105 Works

Extraordinarily rapid proliferation of cultured muscle satellite cells from migratory birds

Kevin Young, Timothy Regnault & Christopher Guglielmo
Migratory birds experience bouts of muscle growth and depletion as they prepare for, and undertake prolonged flight. Our studies of migratory bird muscle physiology in vitro led to the discovery that sanderling (Calidris alba) muscle satellite cells proliferate more rapidly than other normal cell lines. Here we determined the proliferation rate of muscle satellite cells isolated from five migratory species (sanderling; ruff, Calidris pugnax; western sandpiper, Calidris mauri; yellow-rumped warbler, Setophaga coronata; Swainson’s thrush, Catharus...

Dormancy in laboratory-reared Asian longhorned beetles, Anoplophora glabripennis

Alex Torson, Meng Lei Zhang, Adam Smith, Lamees Mohammad, Kevin Ong, Daniel Doucet, Amanda Roe & Brent Sinclair
An insect’s capacity to survive winter is critical for range expansion in temperate regions. The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) is a polyphagous wood-boring insect native to China and the Korean peninsula and poses a high risk of invasion in North America and Europe. It is unclear whether A. glabripennis enters diapause, which means that diapause cannot be included in assessments of the risk of this species invading forests in temperate regions. Using a laboratory...

Exploring the inclusion of dental providers on interprofessional healthcare teams treating patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a rapid review

Navia Novosel, Greta Fratarcangeli, Jasdip Randhawa, Olivia Novosel & Shannon Sibbald
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death in the world. Emerging concepts like One Health, integrated models for COPD, and associations between oral and respiratory health are innovative ways to approach COPD treatment. This study explored contemporary evidence on the inclusion of dental providers on interprofessional healthcare teams treating patients with COPD. The first objective was to explore the current state of interprofessional care for COPD treatment, and the second...

Plasticity in floral longevity and sex-phase duration of Lobelia siphilitica in response to simulated pollinator declines

Christina Caruso & Kiana Lee
Premise: Pollinator declines can reduce the quantity and quality of pollination services, resulting in less pollen deposited on flowers and lower seed production by plants. In response to these reductions, plants can increase the opportunity for pollination by plastically adjusting their floral traits, including floral longevity and sex-phase duration. However, studies of plant responses to pollinator declines have primarily focused on floral evolution across generations rather than plasticity in floral traits within a generation. Methods:...

Data from: The first extracellular domain plays an important role in unitary channel conductance of Cx50 gap junction channels

Xiaoling Tong, Hiroshi Aoyama, Swathy Sudhakar, Honghong Chen, Brian H Shilton, Donglin Bai & Brian H. Shilton
Gap junction (GJ) channels provide direct passage for ions and small molecules to be exchanged between neighbouring cells and are crucial for many physiological processes. GJ channels can be gated by transjunctional voltage (known as Vj-gating) and display a wide range of unitary channel conductance (γj), yet the domains responsible for Vj-gating and γj are not fully clear. The first extracellular domain (E1) of several connexins has been shown to line part of their GJ...

The role of plant-pollinator interactions in structuring nectar microbial communities

Clara De Vega, Sergio Álvarez-Pérez, Rafael G. Albaladejo, Sandy-Lynn Steenhuisen, Marc-André Lachance, Steve D. Johnson & Carlos M. Herrera
1. Floral nectar harbours a diverse microbiome of yeasts and bacteria that depend predominantly on animal visitors for their dispersal. Since pollinators visit specific sets of flowers and carry their own unique microbiota, we hypothesize that plant species visited by the same set of pollinators may support non-random nectar microbial communities linked together by the type of pollinator. 2. Here we explore the importance of plant-pollinator interactions in the assembly of nectar microbiome and study...

Hierarchy of fear: experimentally testing ungulate reactions to lion, African wild dog and cheetah

Liana Zanette, Noa Rigoudy, Michael Clinchy, Mike Peel, Sarah Huebner & Craig Packer
Experiments have begun demonstrating that the fear (antipredator responses) large carnivores inspire in ungulates can shape ecosystem structure and function. Most such experiments have focused on the impacts of either just one large carnivore, or all as a whole, rather than the different impacts different large carnivores may have in intact multi-predator-prey systems. Experimentally testing the relative fearfulness ungulates demonstrate toward different large carnivores is a necessary first step in addressing these likely differing impacts....

Supplementary Documentation - Epilepsy risk among survivors of intensive care unit hospitalization for sepsis

Tresah Antaya, Britney Allen, Lucie Richard, Salimah Shariff, Gustavo Saposnik & Jorge Burneo
Objective Our objectives were to determine if survivors of intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalizations with sepsis experience higher epilepsy risk than survivors of ICU hospitalizations without sepsis, and to identify sepsis survivors at highest risk. Methods We used linked, administrative healthcare databases to conduct a population-based, retrospective matched cohort study of adult Ontario residents discharged from an ICU between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2015, identified using the Discharge Abstract Database. We used propensity...

Responses of White-throated sparrows to simulated winter storm cues

Scott MacDougall-Shackleton & Andrea Boyer
These data were used in the publication "Increased frequency of exposure to simulated winter storm cues negatively affects white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis)" Front. Ecol. Evol. | doi: 10.3389/fevo.2020.00222 Climate change is causing changes in weather patterns and more frequent extreme weather events. Although birds are often able to cope with and respond to inclement weather with physiological and behavioral responses, as weather events become more severe or frequent the adaptive coping responses of many species...

Data from: Complex interactions between temperature, sexual signals, and mate choice in a desert-dwelling jumping spider

Erin Brandt, Malcolm Rosenthal & Damian Elias
Environmental context is a crucial factor that influences sexual communication systems. Particularly in ectotherms, which cannot metabolically regulate their body temperature, temperature has an outsized effect on these intraspecific interactions. Using a desert-dwelling jumping spider Habronattus clypeatus, we assessed how temperature impacts various parts of the male signal and female mate choice for the signal. These spiders have multimodal, temporally-structured courtship displays that begin with visual-only “sidling” displays and proceed to multimodal visual and vibratory...

Data files for: Hazardous loss of genetic diversity through selective sweeps in asexual populations

Lindi Wahl & Mark Tanaka
With the two-fold cost of sex, derived asexual organisms have an immediate reproductive advantage over their sexual sisters. Yet the "twiggy'' phylogenetic distribution of asexual lineages implies that they go extinct relatively quickly over evolutionary time. Meanwhile, bacteria and archaea have persisted for billions of years without requiring sexual reproduction. A simple explanation for this difference is that prokaryotes have very large population sizes that are not subject to the accumulation of deleterious mutations, but...

Data from: NREM2 and sleep spindles are instrumental to the consolidation of motor sequence memories

Samuel Laventure, Stuart Fogel, Ovidiu Lungu, Geneviève Albouy, Pénélope Sévigny-Dupont, Catherine Vien, Chadi Sayour, Julie Carrier, Habib Benali & Julien Doyon
Although numerous studies have convincingly demonstrated that sleep plays a critical role in motor sequence learning (MSL) consolidation, the specific contribution of the different sleep stages in this type of memory consolidation is still contentious. To probe the role of stage 2 non-REM sleep (NREM2) in this process, we used a conditioning protocol in three different groups of participants who either received an odor during initial training on a motor sequence learning task and were...

Data from: Optimizing stimulation and analysis protocols for neonatal fMRI

Rhodri Cusack, Conor J. Wild, Annika C. Linke, Tomoki Arichi, David S. C. Lee, Victor K. Han & Conor Wild
The development of brain function in young infants is poorly understood. The core challenge is that infants have a limited behavioral repertoire through which brain function can be expressed. Neuroimaging with fMRI has great potential as a way of characterizing typical development, and detecting abnormal development early. But, a number of methodological challenges must first be tackled to improve the robustness and sensitivity of neonatal fMRI. A critical one of these, addressed here, is that...

Data from: Spectral and temporal acoustic features modulate response irregularities within primary auditory cortex columns

Andres Carrasco, Trecia A. Brown & Stephen G. Lomber
Assemblies of vertically connected neurons in the cerebral cortex form information processing units (columns) that participate in the distribution and segregation of sensory signals. Despite well-accepted models of columnar architecture, functional mechanisms of inter-laminar communication remain poorly understood. Hence, the purpose of the present investigation was to examine the effects of sensory information features on columnar response properties. Using acute recording techniques, extracellular response activity was collected from the right hemisphere of eight mature cats...

Data from: The effects of dietary macronutrients on flight ability, energetics, and fuel metabolism of yellow-rumped warblers Setophaga coronata

Christopher G. Guglielmo, Alexander R. Gerson, Edwin R. Price & Quentin R. Hays
The catabolism of protein from organs and muscles during migratory flight is necessary to produce glucose, key metabolic intermediates, and water, but may have negative effects on flight range and refueling at stopovers. We tested the hypothesis, suggested by previous studies, that birds that eat high-protein insect diets use more protein for fuel in flight than those that eat high-carbohydrate fruits. First, we fed migratory yellow-rumped warblers synthetic fruit or mixed insect/fruit diets, and measured...

Data from: Purifying selection in the toll-like receptors of song sparrows Melospiza melodia

Martha J. Nelson-Flower, Ryan R. Germain, Elizabeth A. MacDougall-Shackleton, Sabrina S. Taylor & Peter Arcese
Variation in immune gene sequences is known to influence resistance to infectious diseases and parasites, and hence survival and mate choice, across animal taxa. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) comprise one essential gene family in the vertebrate innate immune system, and recognize evolutionarily conserved structures from all major microorganism classes. However, the causes and consequences of TLR variation in passerine birds remain largely unexplored. We examined seven TLR genes in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), a species that...

Data from: Seasonal shifts in the insect gut microbiome are concurrent with changes in cold tolerance and immunity

Laura V. Ferguson, Pranav Dhakal, Jacqueline E. Lebenzon, David E. Heinrichs, Carol Bucking & Brent J. Sinclair
1. Seasonal changes in the environment, such as varying temperature, have the potential to change the functional relationship between ectothermic animals, such as insects, and their microbiomes. Our objectives were to determine: a) whether seasonal changes in temperature shift the composition of the insect gut microbiome, and b) if changes in the microbiome are concomitant with changes in the physiology of the host, including the immune system and response to cold. 2. We exposed laboratory...

Data from: Effects of mountaintop removal mining and valley filling on the occupancy and abundance of stream salamanders

Steven J. Price, Brenee' L. Muncy, Simon J. Bonner, Andrea N. Drayer & Christopher D. Barton
Human-induced land-use changes are among the primary causes of ecosystem degradation and biodiversity loss. Across central Appalachia (USA), mountaintop removal mining and valley filling (MTR/VF) is the prevailing form of land-use change and represents a stressor to stream ecosystems. Salamanders are the dominant vertebrate in Appalachian headwater streams. Thus, we addressed the question: Is salamander occupancy and conditional abundance reduced in streams impacted by MTR/VF? We conducted repeated counts of adult and larval salamanders within...

Data from: Female cowbirds have more accurate spatial memory than males

Mélanie F. Guigueno, Danielle A. Snow, Scott A. MacDougall-Shackleton & David F. Sherry
Brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) are obligate brood parasites. Only females search for host nests and they find host nests one or more days before placing eggs in them. Past work has shown that females have a larger hippocampus than males, but sex differences in spatial cognition have not been extensively investigated. We tested cowbirds for sex and seasonal differences in spatial memory on a foraging task with an ecologically relevant retention interval. Birds were trained...

Data from: Range-wide populations of a long-distance migratory songbird converge during stopover in the tropics

Camila Gomez, Sara L. Guerrero, Alyssa M. FitzGerald, Nicholas J. Bayly, Keith A. Hobson & Carlos Daniel Cadena
Geographic convergence during migration influences the extent to which animal populations may experience carry-over effects across periods of the annual cycle. When most individuals of a population share geographic areas during a given period, carry-over effects are likely stronger than when individuals occupy multiple areas. We used genetic data and stable isotope (δ2H) measurements from feathers and claws to describe the likely breeding and wintering geographic origins of a long-distance migratory songbird (Gray-cheeked Thrush, Catharus...

Data from: Molecular diet analysis finds an insectivorous desert bat community dominated by resource sharing despite diverse echolocation and foraging strategies

Rowena Gordon, Sally Ivens, Loren K. Ammerman, M. Brock Fenton, Joanne E. Littlefair, John M. Ratcliffe & Elizabeth L. Clare
Interspecific differences in traits can alter the relative niche use of species within the same environment. Bats provide an excellent model to study niche use because they have a wide variety of behavioural, acoustic and morphological traits that may lead to multi-species, functional groups. Predatory bats have been classified by their foraging location (edge, clutter, open space), ability to aerial hawk and/or substrate glean prey and echolocation call design and flexibility, all of which may...

Data from: An increase in immature β-cells lacking Glut2 precedes the expansion of β-cell mass in the pregnant mouse

Christine A. Beamish, Linhao Zhang, Sandra K. Szlapinski, Brenda J. Strutt & David J. Hill
A compensatory increase in β-cell mass occurs during pregnancy to counter the associated insulin resistance, and a failure in adaptation is thought to contribute to gestational diabetes. Insulin-expressing but glucose-transporter-2-low (Ins+Glut2LO) progenitor cells are present in mouse and human pancreas, being predominantly located in extra-islet β-cell clusters, and contribute to the regeneration of the endocrine pancreas following induced ablation. We therefore sought to investigate the contribution of Ins+Glut2LO cells to β-cell mass expansion during pregnancy....

Data from: Toxic diffuse isolated cerebellar edema from over-the-counter health supplements

David Dongkyung Kim, Christen L. Shoesmith & Lee-Cyn Ang
Figure e-1. Pathology images of the cerebellar biopsy sample.(Panel A) Biopsy shows cerebellar cortex with dark Purkinje neurons and Purkinje neuron dropout. There is microvacuolation of neuropil and white matter. Features are consistent with ischemic neuronal changes with surrounding edema. Luxol-fast blue/hematoxylin-eosin (Bar = 50 microns). (Panel B) Neurofilament immunohistochemistry highlights collapsed basket cells which emphasize the Purkinje neuron dropout. (Bar = 50 microns).Supplementary Figure.tifTable e-1. Labelled ingredients of each herbal or naturopathic product that...

Data from: An inordinate fondness for beetles? Variation in seasonal dietary preferences of night roosting big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

Elizabeth L. Clare, William O. C. Symondson & Melville Brockett Fenton
Generalist species with numerous food web interactions are thought to provide stability to ecosystem dynamics; however, it is not always clear whether habitat generality translates into dietary diversity. Big brown bats are common across North America and employ a flexible foraging strategy over water, dense forests, forest edges and rural and urban settings. Despite this generalist use of habitat, they are paradoxically characterized as beetle specialists. However, hard carapaces may preferentially survive digestion leading to...

Invasive widow spiders perform differently at low temperatures than conspecifics from the native range

Monica A. Mowery, Susan E. Anthony, Alexandra N. Dorison, Andrew C. Mason & Maydianne C. B. Andrade
Temperature challenges are one of the leading abiotic causes of success or failure of non-native species in a novel environment, and this is particularly true for low temperatures. Establishing and reproducing in a novel thermal environment can alter survival, behaviour, and traits related to fitness. It has been proposed that plasticity or adaptation of thermal tolerance may allow an introduced species to thrive, or that successful invaders may be those with a thermal breadth in...

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  • Western University
  • University of Guelph
  • University of British Columbia
  • University of Alberta
  • Queen Mary University of London
  • Western University
  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • University of Georgia
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Waterloo