98 Works

Modulation of Bambusuril Anion Affinity in Water

Vaclav Havel, Michal Babiak & Vladimir Sindelar
Abstract Neutral and negatively charged anion receptors functioning in pure water are rare in supramolecular chemistry. Moreover, studies on adjusting the affinity of such receptors toward anions i...

Hypervalent Iodine Based Reversible Covalent Bond in Rotaxane Synthesis

Markéta Kandrnálová, Zoran Kokan, Václav Havel, Marek Nečas & Vladimir Sindelar
The interlocked bambusuril: Reactive hypervalent iodine species possessing dynamic covalent bonds are utilized in a constitutive sense for the near quantitative synthesis of rotaxanes via the stabili...

Thermodynamics of Halide Binding to a Neutral Bambusuril in Water and Organic Solvents

Kristina Sleziakova, Vladimir Sindelar, Tomas Fiala, Kamil Marsalek & Karolina Salvadori
Driving forces of anion binding in water in contrast to nonpolar environments are of high interest because of their relevance to biology and medicine. Here we report a neutral bambusuril macrocycle (1), soluble in both water and nonpolar solvents due to decoration with 12 polyethylene glycol-based substituents. The new bambusuril has the highest affinity for I– in pure water ever reported for a synthetic macrocycle relying on hydrogen bonding interactions rather than metal coordination or...

Effects of cucurbituril size on the binding of a lutidine guest

Angel E. Kaifer, Vladimir Sindelar & Jan Svec
Six- and seven-membered cucurbiturils form inclusion complexes with a lutidine derivative. These inclusion complexes differ in the binding mode, stability, kinetics of complexation, and sensitivity toward basic media.

Propanediurea-Based Molecular Clips Bind Halide Anions: An Insight into the Mechanism of Cucurbituril Formation

Tomas Lizal, Lukas Ustrnul, Marek Necas & Vladimir Sindelar
The synthesis and supramolecular properties of the first methylene-bridged propanediurea-based dimers are described. These dimers, bearing an aromatic sidewall, have the shape of molecular clips. Unlike glycoluril-based dimers, these clips neither dimerize nor accept any organic guests, due to their small cavities. Both propanediurea- and glycoluril-based dimers bind halide anions on the convex side of the molecules, even in highly polar organic solvents. This observation brings new insights into the mechanism of cucurbituril formation.

Glycoluril‐Derived Molecular Clips are Potent and Selective Receptors for Cationic Dyes in Water

Vladimir Sindelar, Nengfang She, Damien Moncelet, Laura Gilberg, Xiaoyong Lu, Volker Briken & Lyle Isaacs
Abstract Molecular clip 1 remains monomeric in water and engages in host–guest recognition processes with suitable guests. We report the Ka values for 32 1⋅guest complexes measured by 1H NMR, UV/Vi...

Data from: Inferring species networks from gene trees in high-polyploid North American and Hawaiian violets (Viola, Violaceae)

Thomas Marcussen, Kjetill S. Jakobsen, Jiří Danihelka, Harvey E. Ballard, Kim Blaxland, Anne K. Brysting & Bengt Oxelman
The phylogenies of allopolyploids take the shape of networks and cannot be adequately represented as bifurcating trees. Especially for high-polyploids (i.e., organisms with more than six sets of nuclear chromosomes), the signatures of gene homoeolog loss, deep coalescence and polyploidy may become confounded, with the result that gene trees may be congruent with more than one species network. Herein, we obtained the most parsimonious species network by objective comparison of competing scenarios involving polyploidization and...

Data from: Strong indirect herbicide effects on mycorrhizal associations through plant community shifts and secondary invasions

Ylva Lekberg, Viktoria Wagner, Alexii Rummel, Morgan McLeod & Philip W. Ramsey
Million of acres of US wildlands are sprayed with herbicides to control invasive species, but relatively little is known about non-target effects of herbicide use. We combined greenhouse, field and laboratory experiments involving the invasive forb spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) and native bunchgrasses to assess direct and indirect effects of the forb-specific herbicide picloram on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which are beneficial soil fungi that colonize most plants. Picloram had no effect on bunchgrass viability...

Data from: Explaining European fungal fruiting phenology with climate variability

Carrie Andrew, Einar Heegaard, Klaus Høiland, Beatrice Senn-Irlet, Thomas W. Kuyper, Irmgard Krisai-Greilhuber, Paul M. Kirk, Jacob Heilmann-Clausen, Alan C. Gange, Simon Egli, Claus Bässler, Ulf Büntgen, Lynne Boddy & Håvard Kauserud
Here we assess the impact of geographically dependent (latitude, longitude and altitude) changes in bioclimatic (temperature, precipitation and primary productivity) variability on fungal fruiting phenology across Europe. Two main nutritional guilds of fungi, saprotrophic and ectomycorrhizal, were further separated into spring and autumn fruiters. We used a path‐analysis to investigate how biogeographic patterns in fungal fruiting phenology coincided with seasonal changes in climate and primary production. Across central to northern Europe, mean fruiting varied by...

Data from: Suppressing competitive dominants and community restoration with native parasitic plants using the hemiparasitic Rhinanthus alectorolophus and the dominant grass Calamagrostis epigejos

Jakub Těšitel, Jan Mladek, Jan Horník, Tamara Těšitelová, Vojtěch Adamec & Lubomír Tichý
1. Dominance of native or alien competitive plants causes competitive exclusion of subordinate species and represents a major mechanism reducing biodiversity following land-use changes. The successful competitive strategies may however be interfered with by parasitic plants, which withdraw resources from other plants’ vasculature. Parasitism may strongly reduce the growth of the dominants, which may facilitate regeneration of other species and consequently trigger restoration of natural communities of high diversity. 2. Here, we aim to provide...

Data from: Parasite escape through trophic specialization in a species flock

Pascal I. Hablützel, Maarten P.M. Vanhove, Pablo Deschepper, Arnout F. Grégoir, Anna K. Roose, Filip A.M. Volckaert & Joost A.M. Raeymaekers
Adaptive radiation occurs when species diversify rapidly to occupy an array of ecological niches. Since opportunities for parasite infection and transmission may greatly vary among these niches, adaptive radiation is expected to be associated with a turnover of the parasite community. As major agents of natural and sexual selection, parasites may play a central role in host diversification. The study of parasite turnover may thus be of general relevance and could significantly improve our understanding...

Data from: Evolution of stenophagy in spiders (Araneae): evidence based on the comparative analysis of spider diets

Stano Pekár, Jonathan A. Coddington & Todd A. Blackledge
Stenophagy (narrow diet breadth) represents an extreme of trophic specialization in carnivores, but little is known about the forces driving its evolution. We used spiders, the most diversified group of terrestrial predators, to investigate whether stenophagy 1) promoted diversification, 2) was phylogenetically conserved and evolutionarily derived state, and 3) was determined either by geographical distribution and foraging guild. We utilized published data on the prey of almost 600 species. Six categories of stenophagy were found:...

Data from: Effects of disturbance frequency and severity on plant traits: an assessment across a temperate flora

Tomas Herben, Jitka Klimesova & Milan Chytry
(1) Recent analyses of plant traits across large sets of species have revolutionized our understanding of plant functional differentiation. However, understanding of ecological relevance of this differentiation is contingent upon knowledge of environmental preferences of species, namely along gradients of disturbance and productivity for which no quantitative data were available until recently. (2) We examined the relationships of key functional traits (life-history categories, leaf-height-seed traits, clonal growth and bud bank traits) in the herb-dominated flora...

Data from: No evidence for larger leaf trait plasticity in ecological generalists compared to specialists

Petr Dostál, Markus Fischer, Milan Chytrý & Daniel Prati
Aim: Phenotypic plasticity is hypothesized to contribute to a species’ capacity to occupy broader ranges of conditions and to optimally exploit resource-rich environments. Although this is supported by case studies of individual species, we do not know whether larger plasticity in functional traits is generally associated with ecological characteristics of species such as their niche breadth or niche position. Here, we test whether there is such a relationship for plasticity in leaf functional traits. Location:...

Data from: High-resolution and large-extent mapping of plant species richness using vegetation-plot databases

Jan Divíšek & Milan Chytrý
The recent increase in the availability of large vegetation-plot databases has created unprecedented opportunities for analysing and explaining patterns of fine-scale plant species richness across large areas and for individual habitat types. Here we demonstrate how these data can be used to (1) prepare country-wide high-resolution maps of species richness and identify national diversity hotspots for grassland and forest vegetation; (2) compare diversity patterns of all, native, alien and Red List species; and (3) identify...

Data from: Testing the phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis in the presence and absence of inbreeding

Wolfgang Forstmeier, Malika Ihle, Pavlina Opatova, Katrin Martin, Ulrich Knief, Jana Albrechtová, Tomas Albrecht & Bart Kempenaers
The phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis suggests that females can judge male fertility by inspecting male phenotypic traits. This is because male sexually selected traits might correlate with sperm quality if both are sensitive to factors that influence male condition. A recent meta-analysis found little support for this hypothesis, suggesting little or no shared condition dependence. However, we recently reported that in captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) inbreeding had detrimental effects both on phenotypic traits and on...

Data from: No trade-offs in interspecific interference ability and predation susceptibility in newt larvae

Monika Hlouskova, Monika Balogova, Veronika Krsakova & Lumír Gvoždík
Coexistence of species with similar requirements is allowed, among others, through trade-offs between competitive ability and other ecological traits. Although interspecific competition is based on two mechanisms, exploitation of resources and physical interference, trade-off studies largely consider only species’ ability to exploit resources. Using a mesocosm experiment, we examined the trade-off between interference competition ability and susceptibility to predation in larvae of two newt species, Ichthyosaura alpestris and Lissotriton vulgaris. In the presence of heterospecifics,...

Raster and original working data for the paper Holocene matters: landscape history accounts for current species richness of vascular plants in forests and grasslands of eastern Central Europe

Michal Hájek & Jan Divíšek
Aim: Current species-richness patterns are sometimes interpreted as a legacy of landscape history, but historical processes shaping the distribution of species during the Holocene are frequently omitted in biodiversity models. Here, we test their importance in modelling current species richness of vascular plants in forest and grassland vegetation. Location: Western Carpathians and adjacent regions. Taxon: Vascular plants. Methods: Numbers of all species and of habitat specialists were extracted from plot records of forest and grassland...

The genome of Draba nivalis shows signatures of adaptation to the extreme environmental stresses of the Arctic

Michael Nowak, Siri Birkeland, Terezie Mandáková, Rimjhim Roy Choudhury, Xinyi Guo, Lovisa Gustafsson, Abel Gizaw, Audun Schrøder-Nielsen, Marco Fracassetti, Anne Brysting, Loren Rieseberg, Tanja Slotte, Christian Parisod, Martin Lysak & Christian Brochmann
The Arctic is one of the most extreme terrestrial environments on the planet. Here we present the first complete genome assembly of a plant adapted to the high Arctic, Draba nivalis (Brassicaceae), an attractive model species for studying plant adaptation to the stresses imposed by this harsh environment. We used an iterative scaffolding strategy with data from short-reads, single-molecule long reads, proximity ligation data, and a genetic map to produce a 302 Mb assembly that...

Data from: Facebook groups as citizen science tools for plant species monitoring

Riccardo Guarino, Emanuele Genduso, Dario Salemi & Corrado Marcenò
Species list of the vascular flora of Sicily and related plant traits analysed in the paper "Facebook groups as citizen science tools for plant species monitoring". These include: floral traits, vegetative traits, life form, plant size, traditional use (edible/healing plants only). All traits were extracted from the digital archives of the Flora of Italy (Pignatti et al. 2017-2019) except for the conservation status of species, which was taken from Raimondo et al. (2011) and from...

Data from: New drivers of the evolution of mimetic accuracy in Batesian mimics: body size, habitat stratification and geographic zone affect accuracy of myrmecomorphic spiders

Stano Pekar
Aim: The evolution and maintenance of accurate Batesian mimicry has been explained by several hypotheses built upon relaxed selection. Such selection can be influenced by ecological factors, such as habitat type or geographic distribution, which have not been considered. I investigated whether the mimetic accuracy is influenced by habitat stratification where mimics occur (ground, low vegetation, bush, tree), their body size, and geographic distribution (temperate, subtropical, tropical). Location: Worldwide Taxon: Araneae Methods: I gathered data...

Data from: Temporal turnover of the soil microbiome composition is guild-specific

Tijana Martinovic, Iñaki Odriozola, Tereza Mašínová, Barbara Bahnmann, Petr Kohout, Petr Sedlák, Kristina Merunková, Tomáš Větrovský, Michal Tomšovský, Otso Ovaskainen & Petr Baldrian
Although spatial and temporal variation are both important components structuring microbial communities, the exact quantification of temporal turnover rates of fungi and bacteria has not been performed to date. In this study, we utilized repeated resampling of bacterial and fungal communities at specific locations across multiple years to describe their patterns and rates of temporal turnover. Our results show that microbial communities undergo temporal change at a rate of 0.010-0.025 per year (in units of...

The effect of niche filtering on plant species abundance in temperate grassland communities

Josep Padullés Cubino, Irena Axmanová, Zdeňka Lososová, Martin Večeřa, Ariel Bergamini, Helge Bruelheide, Jürgen Dengler, Ute Jandt, Florian Jansen, Ricarda Pätsch & Milan Chytrý
1. Niche filtering predicts that abundant species in communities have similar traits that are suitable for the environment. However, niche filtering can operate on distinct axes of trait variation in response to different ecological conditions. Here, we use a trait-based approach to infer niche filtering processes and (1) test if abundant and rare species in grassland communities are differently positioned along distinct axes of trait variation, (2) determine if these trait variation axes, as well...

Chiral Bambusurils for Enantioselective Recognition of Carboxylate Anion Guests

Jan Sokolov & Vladimir Sindelar
Abstract Synthesis of the first enantiomerically pure chiral bambusurils is reported. The bambusurils were prepared on the gram scale without using any chromatography techniques. The bambusurils fo...

Anion Binding Inside a Bambus[6]uril Macrocycle in Chloroform

Vaclav Havel & Vladimir Sindelar
Abstract Bambus[6]urils are a class of neutral anion receptors with outstanding binding properties in various solvents. The host–guest associations of bambusurils in aqueous environments have been ...

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