104 Works

Experimental evidence for the recovery of mercury-contaminated fish populations

Lee Hrenchuk, Paul Blanchfield, John Rudd, Marc Amyot, Christopher Babiarz, Ken Beaty, Drew Bodaly, Brian Branfireun, Cynthia Gilmour, Jennifer Graydon, Britt Hall, Reed Harris, Andrew Heyes, Holger Hintelmann, James Hurley, Carol Kelly, David Krabbenhoft, Steve Lindberg, Robert Mason, Michael Paterson, Cheryl Podemski, Ken Sandilands, George Southworth, Vincent St. Louis, Lori Tate … & Michael Tate
Anthropogenic releases of mercury (Hg) are a human health issue because the potent toxicant methylmercury (MeHg), formed primarily by microbial methylation of inorganic Hg in aquatic ecosystems, bioaccumulates to high concentrations in fish consumed by humans. Predicting the efficacy of Hg pollution controls on fish MeHg concentrations is complex because many factors influence the production and bioaccumulation of MeHg. Here we conducted a 15-year whole-ecosystem, single-factor experiment to determine the magnitude and timing of reductions...

Data from: Fine-scale genetic analysis of species-specific female preference in Drosophila simulans

Meghan Laturney & Amanda J. Moehring
Behavioral differences are thought to be the first components to contribute to species isolation, yet the precise genetic basis of behavioral isolation remains poorly understood. Here, we used a combination of behavior assays and genetic mapping to provide the first refined map locating candidate genes for interspecific female preference isolating Drosophila simulans from D. melanogaster. First, we tested whether two genes identified as affecting D. melanogaster female intraspecific mate choice also affect interspecific mate choice;...

Data from: A cross-seasonal perspective on local adaptation: metabolic plasticity mediates responses to winter in a thermal-generalist moth

Caroline M. Williams, Wesley D. Chick & Brent J. Sinclair
The physiological and ecological impact of the thermal environment across life-stages can result in trade-offs that determine fitness and population dynamics. Understanding mechanisms and consequences of local adaptation for any organism that overwinters requires taking a cross-seasonal perspective. We used a trait-based approach to distinguish variation among ecotypes in ecological and physiological responses to overwintering conditions. We used fall webworms (Hyphantria cunea; Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) from Ottawa, Ontario and Columbus Ohio, representing the centre and periphery...

Data from: Population genetic structure of the western cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in British Columbia, Canada

Sheri A. Maxwell, Howard M. A. Thistlewood & Nusha Keyghobadi
1. Population connectivity and movement are key ecological parameters influencing the impact of pests, and are important considerations in control strategies. For many insects, these parameters are difficult to assess directly, although they may be assessed indirectly using population genetic data. 2. We used microsatellite markers to examine population genetic structure of the western cherry fruit fly, the main pest of cherry crops in western North America, in British Columbia, Canada, and make inferences about...

Data from: Egg size and the adaptive capacity of early life history traits in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

Michael W. Thorn & Yolanda E. Morbey
Offspring traits are greatly influenced by maternal effects and these maternal effects may provide an important pathway through which populations can adapt to changing thermal environments. We investigated the effect of egg size on the among and within population variation in early life history traits among introduced Great Lakes Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations under varying thermal conditions. We reared Chinook salmon from three populations in a common garden hatchery study at 6.5°C, 9.4°C, and...

Data from: Genes underlying altruism

Graham J. Thompson, Peter L. Hurd & Bernard J. Crespi
William D. Hamilton postulated the existence of 'genes underlying altruism', under the rubric of inclusive fitness theory, a half-century ago. Such genes are now poised for discovery. In this article we develop a set of intuitive criteria for the recognition and analysis of genes for altruism, and describe the first candidates for altruism genes from social insects and humans. We also provide evidence from a human population for genetically-based tradeoffs, underlain by oxytocin-system polymorphisms, between...

Data from: Host association influences variation at salivary protein genes in the bat ectoparasite Cimex adjunctus

Benoit Talbot, Maarten J. Vonhof, Hugh G. Broders, Brock Fenton & Nusha Keyghobadi
Parasite-host relationships create strong selection pressures that can lead to adaptation and increasing specialization of parasites to their hosts. Even in relatively loose host-parasite relationships, such as between generalist ectoparasites and their hosts, we may observe some degree of specialization of parasite populations to one of the multiple potential hosts. Salivary proteins are used by blood-feeding ectoparasites to prevent hemostasis in the host and maximize energy intake. We investigated the influence of association with specific...

Data from: Mallard resource selection trade‐offs in a heterogeneous environment during autumn and winter

Matthew D. Palumbo, Scott A. Petrie, Michael Schummer, Benjamin D. Rubin & Simon Bonner
Animals select resources to maximize fitness but associated costs and benefits are spatially and temporally variable. Differences in wetland management influence resource availability for ducks and mortality risk from duck hunting. The local distribution of the Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is affected by this resource heterogeneity and variable risk from hunting. Regional conservation strategies primarily focus on how waterfowl distributions are affected by food resources during the nonbreeding season. To test if Mallard resource selection was...

Supplementary material for: Neural effects of oxytocin and mimicry in frontotemporal dementia: A randomized cross-over study

Lindsay Oliver, Chloe Stewart, Kristy Coleman, James Kryklywy, Robert Bartha, Derek Mitchell & Elizabeth Finger
OBJECTIVE: Reduced empathy is one of the hallmark and untreatable symptoms of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The objective of this study was to determine whether intranasal oxytocin, alone or in combination with instructed mimicry of facial expressions, would augment neural activity in patients with FTD in brain regions associated with empathy, emotion processing and the simulation network, as indexed by blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). METHODS: In a placebo-controlled, randomized cross-over...

Data from: Effects of a 60 Hz magnetic field exposure up to 3000 µT on human brain activation as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging

Alexandre Legros, Julien Modolo, Samantha Brown, John Robertson, Alex W. Thomas & John Roberston
Several aspects of the human nervous system and associated motor and cognitive processes have been reported to be modulated by extremely low-frequency (ELF, < 300 Hz) time-varying Magnetic Fields (MF). Due do their worldwide prevalence; power-line frequencies (60 Hz in North America) are of particular interest. Despite intense research efforts over the last few decades, the potential effects of 60 Hz MF still need to be elucidated, and the underlying mechanisms to be understood. In...

Data from: Adaptation of a polyphagous herbivore to a novel host plant extensively shapes the transcriptome of herbivore and host

Nicky Wybouw, Vladimir Zhurov, Catherine Martel, Kristie A. Bruinsma, Frederik Hendrickx, Vojislava Grbić & Thomas Van Leeuwen
Generalist arthropod herbivores rapidly adapt to a broad range of host plants. However, the extent of transcriptional reprogramming in the herbivore and its hosts associated with adaptation remains poorly understood. Using the spider mite Tetranychus urticae and tomato as models with available genomic resources, we investigated the reciprocal genomewide transcriptional changes in both spider mite and tomato as a consequence of mite's adaptation to tomato. We transferred a genetically diverse mite population from bean to...

Data from: “Balancing” balancing selection? Assortative mating at the major histocompatibility complex despite molecular signatures of balancing selection

Joel W. G. Slade, Matthew J. Watson & Elizabeth A. MacDougall-Shackleton
In vertebrate animals, genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) determine the set of pathogens to which an individual's adaptive immune system can respond. MHC genes are extraordinarily polymorphic, often showing elevated nonsynonymous relative to synonymous sequence variation and sharing presumably ancient polymorphisms between lineages. These patterns likely reflect pathogen‐mediated balancing selection, for example, rare‐allele or heterozygote advantage. Such selection is often reinforced by disassortative mating at MHC. We characterized exon 2 of MHC class...

Data from: Assortative mating but no evidence of genetic divergence in a species characterized by a trophic polymorphism

S.F. Colborne, Shawn R. Garner, Fred J. Longstaffe, Bryan D. Neff & S. F. Colborne
Disruptive selection is a process that can result in multiple subgroups within a population, which is referred to as diversification. Foraging-related diversification has been described in many taxa, but many questions remain about the contribution of such diversification to reproductive isolation and potentially sympatric speciation. Here, we use stable isotope analysis of diet and morphological analysis of body shape to examine phenotypic divergence between littoral and pelagic foraging ecomorphs in a population of pumpkinseed sunfish...

Data from: Migratory monarchs that encounter resident monarchs show life-history differences and higher rates of parasite infection

Dara A. Satterfield, John C. Maerz, Mark D. Hunter, D. T. Tyler Flockhart, Keith A. Hobson, D. Ryan Norris, Hillary Streit, Jacobus C. De Roode & Sonia Altizer
Environmental change induces some wildlife populations to shift from migratory to resident behaviours. Newly formed resident populations could influence the health and behaviour of remaining migrants. We investigated migrant-resident interactions among monarch butterflies and consequences for life history and parasitism. Eastern North American monarchs migrate annually to Mexico, but some now breed year-round on exotic milkweed in the southern U.S. and experience high infection prevalence of protozoan parasites. Using stable isotopes (2H, 13C) and cardenolide...

Weak interactions between strong interactors in an old-field ecosystem: Control of nitrogen cycling by coupled herbivores and detritivores

Robert Buchkowski & Oswald Schmitz
Interactions between herbivores and detritivores are common in greenhouse and laboratory experiments. Such interactions are thought to cause feedbacks in real ecosystems where the combined actions of these animals create either high or low nutrient cycling rates. There is limited evidence from factorial field experiments to support these expectations. We present the results of a three-year experiment wherein we factorially manipulated grasshopper herbivores and earthworm detritivores in an old-field ecosystem and tested for significant interaction...

Reversal learning in FTD (fMRI)

Elizabeth Finger, Tamara Tavares, Kristy Coleman & Derek Mitchell
Objective: Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that results in disinhibition and difficulty with flexible responding when provided feedback. Inflexible responding is observed early in the course of the illness and contributes to the financial and social morbidities of FTD. Reversal learning is an established cognitive paradigm that indexes flexible responding in the face of feedback signaling a change in reinforcement contingencies, with components of reversal learning associated with specific neurotransmitter systems. The objective...

Cold tolerance of laboratory-reared Asian longhorned beetles

Alex Torson, Meng Lei Zhang, Kevin Ong, Lamees Mohammad, Adam Smith, Daniel Doucet, Amanda Roe & Brent Sinclair
Low winter temperatures in temperate climates can limit the success of non-native species. The Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, is an invasive wood-boring pest of hardwood trees in North America and Europe. Native A. glabripennis populations are spread across several climate zones in China and the Korean Peninsula and are likely to encounter low temperatures in at least some of this range. Understanding the lethal limits of the overwintering life stages of A. glabripennis is...

Endogenous biomarkers reveal diet partitioning among three sympatric species of swallows

Kaelyn Bumelis, Michael Cadman & Keith Hobson
Since the early 1990s, aerial insectivorous birds have shown serious population declines in North America, but it is not clear if factors common to all species within this guild account for these declines. Among sympatric swallows, population trends differ, and this may be due to differences in ecology operating throughout the annual cycle. Although these species all feed on aerial insects, prey taxa can differ tremendously in their “aeroecology” and use by swallows. We examined...

Not a melting pot: plant species aggregate in their non-native range

Gisela C. Stotz, James F. Cahill, Jonathan A. Bennett, Cameron N. Carlyle, Edward W. Bork, Diana Askarizadeh, Sandor Bartha, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Bazartseren Boldgiv, Leslie Brown, Marcelo Cabido, Giandiego Campetella, Stefano Chelli, Ofer Cohen, Sandra Díaz, Lucas Enrico, David Ensing, Batdelger Erdenetsetseg, Alessandra Fidelis, Heath W. Garris, Hugh A.L. Henry, Anke Jentsch, Mohammad Hassan Jouri, Kadri Koorem, Peter Manning … & Lauchlan H. Fraser
Aim: Plant species continue to be moved outside of their native range by human activities. Here, we aim at determining whether, once introduced, plants assimilate into native communities, or whether they aggregate, thus forming mosaics of native- and alien-rich communities. Alien species may aggregate in their non-native range due to shared habitat preferences, such as their tendency to establish in high-biomass, species-poor areas. Location: 22 herbaceous grasslands in 14 countries, mainly in the temperate zone....

Data from: Indirect genetic effects underlie oxygen-limited thermal tolerance within a coastal population of chinook salmon

Nicolas J. Muñoz, Katja Anttila, Zhongqi Chen, John W. Heath, Anthony P. Farrell, Bryan D. Neff & N. J. Munoz
With global temperatures projected to surpass the limits of thermal tolerance for many species, evaluating the heritable variation underlying thermal tolerance is critical for understanding the potential for adaptation to climate change. We examined the evolutionary potential of thermal tolerance within a population of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by conducting a full-factorial breeding design and measuring the thermal performance of cardiac function and the critical thermal maximum (CTmax) of offspring from each family. Additive genetic...

Data from: Eating local: influences of habitat on the diet of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus)

Elizabeth L Clare, Brittany R Barber, Bernard W Sweeney, Paul DN Hebert & M Brock Fenton
We employ molecular methods to profile the diet of the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus, and describe spatial and temporal changes in diet over their maternity season. We identified 61 prey species of insects and 5 species of arachnid. The largest proportion of prey (∼32%) were identified as species of the mass-emerging Ephemeroptera (mayfly) genus Caenis. Bats roosting in agricultural settings had lower dietary richness than those occupying a roost located on a forest fragment...

Data from: Birdsong signals individual diversity at the major histocompatibility complex

Joel W.G. Slade, Matthew J. Watson, Elizabeth A. MacDougall-Shackleton & J. W. G. Slade
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a key role in vertebrate immunity, and pathogen-mediated selection often favours certain allelic combinations. Assessing potential mates' MHC profiles may provide receivers with genetic benefits (identifying MHC-compatible mates and producing optimally diverse offspring) and/or material benefits (identifying optimally diverse mates capable of high parental investment). Oscine songbirds learn songs during early life, such that song repertoire content can reflect population of origin while song complexity can reflect early life...

Data from: The diet of Myotis lucifugus across Canada: assessing foraging quality and diet variability

Elizabeth L. Clare, William O. C. Symondson, Hugh Broders, François Fabianek, Erin E. Frazer, Alistair MacKenzie, Andrew Boughen, Rachel Hamilton, Craig K. R. Willis, Felix Martinez-Nuñez, Allyson K. Menzies, Kaleigh J. O. Norquay, Mark Brigham, Joseph Poissant, Jody Rintoul, Robert M. R. Barclay, Jesika P. Reimer & Erin E. Fraser
Variation in prey resources influences the diet and behaviour of predators. When prey become limiting, predators may travel farther to find preferred food or adjust to existing local resources. When predators are habitat limited, local resource abundance impacts foraging success. We analysed the diet of Myotis lucifugus (little brown bats) from Nova Scotia (eastern Canada) to the Northwest Territories (north-western Canada). This distribution includes extremes of season length and temperature and encompasses colonies on rural...

Data from: Fearlessness towards extirpated large carnivores may exacerbate the impacts of naïve mesocarnivores

Justin P. Suraci, Devin J. Roberts, Michael Clinchy & Liana Y. Zanette
By suppressing mesocarnivore foraging, the fear large carnivores inspire can be critical to mitigating mesocarnivore impacts. Where large carnivores have declined, mesocarnivores may quantitatively increase foraging, commensurate with reductions in fear. The extirpation of large carnivores may further exacerbate mesocarnivore impacts by causing qualitative changes in mesocarnivore behavior. Error management theory suggests that, where predators are present, prey should be biased towards over-responsiveness to predator cues, abandoning foraging in response to both predator cues and...

Data from: Buzz factor or innovation potential: what explains cryptocurrencies' returns?

Sha Wang & Jean-Philippe Vergne
Cryptocurrencies have become increasingly popular since the introduction of bitcoin in 2009. In this paper, we identify factors associated with variations in cryptocurrencies’ market values. In the past, researchers argued that the “buzz” surrounding cryptocurrencies in online media explained their price variations. But this observation obfuscates the notion that cryptocurrencies, unlike fiat currencies, are technologies entailing a true innovation potential. By using, for the first time, a unique measure of innovation potential, we find that...

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