48 Works

Mammals adjust diel activity across gradients of urbanization

Travis Gallo, Mason Fidino, Brian Gerber, Adam Ahlers, Julia Angstmann, Max Amaya, Amy Concilio, David Drake, Danielle Gray, Elizabeth Lehrer, Maureen Murray, Travis Ryan, Colleen St. Clair, Carmen Salsbury, Heather Sander, Theodore Stankowich, Jaque Williamson, Amy Belaire, Kelly Simone & Seth Magle
Time is a fundamental component of ecological processes. How animal behavior changes over time has been explored through well-known ecological theories like niche partitioning and predator-prey dynamics. Yet, changes in animal behavior within the shorter 24-hour light-dark cycle have largely gone unstudied. Understanding if an animal can adjust their temporal activity to mitigate or adapt to environmental change has become a recent topic of discussion and is important for effective wildlife management and conservation. While...

Hybridization and low genetic diversity in the endangered Alabama Red-Bellied Turtle (Pseudemys alabamensis)

Ylenia Chiari, Nickolas Moreno, Andrew Heaton, Kaylin Bruening, Emma Milligan, David Nelson & Scott Glaberman
Pseudemys alabamensis is one of the most endangered freshwater turtle species in the United States due to its restricted geographic distribution in coastal Alabama and Mississippi. Populations of P. alabamensis are geographically isolated from one another by land and salt water, which could act as barriers to gene flow. It is currently unknown how differentiated these isolated populations are from one another and whether they have experienced reductions in population size. Previous work found morphological...

Data from: Maintenance of local adaptation despite gene flow in a coastal songbird

Jonathan D. Clark, David A. Luther, Phred M. Benham, Jesus E. Maldonado & Haw Chuan Lim
Adaptation to local environments is common in widespread species and the basis of ecological speciation. The song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) is a widespread, polytypic passerine that occurs in shrubland habitats throughout North America. We examined the population structure of two parapatric subspecies that inhabit different environments: the Atlantic song sparrow (M. m. atlantica), a coastal specialist; and the eastern song sparrow (M. m. melodia), a shrubland generalist. These populations lacked clear mitochondrial population structure, yet...

Does colour impact responses to images in geckos?

Ylenia Chiari, Nathan Katlein, Miranda Ray, Anna Wilkinson, Julien Claude, Maria Kiskowski, Bin Wang & Scott Glaberman
Animals are exposed to different visual stimuli that influence how they perceive and interact with their environment. Visual information such as shape and colour can help the animal detect, discriminate and make appropriate behavioural decisions for mate selection, communication, camouflage, and foraging. In all major vertebrate groups, it has been shown that certain species can discriminate and prefer certain colours and that colours may increase the response to a stimulus. However, since colour is often...

Additional file 2 of Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and sand fly-borne pathogens in the Greater Mekong Subregion: a systematic review

John Hustedt, Didot Budi Prasetyo, Jodi M. Fiorenzano, Michael E. von Fricken & Jeffrey C. Hertz
Additional file 2: Table S2. Bartonellosis reported in animals.

Additional file 3 of Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and sand fly-borne pathogens in the Greater Mekong Subregion: a systematic review

John Hustedt, Didot Budi Prasetyo, Jodi M. Fiorenzano, Michael E. von Fricken & Jeffrey C. Hertz
Additional file 3: Table S3. Data extracted from the entomology papers included in this review.

Territoriality varies across elevation in a Hawaiian songbird

Gabrielle R. Names, Thomas P. Hahn, John C. Wingfield & Kathleen E. Hunt
Reproductive territoriality can be influenced by external and internal variables. Trade-offs between reproductive behaviors and other costly biological processes, such as immunity, exist across taxa, but the effects of novel diseases on these trade-offs remain poorly understood. Since the introduction of avian malaria to Hawaii in the early 1900s, low elevation Hawaii Amakihi (Chlorodrepanis virens) populations, which have undergone strong selection by the disease, have evolved increased malaria resilience. However, the effects of malaria selection...

The role of consciously timed movements in shaping and improving auditory timing

Rose De Kock, Weiwei Zhou, Poorvi Datta, Wilsaan Joiner & Martin Wiener
Our subjective sense of time is intertwined with a plethora of perceptual, cognitive, and motor functions, and likewise, the brain is equipped to expertly filter, weight, and combine these signals for seamless interactions with a dynamic world. Until relatively recently, the literature on time perception has excluded the influence of motor activity, yet, it has been found that motor circuits in the brain are at the core of most timing functions. Several studies have now...

The Church, intensive kinship, and global psychological variation

Jonathan Schulz, Duman Bahrami Rad, Jonathan Beauchamp & Joseph Henrich
Recent research not only confirms the existence of substantial psychological variation around the globe but also highlights the peculiarity of many Western populations. We propose that part of this 15 variation can be traced back to the action and diffusion of the Western Church, the branch of Christianity that evolved into the Roman Catholic Church. Specifically, we propose that the Church’s transformation of European kinship, by promoting small, nuclear households, weak family ties and residential...

Data from: Systems analysis of adaptive responses to MAP Kinase pathway blockade in BRAF mutant melanoma

Brian J. Capaldo, Devin Roller, Mark J. Axelrod, Alex F. Koeppel, Emanuel F. Petricoin, Craig L. Slingluff, Michael J. Weber, Aaron J. Mackey, Daniel Gioeli & Stefan Bekiranov
Fifty percent of cutaneous melanomas are driven by activated BRAFV600E, but tumors treated with RAF inhibitors, even when they respond dramatically, rapidly adapt and develop resistance. Thus, there is a pressing need to identify the major mechanisms of intrinsic and adaptive resistance and develop drug combinations that target these resistance mechanisms. In a combinatorial drug screen on a panel of 12 treatment-naïve BRAFV600E mutant melanoma cell lines of varying levels of resistance to mitogen-activated protein...

Data from: Microfluidic PCR-based target enrichment: a case study in two rapid radiations of Commiphora (Burseraceae) from Madagascar

Morgan R. Gostel, Kiera A. Coy & Andrea Weeks
Developing effective and cost-efficient multilocus nuclear datasets for angiosperm species is a continuing challenge to the systematics community. Here we describe the development and validation of a novel set of 91 nuclear markers for PCR-based target enrichment. Using microfluidic PCR and Illumina MiSeq, we generated nuclear, subgenomic libraries for 96 species simultaneously and sequenced them for a total cost of ca. $6000 USD. Approximately half of these costs include reusable reagents (primers, barcodes, and custom...

Data from: Temporal specificity of the initial adaptive response in motor adaptation

Wilsaan M. Joiner, Gary C. Sing & Maurice A. Smith
Repeated exposure to a novel physical environment eventually leads to a mature adaptive response whereby feedforward changes in motor output mirror both the amplitude and temporal structure of the environmental perturbations. However, adaptive responses at the earliest stages of learning have been found to be not only smaller, but systematically less specific in their temporal structure compared to later stages of learning. This observation has spawned a lively debate as to whether the temporal structure...

Data from: Diversity dynamics of Phanerozoic terrestrial tetrapods at the local-community scale

Roger A. Close, Roger B. J. Benson, John Alroy, Anna K. Behrensmeyer, Juan Benito, Matthew T. Carrano, Terri J. Cleary, Emma M. Dunne, Philip D. Mannion, Mark D. Uhen & Richard J. Butler
The fossil record provides one of the strongest tests of the hypothesis that diversity within local communities is constrained over geological timescales. Constraints to diversity are particularly controversial in modern terrestrial ecosystems, yet long-term patterns are poorly understood. Here we document patterns of local richness in Phanerozoic terrestrial tetrapods using a global data set comprising 145,332 taxon occurrences from 27,531 collections. We show that the local richness of non-flying terrestrial tetrapods has risen asymptotically since...

Data from: A new lineage of Galapagos giant tortoises identified from museum samples

Evelyn L. Jensen, Maud C. Quinzin, Joshua M. Miller, Michael A. Russello, Ryan Garrick, Danielle L. Edwards, Scott Glaberman, Ylenia Chiari, Nikos Poulakakis, Washington Tapia, James P. Gibbs & Adalgisa Caccone
The Galapagos Archipelago is recognized as a natural laboratory for studying evolutionary processes. San Cristóbal was one of the first islands colonized by tortoises, which radiated from there across the archipelago to inhabit 10 islands. Here, we sequenced the mitochondrial control region from six historical giant tortoises from San Cristóbal (five long deceased individuals found in a cave and one found alive during an expedition in 1906) and discovered that the five from the cave...

Additional file 2 of Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and sand fly-borne pathogens in the Greater Mekong Subregion: a systematic review

John Hustedt, Didot Budi Prasetyo, Jodi M. Fiorenzano, Michael E. von Fricken & Jeffrey C. Hertz
Additional file 2: Table S2. Bartonellosis reported in animals.

Data from: Low species turnover of upland Amazonian birds in the absence of physical barriers

Cameron Rutt, Justin Cooper, Christian Andretti, Thiago Costa, Philip Stouffer, Claudeir Vargas, David Luther & Mario Cohn-Haft
Aim: One of the oldest and most powerful ways for ecologists to explain distinct biological communities is to invoke underlying environmental differences. But in hyper-diverse systems, which often display high species richness and low species abundance, these sorts of community comparisons are especially challenging. The classic view for Amazonian birds posits that riverine barriers and habitat specialization determine local and regional community composition. We test the tacit, complementary assumption that similar bird communities should therefore...

Data from: Rewriting the history of an extinction - was a population of Steller's sea cows (Hydrodamalis gigas) at St. Lawrence Island also driven to extinction?

Lorelei D. Crerar, Andrew P. Crerar, E. C. M. Parsons & Daryl P. Domning
The Kommandorskiye Islands population of Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) was extirpated ca 1768 CE. Until now, Steller's sea cow was thought to be restricted in historic times to Bering and Copper Islands, Russia, with other records in the last millennium from the western Aleutian Islands. However, Steller's sea cow bone has been obtained by the authors from St Lawrence Island, Alaska, which is significantly further north. Bone identity was verified using analysis of mitochondrial...

Data from: Cryptic diversity in black rats Rattus rattus of the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador

Sandi Willows-Munro, Robert C. Dowler, Michael R. Jarcho, Reese B. Phillips, Howard L. Snell, Tammy R. Wilbert & Cody W. Edwards
Human activity has facilitated the introduction of a number of alien mammal species to the Galápagos Archipelago. Understanding the phylogeographic history and population genetics of invasive species on the Archipelago is an important step in predicting future spread and designing effective management strategies. In this study, we describe the invasion pathway of Rattus rattus across the Galápagos using microsatellite data, coupled with historical knowledge. Microsatellite genotypes were generated for 581 R. rattus sampled from 15...

The apparent exponential radiation of Phanerozoic land vertebrates is an artefact of spatial sampling biases

Roger Close, Roger Benson, John Alroy, Matthew Carrano, Terri Cleary, Emma Dunne, Philip Mannion, Mark Uhen & Richard Butler
There is no consensus about how terrestrial biodiversity was assembled through deep time, and in particular whether it has risen exponentially over the Phanerozoic. Using a database of 38,711 fossil occurrences, we show that the spatial extent of the ‘global’ terrestrial tetrapod fossil record itself expands exponentially through the Phanerozoic, and that this spatial variation explains around 75% of the variation in known fossil species counts. Controlling for this bias, we find that regional-scale terrestrial...

Temporal patterns of visitation of birds and mammals at mineral licks in the Peruvian Amazon

Brian Griffiths, Mark Bowler, Michael Gilmore & David Luther
Mineral licks are key ecological resources for many species of birds and mammals in Amazonia, providing essential dietary nutrients and clays, yet little is known about which species visit and their behaviors at the mineral licks. Studying visitation and behavior at mineral licks can provide insight into the lives of otherwise secretive and elusive species. We assessed which species visited mineral licks, when they visited, and whether visits and the probability of recording groups at...

ORC

Strong genetic structure in a widespread estuarine crab: A test of potential versus realized dispersal

Carolyn Tepolt, April Blakeslee, Amy Fowler, John Darling, Mark Torchin, Whitman Miller & Gregory Ruiz
Aim: Genetic structure has proven difficult to predict for marine and estuarine species with multi-day pelagic larval durations, since many disperse far less than expected based on passive transport models. In such cases, the gap between potential and realized dispersal may result from larval behaviors that evolved to facilitate retention and settlement in favorable environments. Behavior is predicted to play a particularly key role in structuring truly estuarine species, which often moderate their behavior to...

Slowing the body slows down time (perception)

Rose De Kock, Weiwei Zhou, Wilsaan Joiner & Martin Wiener
Interval timing is a fundamental component of action, and is interestingly susceptible to motor-related temporal distortions. Several experiments have shown that temporal expansion and compression can occur in systematic ways with modifications of movement direction, speed, and length. These studies have largely shown that movement biases temporal estimates, but have primarily considered self-modulated movement only. However, real-world encounters often include situations in which movement is restricted or perturbed by environmental factors. Thus, in the following...

Invasion history shapes host transcriptomic response to a body-snatching parasite

Zachary Tobias, Amy Fowler, April Blakeslee, John Darling, Mark Torchin, Whitman Miller, Gregory Ruiz & Carolyn Tepolt
By shuffling biogeographic distributions, biological invasions can both disrupt long-standing associations between hosts and parasites and establish new ones. This creates natural experiments with which to study the ecology and evolution of host-parasite interactions. In estuaries of the Gulf of Mexico, the white-fingered mud crab (Rhithropanopeus harrisii) is infected by a native parasitic barnacle Loxothylacus panopaei (Rhizocephala), which manipulates host physiology and behavior. In the 1960s, L. panopaei was introduced to the Chesapeake Bay and...

Transcriptome data: salinity adaptation in Rhithropanopeus harrisii across an estuarine gradient

Carolyn Tepolt, April Blakeslee & Amy Fowler
Rhithropanopeus harrisii is a common estuarine crab native to the East and Gulf Coasts of North America. Here, it is found along a broad range of salinities, spanning from ~1 PSU to ~25 PSU along estuarine gradients. As part of a larger study on the species' potential use of low-salinity refuges from parasitism, we tested for differences in gene expression with salinity using crabs from three distinct estuarine reaches along the Pamlico River in North...

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