations of ecosystems are expected. Yet, we cannot predict the severity of the effects of ALAN in several biomes because little information is available outside the temperate zone. We reviewed current knowledge and identified traits that could be targeted...

Data from: The stochastic dynamics of early epidemics: probability of establishment, initial growth rate, and infection cluster size at first detection

Peter Czuppon, Emmanuel Schertzer, François Blanquart & Florence Débarre
Emerging epidemics and local infection clusters are initially prone to stochastic effects that can substantially impact the epidemic trajectory. While numerous studies are devoted to the deterministic regime of an established epidemic, mathematical descriptions of the initial phase of epidemic growth are comparatively rarer. Here, we review existing mathematical results on the epidemic size over time, and derive new results to elucidate the early dynamics of an infection cluster started by a single infected individual....

Rapid divergent evolution of an annual plant across a latitudinal gradient revealed by seed resurrection

Pierre-Olivier Cheptou
Global change is expected to drive short-term evolution of natural populations. However, it remains unclear whether different populations are changing in unison. Here, we study contemporary evolution of growth-related and reproductive traits of three populations of Cyanus segetum face to warming and pollinator decline across a latitudinal gradient in France. We resurrected stored seeds sampled up to 24 years apart from northern, central-western, and southern populations and conducted an in situ common-garden experiment. To disentangle...

Data from: Larval dispersal and fishing pressure influence recruitment in a coral reef fishery

Richard J. Hamilton, Diego Lozano-Cortés, Michael Bode, Glenn Almany, Hugo B. Harrison, John Pita, Pablo Saenz-Agudelo, Colin Gereniu, Nate Peterson, Howard Choat, Peter A. Waldie & Michael L. Berumen
Understanding larval connectivity patterns in exploited fishes is a fundamental prerequisite for developing effective management strategies and assessing the vulnerability of a fishery to recruitment overfishing and localised extinction. To date however, researchers have not considered how regional variations in fishing pressure also influence recruitment. We used genetic parentage analyses and modelling to infer the dispersal patterns of bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) larvae in the Kia fishing grounds, Isabel Province, Solomon Islands. We then extrapolated...

IASI Atmospheric Temperature Profiles (ATP)

Marie Bouillon
The IASI atmospheric temperature profiles product (IASI ATP) is a daily 1°x1° global dataset of atmospheric temperatures derived from all IASI radiance observations. The temperatures profiles are given on 11 static pressure levels from 750 to 2 hPa. The method used to retrieve atmospheric temperatures from IASI radiances is detailed in Bouillon et al., 2021 (to be submitted very soon). It relies on an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) trained with 450 000 observations (IASI observations...

Supplementary 1: Underwater photogrammetry for close-range 3D imaging of dry-sensitive objects: The case study of cephalopod beaks

Marjorie Roscian, Anthony Herrel, Raphaël Cornette, Arnaud Delapré, Yves Cherel & Isabelle Rouget
Technical advances in 3D imaging have contributed to quantifying and understanding biological variability and complexity. However, small, dry-sensitive objects are not easy to reconstruct using common and easily available techniques such as photogrammetry, surface scanning, or micro-CT scanning. Here we use cephalopod beaks as an example as their size, thickness, transparency, and dry-sensitive nature make them particularly challenging. We developed a new, underwater, photogrammetry protocol in order to add these types of biological structures to...

Diversity of biosynthetic gene clusters in gut bacteria of turtle ants

Christophe Duplais
In insect-microbe nutritional symbioses the gut symbionts supplement the host diet with nutrients by producing amino acids and vitamins or by degrading lignin or polysaccharides macromolecules. In multipartite mutualisms composed of multiple symbionts from different taxonomical orders, it has been suggested that beside the genes involved in the nutritional symbiosis the symbionts maintain genes responsible for the production of metabolites putatively playing a role in the maintenance and interaction of the bacterial communities living in...

Behavioral interactions between bacterivorous nematodes and predatory bacteria in a synthetic community

Nicola Mayrhofer, Gregory J. Velicer, Kaitlin A. Schaal & Marie Vasse
Theory and empirical studies in metazoans predict that apex predators should shape the behavior and ecology of mesopredators and prey at lower trophic levels. Despite the ecological importance of microbial communities, few studies of predatory microbes examine such behavioral responses and the multiplicity of trophic interactions. Here, we sought to assemble a three-level microbial food chain and to test for behavioral interactions between the predatory nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the predatory social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus...

Agroecosystem diversification with legumes or non-legumes improves differently soil fertility according to soil type

Marie Sauvadet, Jean Trap, Gaëlle Damour, Claude Plassard, Karel Van Den Meersche, Raphaël Achard, Clémentine Allinne, Patrice Autfray, Isabelle Bertrand, Eric Blanchart, Péninna Deberdt, Séguy Enock, Jean-Daniel Essobo, Grégoire Freschet, Mickaël Hedde, Elias De Melo Virginio Filho, Bodovololona Rabary, Miora Rakotoarivelo, Richard Randriamanantsoa, Béatrice Rhino, Aude Ripoche, Elisabeth Rosalie, Stéphane Saj, Thierry Becquer, Philippe Tixier … & Jean-Michel Harmand
Plant diversification through crop rotation or agroforestry is a promising way to improve sustainability of agroecosystems. Nonetheless, criteria to select the most suitable plant communities for agroecosystems diversification facing contrasting environmental constraints need to be refined. Here, we compared the impacts of 24 different plant communities on soil fertility across six tropical agroecosystems: either on highly weathered Ferralsols, with strong P limitation, or on partially weathered soils derived from volcanic material, with major N limitation....

Dataset and script to: Morphometric variance, evolutionary constraints and their change through time in Late Devonian Palmatolepis conodonts

Sabrina Renaud, Catherine Girard & Anne-Béatrice Dufour
Phenotypic variation is the raw material of evolution. Standing variation can facilitate response to selection along “lines of least evolutionary resistance”, but selection itself might alter the structure of the variance. Shape was quantified using 2D geometric morphometrics in Palmatolepis conodonts through the Late Devonian period. Patterns of variance were characterized along the record by the variance-covariance matrix (P-matrix) and its first axis (Pmax). The Late Frasnian was marked by environmental oscillations culminating with the...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
  • Sorbonne University
  • Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines University
  • Atmospheres Laboratory Environments, Observations Spatiales
  • Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille
  • Claude Bernard University Lyon 1
  • Paris Observatory
  • Laboratory of Space Studies and Instrumentation in Astrophysics
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich
  • Institut de Chimie Radicalaire