101 Works

Does prey scarcity increase the risk of wolf attacks on domestic dogs?

Ilpo YJ Kojola
Gray wolf (Canis lupus) predation on domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) is a considerable wolf-human conflict issue in several regions of Europe and North America but has not been well documented in the scientific literature. Livestock depredations by wolves may be related to the abundance of wild prey. Regardless of the presumed motivations of wolves for attacking dogs (likely due to interference competition and predation), the abundance of wild prey populations may also influence the risk...

Data from: Food provisioning alters infection dynamics in populations of a wild rodent

Kristian M. Forbes, Heikki Henttonen, Varpu Hirvelä-Koski, Anja Kipar, Tapio Mappes, Peter Stuart & Otso Huitu
While pathogens are often assumed to limit the growth of wildlife populations, experimental evidence for their effects is rare. A lack of food resources has been suggested to enhance the negative effects of pathogen infection on host populations, but this theory has received little investigation. We conducted a replicated two-factor enclosure experiment, with introduction of the bacterium Bordetella bronchiseptica and food supplementation, to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of pathogen infection and food availability...

Data from: Spatio-temporal dynamics of a fish predator: density-dependent and hydrographic effects on Baltic Sea cod population

Valerio Bartolino, Huidong Tian, Ulf Bergström, Pekka Jounela, Eero Aro, Christian Dieterich, H.E. Markus Meier, Massimiliano Cardinale, Barbara Bland, Michele Casini & H. E. Markus Meier
Understanding the mechanisms of spatial population dynamics is crucial for the successful management of exploited species and ecosystems. However, the underlying mechanisms of spatial distribution are generally complex due to the concurrent forcing of both density-dependent species interactions and density-independent environmental factors. Despite the high economic value and central ecological importance of cod in the Baltic Sea, the drivers of its spatio-temporal population dynamics have not been analytically investigated so far. In this paper, we...

Data from: Low but significant genetic differentiation underlies biologically meaningful phenotypic divergence in a large Atlantic salmon population

Tutku Aykanat, Susan E. Johnston, Eero Niemelä, Panu Orell, Jaakko Erkinaro & Craig R. Primmer
Despite decades of research assessing the genetic structure of natural populations, the biological meaning of low yet significant genetic divergence often remains unclear due to a lack of associated phenotypic and ecological information. At the same time, structured populations with low genetic divergence and overlapping boundaries can potentially provide excellent models to study adaptation and reproductive isolation in cases where high-resolution genetic markers and relevant phenotypic and life history information are available. Here, we combined...

Data from: Landscape context and substrate characteristics shape fungal communities of dead spruce in urban and semi-natural forests

Aku Korhonen, Otto Miettinen, Johan Kotze & Leena Hamberg
Data from: Korhonen, A., Miettinen, O., Kotze, D.J., & Hamberg, L. (2022). Landscape context and substrate characteristics shape fungal communities of dead spruce in urban and semi-natural forests. Environmental Microbiology. DOI: 10.1111/1462-2920.15903 This dataset contains occurrence data of 475 fungal ITS2 sequence clusters (OTUs) across 360 sequenced samples originating from dead wood of Norway spruce (Picea abies). Wood samples were collected from 90 downed spruce trunks, at four points from each trunk. Trunks were at...

Data from: Genotypic traits and tradeoffs of fast growth in silver birch, a pioneer tree

Juha Mikola, Katariina Koikkalainen, Mira Rasehorn, Tarja Silfver, Ulla Paaso & Matti Rousi
Fast-growing and slow-growing plant species are suggested to show integrated economics spectrums and the tradeoffs of fast growth are predicted to emerge as susceptibility to herbivory and resource competition. We tested if these predictions also hold for fast-growing and slow-growing genotypes within a silver birch, Betula pendula population. We exposed cloned saplings of 17 genotypes with slow, medium or fast height growth to reduced insect herbivory, using an insecticide, and to increasing resource competition, using...

Seasonal release from competition explains partial migration in European moose

Bram Van Moorter, Navinder Singh, Christer Rolandsen, Erling Solberg, Holger Dettki, Jyrki Pusenius, Johan Månsson, Hakan Sand, Jos Milner, Ole Roer, Aimee Tallian, Wiebke Neumann, Göran Ericsson & Atle Mysterud
Partial migration, whereby a proportion of a population migrates between distinct seasonal ranges, is common throughout the animal kingdom. However, studies linking existing theoretical models of migration probability, with empirical data are lacking. The competitive release hypothesis for partial migration predicts that due to density-dependent habitat selection, the proportion of migrants increases as the relative quality and size of the seasonal range increases, but decreases with increasing migration cost and population density. To test this...

Urban forests host rich polypore assemblages in a Nordic metropolitan area

Aku Korhonen, Reijo Penttilä, Auli Immonen, Otto Miettinen, Juha Siitonen & Leena Hamberg
This dataset contains data for a manuscript titled 'Urban forests host rich polypore assemblages in a Nordic metropolitan area' where we have studied associations between the diversity of dead-wood inhabiting fungi and urbanization. The included spreadsheets contain data used in the analyses, i.e. polypore species occurrences, species richness and environmental data, accompanied by annotations about the characteristics of the study sites and individual dead-wood units. Data is given at two spatial scales on two separate...

Data from: Traits mediate niches and co-occurrences of forest beetles in ways that differ among bioclimatic regions

Ryan C. Burner, Jörg G. Stephan, Lukas Drag, Tone Birkemoe, Jörg Muller, Tord Snäll, Otso Ovaskainen, Mária Potterf, Juha Siitonen, Olav Skarpaas, Inken Doerfler, Martin M. Gossner, Peter Schall, Wolfgang W. Weisser & Anne Sverdrup-Thygeson
Aim To investigate the role of traits in beetle community assembly and test for consistency in these effects among several bioclimatic regions. We asked (1) whether traits predicted species’ responses to environmental gradients (i.e., their niches), (2) whether these same traits could predict co-occurrence patterns, and (3) how consistent were niches and the role of traits among study regions. Location Boreal forests in Norway and Finland, temperate forests in Germany. Methods We complied capture records...

Data on measuring splash dispersal of a major wheat pathogen in the field

Petteri Karisto, Frédéric Suffert & Alexey Mikaberidze
Capacity for dispersal is a fundamental fitness component of plant pathogens. Characterization of plant pathogen dispersal is important for understanding how pathogen populations change in time and space. We devised a systematic approach to measure and analyze rain splash-driven dispersal of plant pathogens in field conditions, using the major fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici as a case study.We inoculated field plots of wheat (Triticum aestivum) with two distinct Z. tritici strains. Next, we measured disease...

Data from: Strong interactive effects of warming and insect herbivory on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics at Subarctic tree line

Nele Meyer, Tarja Silfver, Kristiina Karhu, Kristiina Myller, Outi-Maaria Sietiö, Eero Myrsky, Elina Oksanen, Matti Rousi & Juha Mikola
Warming will likely stimulate Arctic primary production, but also soil C and N mineralization, and it remains uncertain whether the Arctic will become a sink or a source for CO2. Increasing insect herbivory may also dampen the positive response of plant production and soil C input to warming. We conducted an open-air warming experiment with Subarctic field layer vegetation in North Finland to explore the effects of warming (+3°C) and reduced insect herbivory (67% reduction...

Data from: Genomic signatures of fine‐scale local selection in Atlantic salmon suggest involvement of sexual maturation, energy homeostasis, and immune defence‐related genes

Victoria L. Pritchard, Hannu Mäkinen, Juha-Pekka Vähä, Jaakko Erkinaro, Panu Orell & Craig R. Primmer
Elucidating the genetic basis of adaptation to the local environment can improve our understanding of how the diversity of life has evolved. In this study we used a dense SNP array to identify candidate loci potentially underlying fine-scale local adaptation within a large Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) population. By combining outlier, gene–environment association, and haplotype homozygosity analyses, we identified multiple regions of the genome with strong evidence for diversifying selection. Several of these candidate regions...

Data from: Forest loss in protected areas and intact forest landscapes: a global analysis

Matias Heino, Matti Kummu, Marika Makkonen, Mark Mulligan, Peter H. Verburg, Mika Jalava & Timo A. Räsänen
In spite of the high importance of forests, global forest loss has remained alarmingly high during the last decades. Forest loss at a global scale has been unveiled with increasingly finer spatial resolution, but the forest extent and loss in protected areas (PAs) and in large intact forest landscapes (IFLs) have not so far been systematically assessed. Moreover, the impact of protection on preserving the IFLs is not well understood. In this study we conducted...

Data from: Towards a common methodology for developing logistic tree mortality models based on ring-width data

Maxime Cailleret, Christof Bigler, Harald Bugmann, J. Julio Camarero, Katarina Cufar, Hendrik Davi, Ilona Mészáros, Francesco Minunno, Mikko Peltoniemi, Elisabeth Robert, María-Laura Suarez, Roberto Tognetti & Jordi Martinez-Vilalta
Tree mortality is a key process shaping forest dynamics. Thus, there is a growing need for indicators of the likelihood of tree death. During the last decades, an increasing number of tree-ring based studies have aimed to derive growth–mortality functions, mostly using logistic models. The results of these studies, however, are difficult to compare and synthesize due to the diversity of approaches used for the sampling strategy (number and characteristics of alive and death observations),...

Data from: Sperm pre-fertilization thermal environment shapes offspring phenotype and performance

Jukka Kekäläinen, Párástu Oskoei, Matti Janhunen, Heikki Koskinen, Raine Kortet & Hannu Huuskonen
Sperm pre-fertilization environment has recently been suggested to mediate remarkable transgenerational consequences for offspring phenotype (transgenerational plasticity, TGB), but the adaptive significance of the process has remained unclear. Here, we studied the transgenerational effects of sperm pre-fertilization thermal environment in a cold-adapted salmonid, the European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.). We used a full-factorial breeding design where the eggs of five females were fertilized with the milt of 10 males that had been pre-incubated at two...

Data from: The contemporary genetic pattern of European moose is shaped by postglacial recolonization, bottlenecks, and the geographical barrier of the Baltic Sea

Magdalena Niedziałkowska, Kris J. Hundertmark, Bogumiła Jędrzejewska, Vadim E. Sidorovich, Hanna Zalewska, Rauno Veeroja, Erling J. Solberg, Sauli Laaksonen, Håkan Sand, Vyacheslav A. Solovyev, Andrey Sagaydak, Juha Tiainen, Rimvydas Juškaitis, Gundega Done, Vadim A. Borodulin, Evgenii A. Tulandin & Krzysztof Niedziałkowski
To investigate genetic diversity and the population structure of the European moose (Alces alces), we analyzed 14 microsatellite loci for 694 samples collected across 16 localities. The highest genetic diversity was detected in Belarus and Russia and the lowest was found in Scandinavia. Two major genetic clusters existed, Scandinavian and continental, and some further spatial structure was detected. There was high concordance between the spatial distribution of microsatellite clusters analyzed in the present study and...

Data from: Interspecific transfer of parasites following a range-shift in Ficedula flycatchers

William Jones, Katarzyna Kulma, Staffan Bensch, Mariusz Cichoń, Anvar Kerimov, Miloš Krist, Toni Laaksonen, Juan Moreno, Pavel Munclinger, Fred Slater, Eszter Szöllősi, Marcel E. Visser, Anna Qvarnström & Fred M. Slater
Human-induced climate change is expected to cause major biotic changes in species distributions and thereby including escalation of novel host-parasite associations. Closely related host species that come into secondary contact are especially likely to exchange parasites and pathogens. Two competing theories, the Enemy Release Hypothesis, where invading hosts escape their original parasites; and the Novel Weapon Hypothesis, where invading hosts bring new parasites that have detrimental effects on native hosts, have been described to predict...

Data from: Genome-wide exon-capture approach identifies genetic variants of Norway spruce genes associated with susceptibility to Heterobasidion parviporum infection

Mukrimin Mukrimin, Andriy Kovalchuk, Leandro G. Neves, Emad H. A. Jaber, Matti Haapanen, Matias Kirst & Fred O. Asiegbu
Root and butt rot caused by members of the Heterobasidion annosum species complex is the most economically important disease of conifer trees in boreal forests. Wood decay in the infected trees dramatically decreases their value and causes considerable losses to forest owners. Trees vary in their susceptibility to Heterobasidion infection, but the genetic determinants underlying the variation in the susceptibility are not well-understood. We performed the identification of Norway spruce genes associated with the resistance...

Data from: Ecological crossovers of sexual signalling in a migratory bird

Pauliina Elisabet Teerikorpi, Päivi Maria Sirkiä & Toni Laaksonen
Environmental shifts may induce sudden reversals in the relative quality or sexual attractiveness of mates (ecological cross-overs) leading to non-directional sexual selection. Studies on such ecological cross-overs induced by environmental shifts during the non-breeding season are particularly rare. We studied the interactive effects between wintering conditions and a male white wing patch on the breeding success of breeding pairs and the local survival of females in a migratory passerine population over a 32-year period. After...

Data from: Tracking ice phenology by migratory waterbirds: settling phenology and breeding success of species with divergent population trends

Hannu Pöysä
Dependence on climate-driven environmental cues in the initiation of life cycle stages is a critical attribute when assessing vulnerability of species to climate change impacts. This study focused on spring ice phenology as a cue to the settling of migratory waterbirds, asking whether there is an asynchrony between ice phenology and setting phenology that could affect breeding success of six species with divergent population trends. In the 37 study lakes in southeastern Finland, the ice-out...

Data from: Cis-regulatory differences in isoform expression associate with life history strategy variation in Atlantic salmon

Jukka-Pekka Verta, Paul Debes, Nikolai Piavchenko, Annukka Ruokolainen, Outi Ovaskainen, Jacqueline Moustakas-Verho, Seija Tillanen, Noora Parre, Tutku Aykanat, Jaakko Erkinaro & Craig Primmer
A major goal in biology is to understand how evolution shapes variation in individual life histories. Genome-wide association studies have been successful in uncovering genome regions linked with traits underlying life history variation in a range of species. However, lack of functional studies of the discovered genotype-phenotype associations severely restrains our understanding how alternative life history traits evolved and are mediated at the molecular level. Here, we report a cis-regulatory mechanism whereby expression of alternative...

Data from: Oral samples as non-invasive proxies for assessing the composition of the rumen microbial community

Ilma Tapio, Kevin J. Shingfield, Nest McKain, Aurelie Bonin, Daniel Fischer, Ali R. Bayat, Johanna Vilkki, Pierre Taberlet, Timothy J. Snelling & R. John Wallace
Microbial community analysis was carried out on ruminal digesta obtained directly via rumen fistula and buccal fluid, regurgitated digesta (bolus) and faeces of dairy cattle to assess if non-invasive samples could be used as proxies for ruminal digesta. Samples were collected from five cows receiving grass silage based diets containing no additional lipid or four different lipid supplements in a 5 x 5 Latin square design. Extracted DNA was analysed by qPCR and by sequencing...

Data from: Enriched rearing environment and wild genetic background can enhance survival and disease resistance of salmonid fishes during parasite epidemics

Anssi Karvonen, Mariella Aalto-Araneda, Anna-Maija Virtala, Raine Kortet, Perttu Koski & Pekka Hyvärinen
The importance and volume of aquaculture is increasing world-wide. Rearing practices play a key role in determining growth rate, survival and disease resistance in aquaculture fishes. Recent evidence suggests that in comparison with a standard stimulus-poor rearing environment, an enriched or variable rearing environment has significant positive effects on several traits underlying growth and well-being of fish. However, the effect of enriched rearing on one of the most important threats for aquaculture development, occurrence of...

Identifying biotic drivers of population dynamics in a benthic–pelagic community

Louise Forsblom, Andreas Lindén, Jonna Engström-Öst, Maiju Lehtiniemi & Erik Bonsdorff
Benthic species and communities are linked to pelagic zooplankton through life-stages encompassing both benthic and pelagic habitats and through a mutual dependency on primary producers as a food source. Many zooplankton taxa contribute to the sedimentary system as benthic eggs. Our main aim was to investigate the nature of the population level biotic interactions between and within these two seemingly independent communities, both dependent on the pelagic primary production, while simultaneously accounting for environmental drivers...

Patterns of genetic diversity vary among shoot and root functional traits in Norway spruce (Picea abies) along a latitudinal gradient

Matti J. Salmela
Roots constitute a major segment of plant biomass, and variation in belowground traits in situ correlates with environmental gradients at large spatial scales. Local adaptation of populations maintains intraspecific genetic variation in various shoot traits, but the contribution of genetic factors to adaptation to soil heterogeneity remains poorly known. I established a common-garden experiment with three Norway spruce (Picea abies) populations sampled between 60° and 67° N in Finland, each represented by 13 or 15...

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